Zoology is branch of biology which deals with the scientific study of animals. The word ‘zoology’ is derived from the Greek words zoo meaning animals and logos meaning ‘thought or reasoning ‘
Zoologists study animals and also study their habits and their conduct of living and interactions with other organisms.
Zoology provides us information about the stages through which an organism go and develop, it tells us about the changes through which an organism pass and the present and future form of that organism. Zoology describes the interaction between living organisms and the environment in which they live. It provides us information about the level of organization of living and dead organisms.
Zoology is broken into numerous branches and it is subdivided into two large groups :
They do not have a backbone or spinal cord
They include protozoans, echinoderms, annelids, flatworms, cnidarians, nematodes, mollusks, arthropods.
.They include 90% animals
Insects have exoskeleton and don’t have hard part in their bodies.
They have a backbone or spinal cord
They include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
Mostly people think all animals are of this kind due to the fact that they include human beings.
Zoology is broken into numerous branches because there are many ways to study these animals
Acarology : a branch of zoology which deals with study of mites and ticks. Organisms which may or may not cause disease and are harmful for humans and domestic animals
Amphibiology : branch of zoology that deals with the study of amphibians like frogs, toads, etc
Arachnology : branch of zoology that studies the spiders and archnids group and their conduct of living and interactions with other organisms
Cetology : it is the study of cetaceans including whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Coccidology: branch of zoology which deals with the scales, mealy bugs and the family members of coccidae.
Cynology :it concerns with dog especially its natural history and the diseases and benefits .
Entomology : it is the study of insects and relationship to other organisms
Estivation : it studies the sleeping process of some animals during summer season
Hibernation : it concerns with the sleeping practice of certain animals during winter for example lizards do not came out of the cracks during winter.
Lepidopterology: study of butterflies, its life cycle and interactions with the other organisms
11.Ornithology : the branch of zoology concerned with the scientific study of birds their evolutionary changes how they modifies from early form. Their conduct of living and death, cooperation with other organisms for food, shelter and other benefits
12. Paleo Mammology : study of mammals of past geological ages
13.. Taxonomy : study of naming and classification of living organisms, dividing them into groups and sub groups.
14.Zoogeography : it was the geographical distribution of species. For example armadillos, the mammal that live only in America.
15. Zoo physiology :it concerns with the animals different from humans.
16. Parasitology : it deals with the study of parasites. It tells us how a parasite live in host, take food and shelter and in return harm them
17.Immunology: it is the study of immune system of animals. Immune system helps to protect organisms against invading microbes.
18. Genetics : it is a branch of biology which deals with genes as heredity role in the transfer of characteristics from one generation to another.
19. Paleozoology :it deals with animal fossils. For instance evidence from different fields of biology shows that prokaryotes as ancestors of all life.
20. Anatomy :branch of biology which deals with the internal structure of living organisms and their parts of body. Human anatomy is the most important discipline of anatomy
SCOPE OF ZOOLOGY
Study of zoology is very important to man and has helped man to observe living things and to adapt ourselves to environment. Scope of zoology is very important to man.
Scope of zoology in the field of health and diseases
The knowledge of zoology is very helpful to maintain health and control the prevalent diseases. Some dangerous diseases like cancer and other heart diseases which are not cured in the past, Zoologists believe that some protozoans and helminthes are the important organisms that causes such diseases. For example malaria is caused by Anopheles mosquito, sleeping sickness is caused by tse-tse fly and house fly causes typhoid. The pharmaceutical technology is progressing day by day as the drugs are applied on animals which causes these diseases. For instance medicine which is used for treatment of diabetes is discovered by dog experiments.
Scope of zoology in the field of Agriculture :
Many types of animals have some relationships with fields of crops and other plants
Earthworms are present at the lower part of soil where they are responsible for providing food to plant as water easily and helps air to pass easily through soil.
Some insects, like honey bees help in pollination of flowers, as they contain nectar with their sticky wings and transfer it to other plant for fertilization.
Insects and parasites have play a vital role in destroying unwanted crops and destroy the wood.
The crops animals are eaten by other animals and are major source of food for humans.
Rodents eat grains and cereals so they are killed by Zoologists for providing more food to human
All these problems are solved by zoological principles and techniques.
Scope of zoology in the field of Industry
Some animal products like honey, wax, milk, leather, fur, Feather, bones, teeth, shells of turtles etc are obtained and modified in industries so that they can be used by humans according to their needs.
In industries the animals are tested whether their products is useful or not for the humans.
Some industries provides things without which life can be impossible for example in winter the use of fur in the production of coat helps to protect man from cold.
Scope of zoology in the field of food :
Zoology has made life easier. Many types of animals from different phylum are used as food for example lobster, crab, fish, birds and some domestic mammals.
Some birds like chicken, duck, sparrows,
are a good source of food for man. Mammals like goats, cows, Buffalo are part of our diet.
Zoology played a important role in the improvement of these animals through genetics and biotechnology
Scope of zoology in career development
Zoologists travel to different places of earth due to random presence of animals on different areas of earth. Some good channels like national geographic, discovery, and animal planet require Zoologists for attractive documentaries and wonderful pictures. They need a better zoologist for production of film that contain more information.
Zoologists are hired for following :
Plant garden for protection from animals
12. Wildlife educator
13.Developing small animal industries
Scope of zoology in PAKISTAN :
If a person have a degree of zoology he/she can be
Animal research center experts
Zoo museum advisor