What is Tourism?
Tourism is defined as “the temporary movement of people to destination outside their normal places of work and residence”. In addition, tourism consists of 3 other aspects: domestic tourism, inbound tourism and outbound tourism.
– Domestic tourism; means the visitation of residents living within the same country. Examples: A Singaporean living in Bukit Batok visits some places in Orchard.
– Inbound tourism: Inbound tourism refers to the visitation of a specific country by foreigners. Example: A Singaporean visits Malaysia for a short getaway.
– Outbound tourism: Outbound tourism refers to the visitation of citizens of a country to other regions that they are not a resident of within the same country. This is more common and only possible in big countries with different states where people can just be living in the state but take a trip to different parts of the country for holidays or work.
Benefits of Tourism?
There are numerous benefits of tourism for both visitors and host country. Depending on its wide scale it brings about a potential stimulation for relevant industries in generating income both nationally and privately. The tourism industry is advantageous to many facets. Over the years, employment is believed as the biggest comfort to any local area, in addition, it will automatically create skillful and unskillful laborers to satisfy tourists’ demands. With larger number of tourists coming to the area, through their spending on local goods and services, the money made will give a rise to the improvement in the standard of living for the locals. Besides, to boost the advantage, tourism gives a chance to local communities to take a look at their pride in history and cultural heritage in order to make their own cultural identity attractive in the eyesight of tourists. This helps the locals to preserve their traditions and culture by making showcases for all the coachloads of tourists. Tourism also requires an innovation in infrastructure of a nation. With new roads built, more attractions renovated and public spaces improved, this can bring in more tourists.
Roles of Tourism
As can be obviously seen in reality, tourism is considered as the key factor contributing to the development of a country, even the world. For many countries, the governments have focused on tourism as a main source of national income. Moreover, some statistics showed that this industry has granted a bigger proportion in the general development of the globe. Tourism can affect on every aspect of a nation such as economy, culture, technology or language.
Part 2: Facts from Tourism contribution
Employment is one of the positive contributions brought about by tourism, based on a report by WTTC 9.9% of jobs globally are supported by travel and tourism. This is closer to 1 in very 10 jobs are related to the tourism sector which shows the great impact of tourism has on employment. It is also forecasted that approximately 13,556,000 new jobs would be created over a decade with the increasing tourism rate around the world.
Tourism facilities is a range of devices and institutions constituting material and organizational basis for tourism development. It is composed of 4 primary elements: accommodation facilities, food and beverage facilities, leisure facilities and communication facilities. Each country always identify certain facilities as their special attractions, it also creates mutual effect to promote each other to make a change.
Infrastructure is essential in ensuring the basic needs of tourist are available. Having proper infrastructure is important in attracting tourist as it reflects on the country. If the country has bad transportation infrastructure which makes it difficult for people to travel around this would then deter people from coming as it would be a hassle to get around. Other infrastructure can include banking as for tourist that are staying for a longer period would require convenient banking services. As tourism bring more earnings to a country’s economy, countries would be more likely to afford their redevelopment in infrastructure to provide better comfort for tourists and at the same time improve the image of their nation.
4. Greater Demand for local products
Every country is unique in their own ways and what better way to experience the country’s culture then to try out the country’s local delights like how Vietnam is famous for its white coffee, Japan with sushi, Korea with cosmetics and kimchi and so on. With an increase in tourists entering the country would then create a greater demand for the products that the country presents for which bring no small resources to the nation. This is instrumental in the entire picture of national development.
Part 3: Tourism Influences
1. Environmental impacts
? Ecosystem / Natural Habitat
In the today’s world, the tourism industry gains its extensive popularity. When there are many tourists travel to a country, the country will build more hotels and some recreation facilities in order to attract more people to visit its country. However, the country is bringing a negative impact on the environment causing big land exploited and many big trees cut down. This will destroy the ecosystem and the natural habitat of animal.in the future, and the animals will be decreasing in a large number. Although the attractions of the country will increase the number of tourists, it will also harm the environment such as bring about a few types of pollution.
There are many types of pollution will be and the first one is air pollution. Most travelers currently have regard to the most common transportation – airplane. Besides, during the trip, a series of other means of transport used are buses, van or taxis which will seriosly harm the environment and human’s health by emitting carbon dioxide. Water pollution is another type of pollution. Water pollution may be caused by cruise ships, activities on beaches or rubbish littering. This type of pollution is supposed to affect many other living creatures on land and under-sea. Example: the coral reef in Australia is ruined by garbage and over-exploited from tourists.
? Over Exploiting
Furthermore, when there are many tourists travel to the other country, they may also affect the local resources. For example, the hotel will need to prepare more extra food for the guests, and the attractions of the country will need to have many resources to support their business. This kind of actions will cause a shortage of resources as it is overexploiting, this may also cause to the global warming.
2. Socio-cultural impacts
? The Importance of Culture in Tourism
Cultural Tourism is crucial for different reasons, it has both social and economic impacts. It helps conserve the historical and cultural heritage and lastly it helps to form image for a destination attraction. The culture, cultural heritage and necessary values of historical identity of cities have great importance. Culture is defined as the moral values and material initiated during historical and social progress and the entirety of the tools that are used in the establishment of future generations. Every country has unique delight that draws tourists to visit their country. In Vietnam, traditional village craft is their unique feature, thus, such sophisticated products become their pride of the villagers. Those crowds of proficient craftsmen that the entire village becomes a large manufacturing centre. Hanoi is famous for its Pottery making village and Weaving making village.
? Changes or less indigenous identity and value.
Tourism can make a change or passing of local individuality and values brought about by several closely related influences:
The percentage of people travelling nowadays has increased constantly. Tourism now is considered as local goods including culture, spiritual, traditional ethic rites and festivals is use to bring net income to bear out a portion of the economy of the county. In today’s tourism of commodification is prevalent everywhere, the local people need income and tourists need different experience of life and specialty. The character with the commodification is alarming along with the widespread of tourism, gradually, to meet the satisfaction from travelers, most of local sites need to commercialize their culture, ceremonies or festival to suit demanding tourists. This has become a concern to local authority due to the situation of the loss of original form of those sorts of activities. This trend gives a rise to an obstacle that local people try to make income and introduce a fake culture value into the indigenous ones.
Most of the destinations must take risk from standardization process in order satisfy the travelers’ desires. It requires landscape, accommodation, restaurants, etc., must meet a new and weird expectation which cause such a threat from quality, finance and human resources.
– Loss of authenticity.
To cooperate the cultural to express and feeling in the general sense of tourists or even shows as performing of their actual life to build up stage authenticity. The cycle between the source of resource and the consumer consists of many phases and people holding the intermediate levels are forced by their desire to get plentiful.
– Adaptation to tourist demands
During the trip, tourist always seek for crafts, souvenirs, symbols or cultural demonstration. In many travel paradises, souvenirs producers or craftsmen have adapted to the spreading demand for their products and have made a innovation in the design and producing progress in compliance to new customers fancy. In contrast, cultural erosion may occur in response to the commercialization in cultural goods because the mass order from tourists leading to the low and fake products.
? Cultural clashes:
As tourism is believed as a short trip to different geographical locations and initiate new relations by participating local activities, there will be certain conflict among cultures, ethnic groups, religions, lifestyles, languages or traditional values. Sometimes, the situation will get worse coming from the misunderstanding when join a ceremonies or festival which make tourists be punished or even threatened to their life, especially when travelers are within Islamic territories.
? Ethical issues
Partially due to the above impacts, tourism can produce more dangerous situations where ethical and even criminal issues are required. Crime rates typically increase with the growth and urbanization of an area, and increment of mass tourism is frequently accompanied by increased crime. The comportment of a big number of tourists with a great deal of money to spend, and often carrying valuables such as cameras and jewelry, increases the attraction for criminals and takes with activities like robbery and drug dealing. Tourism can also force the development of gaming, which may cause negative changes in societal conduct.
? Prostitution and sex tourism
Reasons for engaging in such bodily functions can include lower costs for sexual services in the destination state, more favorable local attitudes towards prostitution, separation from a person’s normal social circle and the physical environment, legality of prostitution or the indifference of law enforcement, and access to child prostitution. Some people consider sexual activity while traveling as a path of enhancing their travel experience. Nevertheless, social problems arise when particular states or cities acquire a reputation as a destination or become attractive for sex tourism.
Part 4: Solution: Ecotourism
1. What is ecotourism?
“Environmentally responsible travel to natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and accompanying cultural features, both past and present) that promote conservation, have a low visitor impact and provide for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local peoples.” Nowadays, the term of ecotourism is popularized among tourists. Ecotourism is now recognized by its priority on nature preservation, education, traveler role and active community participation. Due to the benefaction to the environment, ecotourism founders have been objecting to form a new type of travelling which is attentive, create low impact from tourists’ actions. Ecotourism lays out precise sustainable benefits to local communities in natural and cultural conservation efforts to maintain their diversity and distinction by educating all of the travelers, tour guides and the local inhabitants.
2. Types of eco-activity:
Eco-responsible manners are activities that diminish negative changes on the land and its inhabitants. There are variety of options for ecotourism. For instance, volunteering holidays which allow participants to join certain voluntary projects to help fix and renovate the environment or cultural features. Another choice is wildlife viewing, there are thousands of tours worldwide that take tourists to view local wildlife. It can be whale watching, bird watching or any kind of animals watching. The sorts of activities like kayaking, sailing, horseback riding are also defined as ecotourism. All kinds of travel which are friendly to the environment and aim at benefiting the environment will be considered as ecotourism.
3. Benefits of Ecotourism:
– Local Communities: The merit of ecotourism is directly intended for local communities. There are 3 main components of its contribution: economic, socio-cultural and physical. Most of the places before the appearance of ecotourism present an under-development, people mainly rely on agriculture – the only source of earning for these native races. The way they normally do for living, it often harms to the biodiversity. Thus, the outcome from the ecotourism is at once arousing the responsibility to nature and ensuring the standard of living for the locals which enhance the consciousness of conservation among local residents. Moving to the socio-cultural benefits, more and more travelers are willing to pay a higher expense for unique and genuine trip, accordingly, there will be a strong motivation for locality to hold on to their traditional and cultural heritage through restoring and protecting progression for religious architecture, cultural ceremonies, worship activities, craft, folk music and dance. The last but not least, physical benefits are supposed to hinder the over-exploitation which opens the way for degrading habitats and landscapes, exhausting natural resources and resulting in waste and pollution.
– Environment: With the large scale of exploiting nature to serve the tourism industry which originate the global warming and pollution of the environment. There has been strong decay in forest habitats due to the innovation and tourism. Thanks to this eco-friendly travel, travelers are able to give a hand to minimize the human impacts during their trip and join hands to preserve rare animals. Along with the popularity of ecotourism, more national parks, environmentally voluntary campaigns are being established to furnish certain eco-activities like animals watching or an adventure with a jeep to view the semi-natural life to meet the expectation from travelers of experiencing an amazing adventure without real dangers from nature or participate in a program to save the natural habitat. This type of travel has created positive signals in revitalizing the appreciation of human to the Mother Nature, living creatures and conservation.
Part 5: Conclusion
To sum up, tourism industry has proven its own value and its importance to the world. Nevertheless, tourism planners also make consideration to other factors to avoid the declination and transformation from the indigenous values.