There acids, carbohydrates, caffeine, ash and insoluble components.
There are thousands of chemical compounds in tea.1 Out of the thousands of chemical compounds, the most important compounds in tea leaves are applied to tea with an attractive appearance, flavour and taste. These chemical compounds include polyphenols, amino acids, carbohydrates, caffeine, ash and insoluble components. Polyphenols make up 30% of the dry weight of the leaves and are important requirement for flavour.2 Amino Acids enables the tea umami taste which gives the tea bitterness, sourness and sweetness. Tea leaves which germinate in the shade has smaller concentration of polyphenols and a greater value concentration of Amino Acids. Carbohydrates is accumulated as energy during photosynthesis, it assists to fuel the enzymatic reactions that occur during oxidation which are responsible for the creations of polyphenols.
Carbohydrates make up 11% of extract solids in tea which produces sweetness.3 Mexthylxanthines includes caffeine, theophylline and theobromine have been proven to “increase metabolic rate and cause fat burning effects.”4 These chemicals comprise around 5% of the dry weight of the fresh leaves. The amount of caffeine content varies in tea depending on the strength of the tea, but on average it averages around 40mg. Each tea has a slightly different percentage chemical compound but incidentally have all the chemical compounds listed above.
Through the use of these magnificent compounds/components, tea has given us a delightful beverage.