THE ROLE OF TVET ON DEVELOPMENT YOUTH’S ENTERPENEURIAL ACTIVITY IN AKSUM TOWN A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF THE DEGREE OF MBA IN MANAGEMENT BY ZEMICHAEL HAGOS REG NO

THE ROLE OF TVET ON DEVELOPMENT YOUTH’S ENTERPENEURIAL ACTIVITY IN AKSUM TOWN

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF THE DEGREE OF MBA IN MANAGEMENT
BY
ZEMICHAEL HAGOS
REG NO, AKUE/0570/2008
MAJOR SUPERVISOR YEMANE GIDEY/PHD/

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DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC
AKSUM UNIVERSITY

May, 2018
Aksum, Ethiopia

DECLARATIONS
I, ZEMICHAEL HAGOS declare that this thesis is a true reflection of my own original work and my study area. Furthermore, it represents my own opinions and not necessarily those of the Aksum University, college of business and economics Hence, this study and case of study was not conducted formal research by other researchers since 2014 -2017 partially or fully submitted for fulfillment of master’s degree and first degree that submitted to other academically higher institution. Therefore, Aksum University shall be recognized that on behalf of me.

DECLARED BY:
ZEMICHAELHAGOS
Signature_______
Date__________

Confirmed by :
Advisor :__________________
Signature _________________
Co-advisor _______________
Signature_________________
Date :____________________

Certification

AKSUMUNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT

THE ROLE OF TVET ON DEVELOPMENT OF YOUTH’S ENTERPENEURIAL ACTIVITY IN AKSUM TOWN
BY
ZEMICHAEL HAGOS
Approved by examiner committee:
External examiner: ____________ signature ___________date _______
Internal examiner ______________signature __________date _______
Coo dvisor __________________¬¬¬¬¬ signature___________date _______

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Acknowledgements
My sincere gratitude goes to my principal advisor YEMANE GIDEY. (PhD.) and my co- advisor KULUBRHAN ASGEDOM who were an academically lecturers in Aksum university for their comments, constructive suggestions, encouragement and guidance which led to the production of this thesis.
Moreover, my sincere thanks goes to the TVET office, OBT coordinators of Aksum poly technique and Aksum technical college and the staff members, TVET graduated youths who engage in to self -employment, the staff members of MSEs and youth affairs of Aksum town for offering and collaborating me to conduct this study by delivering valid information and data. Impossible to undertake and I also wish to thank my staff members in Aksum University for their morality and courage during conducting my study.
I would also like to thank for the teachers of Aksum poly Technique College for their accessibility of related material for my study. Next, I wish to thanks for dear my family and my friends for love, encouragement and patience during my study.
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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
APTC Aksum ploy technique college
ATC Aksum technique college
BDS business development service
DMFI Dedebit microfinance institution
ESDP education sector development program
ETP Educational and training policy
ETP education training policy of Ethiopia
IEG Independent Evaluation Group
IOL International Labor Organization
MOE Ministry of Education
MSEs Micro and Small Enterprises
NGO Nongovernmental organizations
OBT outcome based training
SMEs small and Medium Enterprise
SPSS statistical package for social science
TVET Technical Vocational Education and Training
UN united nations
UNESCO united Nations Educational science and cultural organization
UNIDO united Nations industrial development organizations
WB world bank
YA Youths affaires

Table of content
Contents…………………………………………………………………….page
DECLARATIONS II
Certification III
Acknowledgements IV
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS V
Table of content VI
List of table Error! Bookmark not defined.
Abstract X
Chapter One 1
Introduction 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4.1 Objective of the Study 6
1.4.2 General Objective 6
1.4.3 Specific Objective of the study 6
1.5 Significance of the Study 6
1.6 Scope of the Study 7
1.7 limitation of the study 7
1.8 Organization of the Paper 8
1.9 Operational Definitions of key Terms 8
Chapter Two 10
Literature Review 10
Introduction 10
2.1 Basic Concept of Terms 10
2.1.1 Concept of Technical Vocational and Educational Training (TVET) 10
2.1.2 The Concept of Entrepreneur 11
2.1.3 The Concept of Entrepreneurial Skill 12
2.2. Objectives and Content of Entrepreneurship Training in Vocational Training 12
2.3 Importance of entrepreneurship 13
2.4 Methods used to teach Entrepreneurship in Vocational Training 14
2.5Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Youth 14
2.6 The role of TVET for Entrepreneurial Works (Self-employment) 16
2.7. The Role of Trainers in Teaching Entrepreneurship in Vocational Training 17
2.8 Youth Unemployment and the Role of Training 17
2.9 The Benefits and Challenges of TVET Training 18
2.9.1 Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Youth 18
2.10The Linkage between TVET and Entrepreneurial Ventures 18
2.11 The Challenges and Drawbacks of TVET graduated youths on Developing Entrepreneurial Activity 20
2.12 Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Youth Economic Development 23
2.13 Factors Affecting TVET graduated youths in starting their own Business 24
2.14 Unemployment Rate in Ethiopia and Government Responses to Achieving Youths Empowerment 24
2.14.1 The Role of TVET colleges in Minimizing Youth Unemployment Rate 25
Chapter Three 27
Research Design and Methodology 27
3.1 Study Area Description 27
3.2 Research Design 28
3.2.1 Targeted Population, sample size and sampling technique 29
3.2.2 Targeted population 29
3.2.3 Sampling Technique and sample size 29
3.2.4 Data Source and Method of Data Collection 30
3.4 Sources of Data 30
3.4.1Tools of Data collection 31
3.4.2 Data Collection Procedure 32
3.4.2.1 Selected data collectors and give technical Training on data collection 32
3.4.2.2 Pilot Test 32
3.5 Method of Data Analysis and Interpretation 33
Chapter Four 34
Data Analysis and Interpretation 34
Table 4.1 Respondents’ Demography 35
4.2 Basic Research Questions Data Analysis 37
Table 4.2 TVET Graduated youth Entrepreneurial Practice 39
Table 4.3 TVET Graduate Youths ‘Want to be Self-employee 41
Table 4.4 TVET Graduates youths immediately being Self-employed after their graduation 43
Table4.5TVET Graduated Youth being Self-employee based their Occupational Entrepreneurial Performance 45
Table 4.6 TVET Colleges and MSEs Working Cooperation to develop TVET Graduated Youths Entrepreneurial Activity 47
Table 4.7 MSEs Moral and Technical Assistance for TVET Colleges Graduated youths’ to be self – employed 49
Table 4.8 TVET Graduate Youths enhancing their Economy after they joined in to Entrepreneurial activity 51
Table 4.9 TVET Colleges efficiently working cooperatively with other stakeholders to create smooth youth’s entrepreneurial opportunity 53
Table 4.10 TVET training strategy to develop graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity 55
Table 4.11 TVET Colleges’ Efficient Project based Training implementation at all Levels of Training 58
Table 4.12 TVET Training System Motivate Youths to enhance their Attitude and Practice of Entrepreneurial activity 59
Table 4.13 TVET Graduated Youths’ Employability Opportunity 62
Table 4.14 Challenges of TVET Graduated youths on enhancing Entrepreneurial Activity 64
Table 4.15 TVET Graduated Youths’ public employment tendency 66
Table4.16 Personal Challenges of TVET Graduated Youths on Developing Entrepreneurial Activity 67
Table 4.17 Youths Affair Officers effort to Enhance TVET Graduated to be Entrepreneurial Activity 68
Table 4.18 Family and Friends Influence on TVET Graduated Youths Self-employment 69
CHAPTER FIVE 71
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 71
5.2 CONCLUSIONS 73
5.3Recommendations 78
REFERENCES 80
Appendix I 82

Abstract
The main objective of this study was to assess the role of TVET on developing youth’s entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town, The TVET curriculum purposed to promote entrepreneurial philosophy of youths and on the stake holders’ cooperation with the TVET training those include such as DMF, MSEs and YA with TVET training. This study organized using, qualitative and quantitative strategy. The sample size of this study was determined using Yamane’s sample size determination formula. The sample selection respondents were selected using connivance and purposefully sample selection system of 308 respondents from TVET graduated youths and six interview informants’ respondents from the two TVET colleges OBT coordinators and one respondent from TVET office of Aksum town. In addition two staff members of MSEs and youth affair were engaging as sources of primary data for this thesis. The study utilized the semi-structured interview guide and the data collection through face to face communication between interviewee and the interviewers with the selected informants of this study. The study revealed that TVET graduated youth’s entrepreneurial activity since2014- 2017 based on their trained entrepreneurial knowledge, skill and attitude, for self- employment or entrepreneurship, regardless of their professional background. The roles of TVET Colleges system have their own contribution on stimulating TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity. The finding of this study indicated many TVET graduated youths currently not become self-employment rather than public employment tendency due to the TVET graduated youths not practice their profession in Aksum town. The TVET sector not strongly worked collaboration with the stake holders of TVET training which includes employers, training providers and the informal sector representations. The TVET graduated youths have Employability opportunity due to the nature of TVET training strategy is focuses on theoretical and practically composedly. Therefore, many TVET graduated youths fear self-confidence to convert what the labor market requires into what is the market demand. However, the stake holders such as civil service not collaborated on TVET training strongly to enhance TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity. As result, many TVET graduated youths in Aksum town wait and search public employment., the TVET colleges provide their help for the TVET graduated youths to engage them into self –employment but the other stake holder organizations not cooperate strongly based on their interface.
Key terms: the role of TVET training, youths’ developing entrepreneurial activity

Chapter One
Introduction
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Entrepreneurial progress is the enterprising human being action in pursuit of the generation of value, through the creation or growth of economic action, by identifying and exploiting original products, processes or markets. In addition, Entrepreneurial activity involves identifying opportunities within the economic system (Ahmadand and Seymour, 2008).
Entrepreneurship is the suitable of starting a big business, basically a establish company contribution creative product, process or service. We can say that it is an action full of creativity. An entrepreneur perceives everything as a chance and displays unfairness in taking decision to exploit the chance (MoE, 2008). An entrepreneur is a originator or a designer who designs new ideas and business processes according to the market requirements and his/her own passion. To be a successful entrepreneur, it is very important to have managerial skill and strong team building abilities. Leadership attributes are a sign of successful entrepreneurs. Some political economists regard leadership, management ability, and team building skills to be the essential qualities of an entrepreneur (Horn, 2006).
More than 1 billion people today are between 15 and 25 years of age and nearly 40 per cent of the world’s population is below the age of 20. Eighty-five percent of these young people live in developing countries where many are especially exposed to extreme poverty (UNESCO, 2009).
The ILO (2006) estimate that approximately 74 million youthful women and men are jobless throughout the world for that reason, 180 million youths become out of work people globally.. Many young people are working long hours for low pay, struggling to take out a living in the informal economy. An estimated 59 million young people between 15 and 17 years old are engaged in unsafe forms of work. Young people actively seeking to participate in the world of work are two to three times more likely than older generations to find themselves unemployed (UNESCO, 2009).
Worldwide, youth represents 25 percent of the world’s working age population. They constitute the future promise and development of every nation. They represent its political leaders, tradesmen, academics, doctors, innovators and artists. Moreover, youth represent a country or region’s future growth, health and prosperity. In order to completely activate this source of human capital, policy-makers must understand the diverse nature of youth as a heterogeneous population with wide ranging skills, challenges, and belief system (World Bank, 2007).
Globally, young people are facing tremendous challenges, most notably, the extraordinary levels of being without a job in both advanced and developing countries that was spurred by the 2008 economic crisis (ILO, 2013). The world has become private sector driven, and economic prosperity in the 21st century requires the possession of entrepreneurial skills to function. The youth needs exposure in practical entrepreneurial work experience in order to be proficient in their chosen career and be useful to themselves and the society. Entrepreneurship which is a planned effort undertaken by an individual or individuals, institutions or agencies to develop the required competencies in people can easily be addressed through vocational options. Competencies of individual’s entrepreneurial skill in TVET are designed to lead the beneficiaries’ to self-employment, economic self-sufficiency, and employment generation through short or long-term training. This guide African countries including Ethiopia to be aware of that training in TVET is necessary to improve poverty through skill gaining TVET can be described as any form of education whose primary purpose is to prepare beneficiaries for gainful employment in an occupation or group of occupations (Maigida and Saba, 2013)
The only way to empower the youth is to provide them with adequate and qualitative education in order to make them job creators and eliminate poverty (Maigida and Saba, 2013). Many countries of the would including Nigeria have considered Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) as relevant in equipping young people with technical skills that would enable them engage in productive lively hoods. However, the United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) section for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in 2006 observed that TVET programs have not lead to increased employment, regardless of the obvious need for technical and vocational services. This might be due to scarcity of wage employment opportunities for technically trained man power. Another reason advanced by Tiong (2002) on the lack of increase employment by TVET is the impact of globalization which demands concrete response in the best direction and practice. These responses include among others strengthening the social fabric, restructuring the local economy and training human resources to meet the demands of the global world.
The guide, which takes into account the ongoing challenges facing young people, including unemployment, poverty and gender disparities, is aligned with global development goals, including the draft post-2015 United Nations (UN) Development agenda which identifies promoting entrepreneurship, decreasing the number of unemployed youth and increasing the number of young people who obtain vocational and technical skills as high priority goals. As a starting point of this framework, it is important to point out that there is no universally agreed upon definition of the term ‘youth’. The definition varies widely across countries, international organizations as well as entities such as funding agencies and youth associations. The UN,for instance, defines youth as young men and women aged. The Common wealth, on the other hand, defines youth as individuals aged. Across countries, the definition of youth varies considerably, with the age range spanning from 12 (in several African countries) and extending up to age 35. While each definition of youth is valid, for the purpose of this framework, the term is used to refer to young people aged (UN, 2015).
Youths attitudes towards entrepreneurship, fear of failure, and insufficient promotion of entrepreneurship opportunities, lack of platforms to foster young entrepreneurs’ engagement and lack of access to markets are barriers that undermine efforts to create a culture of entrepreneurship. This report highlights the importance of events such as the Global Entrepreneurship Weak in show casing the role of entrepreneurship in society. The case study of the Commonwealth of Young Entrepreneurs illustrates the importance of the youth entrepreneurship network both as a platform to engage young entrepreneurs and as an entity that advocates for the needs of young entrepreneurs in different states. Also, initiatives such as youth trade-in the U.S. which link youth-led enterprises to other businesses that buy youth Trade certified products, support young entrepreneurs to access markets. It is essential to develop platforms that will facilitate opportunities to engage with young people as well as to promote the development of youth entrepreneurship networks and associations that advocate on behalf of young entrepreneurs.
Hisyamuddin (2010) argued that early exposure to entrepreneurship at a young age is one of the important aspects needed to enhance entrepreneurship. Regardless of the course they choose, students still acquire benefits from being nurtured in entrepreneurship education at a young age through innovative problem solving skills, the ability to adapt to changes, and greater creativity.
With regard to the Ethiopian TVET program, as part of the 1994 Education and Training Policy of Ethiopia (ETP), it is intended to play crucial role in producing youth capital contributing to the economy development. The Ethiopian TVET qualification framework (MOE, 2010: 11) also explained that the reformed TVET system is to be wage and self-employment-oriented, demand driven and outcome-based, and thus appropriate to the development needs of the Ethiopian economy.
One of the weaknesses of TVET training institutions Tigray regional state is linking training for youths to professional market needs (Birehanu et.al., 1992).
Thus, this study was assessed the role of TVETs colleges on development of youth’s entrepreneurial activity after their graduation. The performance of trainer’s entrepreneur is dependent on his/her ability and willingness to perform.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Entrepreneurship is a fundamental for inspiring financial growth and employment opportunities in all societies. This is particularly true in the developing world, where successful small businesses are the primary engines of job creation and poverty reduction (ILO, 2009). Both developed and developing countries have often witnessed collected emergence of small and medium enterprises, which produce by youths producing some homogeneous or related products at a point in a time. Such a form of industrial organization is also known as `industrial cluster’ or `industrial district (ILO, 2009).
The world’s population continues to grow, while job creation opportunities minimize particularly among young people. Youth unemployment is among key global challenges that may continue to persist for many years. Recently, the unemployment rate among youth in many African states estimated at 70 percent. This could mean that thousands and thousands of young people are living under poverty conditions in this country, which may result in a generation of poverty if this position remains unobserved (Appie, 2014).
Currently many countries of the world facing the issues of youth’s unemployment due to the effects of societal negative outlook on the welfare of young people, and many also adversely affect economic performance and social stability (Independent Evaluation Group (IEG, 2016).
Horn (2006) says that the situations enforce school leavers to be more enterprising youths and create their own job opportunities. Davies (2001) as cited by Horn (2006) states that an enterprising mind-set therefore needs to be inculcated that favors the formation of employers and not employees. Entrepreneurs, i.e. youths who take risk, break new ground and play an innovative role in the economy, are there for required to effectively address unemployment by revitalizing the economy and creating jobs for themselves and others (Horn, 2006).
Entrepreneurship has been adopted world over as a strategic approach to facilitate economic participation among youth. Their engagement in entrepreneurship helps them to achieve economic independence, increase their self-esteem, improve their standards of living, to reduce their dependence on state welfare and improve their emotional intelligence. At the same time, job creation opportunities and a decline in criminal activities as a result of unemployment, will ensure development of economic growth (Gwija, 2014).
Like other countries, Ethiopian TVET expected to transfer the technologies to micro and small enterprises (MSEs) sector in order to increase youth’s participation on productivity, improve the quality of products and services as well as facilitate creation of new business. Provision of TVET programs and technology transfer services are the means to strengthen MSEs in urban and semi-urban areas (MoE, 2010).
The availability and labor force demand for different skills in different sector of the economy (ILO, 1997). The TVET training strategy purposed to deliver 90% of the TVET graduated youths to be employed through cooperative effort of TVET and MSE, Youth affairs and other stakeholders. However, in this case there is research gap on TVET graduated youths become an entrepreneurs and self-employment through cooperative effort of TVET colleges and other stake holders in Aksum town. Therefore, there is the symptom of disintegrated work between TVET and the stake holder organizations to develop youths’ employability rather the TVET graduated youths face lack of cooperation and assistance to develop their entrepreneurial based on their designed project during their training period. Therefore, the researcher of this study initiated to conduct detailed research on the role of TVET on developing its gradated youth’s entrepreneurial activity, in Aksum town.
1.3 Research Questions
This study has been focused on answering the following fundamental questions.
1, what is the level of TVET graduated youth’s employability in Aksum town?
2, what is the Economic performance of TVET graduated youth’s in Aksum town?
3, What is the level of cooperation between TVET College’s and the stake holders to develop TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town?
4, what is the role of TVET training system on development youths’ entrepreneurial
Activity?
5, what are the major challenges of TVET graduates youths ‘entrepreneurial activity?
1.4.1 Objective of the Study
1.4.2 General Objective
The general objective of this study has been assessed the Role of TVET colleges on development youths’ entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town.
1.4.3 Specific Objective of the study
1. To analyze the employability of TVET graduates in Aksum town
2 .To examine the economic performance of TVET graduated youths in Aksum town
3 .To identify the level of cooperation between TVET and others stakeholders of TVET training in Aksum town
4 .To assess the TVET training strategy implementation in relation to youth’s entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town
5 .To identify the major challenges of TVET graduates youths to start up new business in Aksum town.
1.5 Significance of the Study
Attempting to conduct tracer studies and assessing the role of TVET on development youths’ entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town TVET graduates may have the following significance:
It may help the training colleges to create close association with MSEs development office, Micro finance and other concerned bodies. In addition, this study may also allow trainers and training institutions to know their contribution to the career of the graduates, quality training provision they have been offering, the methods of teaching- learning process and they may have been employing, and the provision of new job opportunity by identifying the factors which affect youths’ entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town and in Ethiopia as general. Similarly after accomplished this study it may help for public and private agencies which are working on MSEs coordinators and employees to improve the provision of public resources that motivate for educated youths to develop self-employment and innovative business ideas with entrepreneurial growth as a result, that may increase national economic productivity.
In addition, after the accomplishment of this study it may help for governmental and non-governmental organizations working together to create youths’ job opportunity, especially those who are working as MSEs facilitators able to identify their service provision essential supports for the youth who are graduates of TVET institutions to start their own business or hired for wage. On the other hand this study may use to strengthen the relationship of TVET institutions and other shareholder industries of TVET training institutions to work cooperatively to meet their own mutual benefit. More overseers, this study may use as source of information for other researchers who want to conduct detail study on this case study.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research aimed to assess the role of TVET institutions on youth’s entrepreneurial activity by reducing youth unemployment among the TVET graduates youths in Aksum town which include Aksum polytechnic and Aksum technical colleges which found in Aksum town. The target population of the study determined the youths who graduate in the last four consecutive years (2006-2009) graduates of the regular (day) and extension TVET program trainees. Since it is an aspect of tracer study, the study was focused on assessing the role of TVET in developing youth’s entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town.
Concerning the sample size, from the total population of regular and extension program TVTE graduated youths; it was taken 23% of the total population included due to limitation of time and resources. As far as geographical area is concerned, although the graduates of TVET Colleges were live dispersed all over the central zone of Tigray , the geographical coverage of the study is so restricted to Aksum town. The location of the sample respondents was confirmed by taking data from the MSEs center of for each four kebeles in Aksum town.
1.7 limitation of the study
While conducting this research the study has limitations during the research period. Among the most one: obtaining the selected respondents, limited financial resources, inadequate availability of documented secondary data and full information about role of tvet on the development of entrepreneur particularly in the study area. Thus, under such limitations, the researcher has put much effort to minimize the effects of the limitations for the research quality.
1.8 Organization of the Paper
This study has been organized into five chapters. The first chapter; deals with introduction, statement of the problem, significance of the study, Limitation of the study and definition of operational terms in the study. The second chapter has been addressed the review of related literature to the topic of the study. The third chapter deals with the research design and methodology, sources of data, population and sampling technique, and tools of data collection. The fourth Chapter has been deals the data analysis and interpretation. The fifth Chapter of this study addressed Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations of the study.
1.9 Operational Definitions of key Terms
The following terms defined in the sense they are used in the study:-
Technical and Vocational Education and Training: – refers to an education and training to “obtain the realistic skills, know-how and understanding essential for employment in a particular occupation, trade or group of occupations or trade.
Graduates: – are those who effectively finished the training obtainable by TVET and awarded certificate or diploma of the college.
Micro and small Enterprise: – are those business enterprises, in the official and informal sector, with paid up capital not exceeding Birr 20,000 and excluding consultancy firms and other establishments.
Youth:-“Youth” is best understood as a period of transition from the dependence of childhood to adulthood’s independence and awareness of our interdependence as members of a community.
Entrepreneurship:- is the process of assembling necessary factors of production consisting of human, physical, and information resources and doing so in an efficient manner” and entrepreneurs as those who “put people together in particular ways and combine them with physical capital and ideas to create a new product or to produce an existing.
Entrepreneur is one who is willing to bear the risk of a new venture if there is a significant chance for profit. Others emphasize the entrepreneur’s role as an innovator who markets his innovation.
Vocational Graduates: – are those who successfully completed the training offered by TVET and awarded certificate or diploma of the college.
Technical and Vocational Education and Training: – refers to an education and training to “acquire the practical skills, know-how and attitude necessarily for employment in a particular occupation, trade or group of occupations or trades.
Chapter Two
Literature Review
Introduction
This study has been conducted different related literatures based on theoretical review for this thesis topic. The researcher assessed different related books, journals, thesis and organizational reports incorporated in this literature review to assess the related materials and studies.
2.1 Basic Concept of Terms
2.1.1 Concept of Technical Vocational and Educational Training (TVET)
Technical and vocational education (TVET) is broadly defined as “Education which is mainly to lead participants to acquire the practical skills, know-how and understanding, and necessary for employment in a particular occupation, trade or group of occupations (Atchoarena and Delluc, 2001). Such practical skills can be provided in a wide range of settings by multiple providers both in the public and private sector. The role of TVET in furnishing skills required to improve productivity, raise income levels and improve access to employment opportunities has been widely recognized (Bennell, 1999). Developments in the last three decades have made the role of TVET more decisive; the globalization process, technological change, and increased competition due to trade liberalization necessitates requirements of higher skills and productivity among workers in both modern sector firms and Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs). Skills development encompasses a broad range of core skills (entrepreneurial, communication, financial and leadership) so that individuals are equipped for productive activities and employment opportunities
(Wage employment, self-employment and income generation activities).
According to Bonn cited by United nation Education and socio cultural (UNESCO,2009) noted that TVET is the “Master Key” for alleviation of poverty, promotion of peace, and conservation of the environment, in order to improve the quality of human life and promote sustainable development. Bonn Resolution of 2004 also highlighted that TVET could be considered as a vehicle for socio-economic development and technological transformation. It is critical that TVET program meets the challenges of increased unemployment, underemployment, poverty, food insecurity and environmental degradation.
The skills development is significant for economic growth, poverty improvement, youth and women’s empowerment and social inclusion. Nevertheless, the role of TVET is absent to a large extent in most policy papers. This gap is particularly ‘puzzle’; Governments and donor countries consistently emphasize the need for concerted efforts to build the human assets of the poor. Yet TVET is accorded limited importance in donor financing schemes and discussions since the late 80s’ (Bennell, 1999). Several countries; developed and developing, such as Italy, Brazil, China, Sweden and Japan have given more recognition to TVET through adequate funding. As a result, students get exposed to vocational training and to a culture of scientific investigation and application at an early age. Several scholars said about TVET role or contributions in growth of Entrepreneurship and sustainable development. Bonn Declaration on Learning for Work, Citizenship and Sustainability argues that:
2.1.2 The Concept of Entrepreneur
Entrepreneurial activity is one of the major sources of Economic growth, innovation and job creation. Being entrepreneurial can mean many things to many people. A common conception according to Gartner (1990) is that entrepreneurship is about entrepreneurial individuals creating innovative organizations that grow and create value, either for the purpose of profit or not. But entrepreneurship does not have to include the creation of new organizations, it can also occur in existing organizations (Shane and Venkataraman, 2007). It is not only limited to the entrepreneurial individual, but also to entrepreneurial opportunities and the relation between the individual and the opportunity, i.e. the individual-opportunity nexus as described by Shane (2003). Stevenson and Jarillo (1990) define entrepreneurship as “a process by which individuals – either on their own or inside organizations – pursue opportunities without regard to the resources they currently control. Bruyat and Julien (2001) use a constructivist approach and propose a definition incorporating not only the entrepreneur, but also the new value created, the environment within which it takes place, the entrepreneurial process itself and the links between these constructs over time. They also propose the terms “individual” and “entrepreneur” to represent teams whenever applicable.
An Entrepreneur is a person who does entrepreneurial work within large organization. The process by which an entrepreneur affects change is called Entrepreneurship.
There are two facts about entrepreneurship
The Entrepreneur’s context is often large and bureaucratic organization whereas the individual entrepreneur operates in the broader, more flexible economic market place.
Entrepreneurs are individuals who often engage in the entrepreneurial actions in large organizations without the blessing of their organizations.
2.1.3 The Concept of Entrepreneurial Skill
A skill is simply knowledge which is demonstrated by action. It is an ability to perform in a certain way. An entrepreneur is someone who has a good business idea and can turn that idea into reality. To be successful, an entrepreneur must not only identify an opportunity but also understand it in great depth. He or she must be able to spot a gap in the market and recognize what new products or services fill the gap. He or she must know what features it will have and why they will appeal to the customer. The entrepreneur must also know how to inform the customer about it and how to deliver the new offerings. All this calls for an intimate knowledge of a particular sector of industry.
2.2. Objectives and Content of Entrepreneurship Training in Vocational Training
The content of the entrepreneurship training program should mirror the learning objectives, which can be related to both pedagogical and socio-economic objectives. As to pedagogical objectives at least the following ones are set for entrepreneurship training (Hytti and O’Gorman, 2004).
Learn to understand entrepreneurship (“about” entrepreneurship): training “about” enterprise deals mostly with awareness creation and increasing theoretical understanding about entrepreneurship.
Learn to become entrepreneurial (“in” entrepreneurship): training “in” enterprises deals mainly with management training for established entrepreneurs and employees.
Learn to become an entrepreneur (“for” entrepreneurship): training “for” enterprise deals more with encouraging people to set-up and run their own business (see Henry et al., 2005b).
These pedagogical objectives can be used to meet broader socio-economic objectives, as defined by policymakers.
In addition to balancing with opportunity exploration and exploitation, entrepreneurship training balances between individual and business development. Entrepreneurship training programs often focus on business planning and functional knowledge supporting venture creation. In general it seems that there is a gap between what is taught in entrepreneurship and what entrepreneurs actually do (Fayolle, 2013).
2.3 Importance of entrepreneurship
Nicolaides (2011:1043) claims that entrepreneurs create new technologies, products and services to meet society’s needs. In addition, he describes entrepreneurs as savvy risk takers, implementers and innovators who can transform socio-economic landscape through creation and exploitation of new opportunities in the market.
Ndedi (2009:466) acknowledges the importance of promoting entrepreneurship and training entrepreneurs through centers and institutions. This is something that he attributes to the following scenario. According to him, research, which was conducted by David Birch in job creation through entrepreneurship in the United States of America (USA) over the past 20 years, found that new and growing smaller firms formed 81,5 percent of new jobs in America, from 1969 to 1976. He further stated that from 1993 to 1996, about eight million jobs were created in the USA, with 77 percent of those jobs being produced by small enterprises. Moreover, he asserts that the USA’s entrepreneurs at the time were trained to take calculated risks by reinforcing the launch of their own businesses. He wonders though if the South African universities are addressing this issue. Van Rensburg (2010) holds that South Africa is a nation with quality education that is offered within the field of entrepreneurship at school level. He adds that children are exposed to the subject as early as primary to high school environment. He also argues that at tertiary level a number of institutions offer entrepreneurship degrees or integrates it within their courses. In support of this, he points out the following tertiary educational institutions: GIBS Full-time Entrepreneurship MBA; University of Pretoria; University of South Africa; UCT Centre for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (CIE) at the Graduate School of Business (GSB); University of Johannesburg; and WITS Business School (WBS).
Entrepreneurship is highly considered as an invaluable tool to address not only high unemployment, but also as a mechanism to respond to the unsure national landscape (Ndedi, 2009:467). He contends that in the USA, proliferation of entrepreneurship was attributed to the emergence of centers and higher education institutions, which offer entrepreneurship courses. abundant African countries have also acknowledged that entrepreneurship is an chief mechanism to deal with the unemployment agenda (Nafukho&Muyia, 2010:100). These writers conclude that investing in entrepreneurship, education and training is one of the best strategies that any country can employ to capacitate and advance human resources in order to promote socio-economic development.
2.4 Methods used to teach Entrepreneurship in Vocational Training
The choice of relevant teaching methods is generally considered to be important in entrepreneurship training at all levels. It is increasingly accepted that entrepreneurship is best learned by doing. The closely related concepts, such as contextual learning (e.g., Rae, 2004), experiential learning (Kolb, 1984) and action learning (Marquardt and Waddill, 2004) all understand learning as a highly situational and holistic, contextually-embedded process, in which participants tackle elusive problems and combine social processes with their individual learning (Mumford, 1995). There is some evidence that this kind of learning might be effectively addressed by multi-method approaches creating value-added to students. Methods for teaching entrepreneurship vary extensively. Entrepreneurship training uses the current approaches: classic methods (i.e., lectures and readings), action learning, new venture simulations, technology-based simulations, the development of actual ventures, skills-based courses, video role plays, experiential learning, and mentoring (Pittaway and Cope, 2007). However, the approach is not an end in itself but it supports the reaching of the learning objectives (Heinonen and Akola, 2007), i.e. one can learn from mistakes, by doing, by coping, by experiment, by problem-solving/opportunity grasping, by making things up as well as from explicit formal sources (Gibb, 2002).
2.5Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Youth
IIEP (2007) has prepared newsletter on TVET that shows, youth transition from school to work, and from childhood to adulthood, is a major challenge for both families and education authorities. Securing the dividends from educational progress and demographic changes requires effective education and training strategies as well as consistent cross –sector policies. As a result of Education expansion, the transition from school to work is taking place later as young people study for longer. Yet, despite significant progress in school participation and training, youth unemployment remains a major problem. Young people still face serious difficulties in integrating with the labor market, even in those countries where the numbers so young people have fallen due to demographic change. The transition from school to work is therefore an important and active area for public policy, and fertile research field for investigating social and educational change (IIEP, 2007).
As IIEP’s newsletter report, globalization has had profound effects on labor markets. While some countries have benefited from more international competition and trade, others have suffered increased unemployment and under-employment. Youth migration constitutes another dimension of globalization, and is particularly acute in small Island developing states where the domestic labor market offers few job opportunities. Yet, at the same time, migration and the transfer of knowledge, ideas, skills and technology through the return of migrants and general mobility are increasingly recognized as valuable, sometimes vital, contributions. Turning migration into an effective development tool for countries with high emigration is a major policy concern in some developing countries.
While unemployment and employment rates used to be considered as the main indicators of the conditions of youth labor market participation, increasing attention is being paid to those who drop out of the active population when jobs become too scarce. For this reason, an indicator of joblessness is often used, attributed to all those who are neither in education nor in employment. Young people who leave school without qualifications are more likely to be in this situation, and constitute the group of young people most at risk in the labor market.
The large numbers of young people not in education, work or training are increasingly seen as a security problem. Disenchanted, they are easy prey for armed conflict, terrorism and crime. In post conflict situations, demoralized young fighters and child soldiers will return to violence if not given swift access to education and training which facilitates their transition to work (IIEP, 2007).
According to IIEP has reported improving the employability of young people often involves strengthening school-enterprise linkages, providing out of school vocational training program and offering career guidance and placement services. Employment subsides are also often used to encourage the requirement of young workers. IIEP also suggested that, TVET provides students with the competencies, skills and thereby facilitates access to employment. Information and communication technologies can also offer new opportunities for expanding access at an affordable rate. The real challenge is to prepare young people for lifelong learning in order to sustain their long-term employability and facilitate active citizenship. Beyond immediate labor market needs, successful transition involves preparing young people for learning throughout life in a context of increasing labor market instability and rapid technological change. Allowing school early school leavers to re-enter the system, facilitating the retaining of workers to update their skills or prepare them for new occupations, and meeting the demand to learn for leisure are crucial challenges.
Providing support to youth entering the labor market is also a crucial component in vocational training. Many young people have difficulty in mastering the codes, roles and routines of the workplace. As a result, many lose their jobs because either they or their employers are dissatisfied. Support involves social guidance and workplace mentoring throughout the integration process, which can take up to a year once the training has ended. Young people should be informed of their employment rights, the wages paid for various trades, and the rules of a workplace. They should also receive help to work out career plans and assistance with job applications, in order to facilitate access to steady employment. Issues still remain to be tackled. Closer bonds are needed with the private sector in order to develop skills-based curricula. Improved tailoring to local needs is also needed, together with systematic monitoring and evaluation.
2.6 The role of TVET for Entrepreneurial Works (Self-employment)
Self-employment represents an important route into the labor market in Urban and Rural areas. However, self-employment requires more than being technically competent in a certain occupational field. In order to become successful, entrepreneurs need self-confidence, creativity, a realistic assessment of the market, basic business management skills and openness to risks. Starting a business, furthermore, requires access to finance, access to necessary permits and licensing, and access to land or structures to operate from. Against this background, basic entrepreneurial and business management training will be incorporated into all relevant TVET program. The TVET authorities will provide assistance to TVET providers to develop appropriate training packages, drawing on the magnitude of international experience in this field.
TVET providers are also encouraged to consider the work environment in the local micro and small business sector when designing their training program. This includes, for example, the introduction and use of appropriate technologies and the organization of internships or cooperative training program with micro and small enterprises. The TVET executive bodies will also undertake initiatives to strengthen and raise quality in traditional apprenticeship training, as this of TVET delivery is particularly effective in preparing youth for self-employment. TVET institutions shall serve as centers of technology capability, accumulation and transfer. They shall closely cooperate with the private sector in undertaking problem-solving research program (MoE, 2008).
2.7. The Role of Trainers in Teaching Entrepreneurship in Vocational Training
Increasingly, trainers are identified as the most important factor influencing the quality of training (European Commission, 2013). Trainers can be the change agents that transform the training system by being the ones who encourage young people to develop their entrepreneurial skills and mind-sets including fostering their ability to turn ideas into action, spur their creativity and sense of initiative along with other skills and attributes to fit the needs of a knowledge-based and innovative society.
Such a transformation is carried particularly through a important paradigm change in teaching and learning practices. It puts the student at the centre of the process and places much more emphasis on the skills and attitudes that help young people to apply their knowledge. Trainers should no longer only transmit knowledge, but rather support and encourage each student’s own learning process and to develop their full potential – individually and in groups.
2.8 Youth Unemployment and the Role of Training
Youth tends to be affected disproportionally from difficult demographic and economic conditions hampering access to the labor market and, in particular, to stable and well-paid jobs. However, comparative studies can show that institutions and therefore public policies make a difference. Well-designed pathways from school to work can help young people to make a successful transition and prevent societal and individual, potentially persistent damages from spells of unemployment or exclusion at a young age.
First, flexible or informal entry jobs constitute a first step into the world of work. But they can only be considered good jobs if they create option for mobility to better paid and more stable jobs. In institutional terms, this implies that institutional reforms need to overcome deeply segmented labor markets with high obstacles for transition from temporary to permanent jobs or from informality to formality.
Second, education and training systems are a major factor structuring the pathway from school to work. General education at the primary and secondary level provides the necessary foundation, but available evidence shows that vocational training, in particular in a dual fashion, is able to establish an early link with employers, acquire skills relevant in the labor market and to move to skilled permanent positions later on. Comparing vocational schooling on the one hand and dual apprenticeship systems on the other, the evidence suggests that a smooth and timely change from school to work without encountering major breaks can best be achieved via dual vocational training. Compared to fixed-term contracts without training, apprenticeships are better temporary contracts as they include systematic training and favorable prospects for subsequent job promotion, wages and employment stability. To be operational, vocational training needs to provide the right balance between general skills, occupation-specific skills and learning on the job so that the human capital acquired in these schemes is neither too general nor too specific and narrow. Furthermore, certification of occupation-specific skills makes qualifications more transferable and can therefore enhance mobility between employers in a given field.
2.9 The Benefits and Challenges of TVET Training
Investment in human resources by Vocational education and training forms of learning is essential to achieving smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. VET will continue to play an important role in the shift towards more knowledge-intensive societies. TVET is designed to prepare individuals for a vocation or a specialized occupation and so is directly linked with a nation’s productivity and competitiveness. Most literature generally considers that the concept of TVET is restricted to non -university education (Cedefop, 2011).
2.9.1 Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Youth
IIEP (2007) has prepared newsletter on TVET that shows, youth transition from school to work, and from childhood to adulthood, is a major challenge for both families and education authorities. Securing the dividends from educational progress and demographic changes requires effective education and training strategies as well as consistent cross –sector policies. As a result of Education expansion, the transition from school to work is taking place later as young people study for longer. Yet, despite significant progress in school participation and training, youth unemployment remains a major problem. Young people still face serious difficulties in integrating with the labor market, even in those countries where the numbers so young people have fallen due to demographic change. The transition from school to work is therefore an important and active area for public policy, and fertile research field for investigating social and educational change (IIEP, 2007).
2.10The Linkage between TVET and Entrepreneurial Ventures
Strengthen links between TVET Institutions and industry includes; foster closer collaboration and exchange between TVET institutions and industry, promote flexible career pathways between industry and the trainer profession in TVET institutions, and encourage trainers in TVET institutions to work temporarily in companies to update their vocational competences (OECD, 2011).
Entrepreneurship is vital for stimulating economic growth and employment opportunities in all societies. This is particularly true in the developing world, where successful small businesses are the primary engines of job creation and poverty reduction (ILO, 2009).
Both developed and developing countries have often witnessed collected emergence of small and medium enterprises, engaged in producing some homogeneous or related products at a point in time. Such a form of industrial organization is also known as `industrial cluster’ or `industrial district’. Experiences of a large number of clusters in developed and developing countries indicate that owing to inter-firm linkages in various areas of business, all the SMEs in the clusters experience economies of scale and scope leading to higher efficiency and international competitiveness. Attracted by this new form of organizing production, several industry promotion organizations the world have started developing clusters and inter-firm collaborations as a strategy to strengthen SMEs. One of the key interventions is the formation and up-gradation of new skills and knowledge to manage production, innovation and improvement across the network of supplier companies. One of the greatest advantages for workers
In Ethiopia, the strategic thinking behind the expansion of the TVET subsector is to meet the middle-level human power demand of the industry, service sector and commercial agriculture, which have become very essential to the overall development of the country. TVET is an instrument for producing technicians equipped with practical knowledge, who would be job creators rather than expecting jobs to be provided by the Government. In collaboration with the private sector and government enterprises an apprenticeship program was also introduced to develop the skill of the trainees before their deployment to the world of work (MoE, 2005).
Like any other developing country, Government of Ethiopia encourages the private sectors to engage them in TVET investment opportunities and focuses on the human resources with a special drive towards producing skilled, competent and labor based man power to support and create their own micro and small enterprises (Dessalegn, 2006).
For the SMEs sector to be energetic and serve as a springboard for the growth of a strong private sector in Ethiopia a TVET system that supplies disciplined and quality workforce can be considered as one of the necessary conditions. A country with poor human capital has the least chance to develop even if huge capital outlays are invested in all other productive sectors. The production of trained workforce is as important or even may be more important than the production of goods and services. Whatever is produced in the economy to be competitive, both in the domestic and international markets, depends on the quality of the productive workforce the country has. This obviously calls for a TVET system that supplies the business sector and the whole economic system with a quality workforce that efficiently uses and produces resources.
To boost entrepreneurship, Employment opportunities and the Small and Medium Enterprises, the government of Ethiopia has taken many initiatives programs such as business development service (BDS), Educational sector development program (ESDP), and National TVET strategy. This research aims to find the factors facilitating and inhibiting development of entrepreneurship, and job opportunities in Asella Town, focusing on entrepreneurs especially graduated from the TVET Institutions and, Micro and Small Enterprises.
There is a small, but growing body of research on Entrepreneurship, or the support of small business in developing countries, as tool to alleviate poverty. This tool is utilized by a cross- section of global community and as such includes a number of stakeholders from public, private and civil sectors. The collection of research is required to greater understand how to best apply the developmental Entrepreneurship tool. The development of Entrepreneurship, and Employment opportunities sits at the center of this research proposal that TVET graduates requires ability to:
(1) Identify and assess new Entrepreneurship opportunities;
(2) Design the right strategy to address the selected opportunity; and
(3) Effective implementation of that strategy.
The focal subject of this research is to identify and assess Entrepreneurial and Employment opportunities which directly or indirectly linked with TVET program in Asella Town.
2.11 The Challenges and Drawbacks of TVET graduated youths on Developing Entrepreneurial Activity
The socio-economic environment and the contextual framework in which TVET delivery systems currently operate on the continent may not be the best for TVET growth and prosperity. This poses a number of challenges and limitations that need to be given a re-look if TVET has to achieve its targeted objectives.
Poor rate of proportional job creation: The per capita income of most Sub-Saharan African countries (outside South Africa) is less than US$400. Although the economy in a few countries, including Botswana, Kenya and Ghana, is growing at a respectable rate of about 5%, the annual real growth rate in many countries is less than 2%, limiting the prospects for employment creation. On the other hand, it is estimated that about 500,000 young people add to the labor force each year in Kenya, as many as 700,000 in Tanzania and 250,000 in Zimbabwe. This huge deficit in the employment statistics is not unrelated to the high population growth rate of African countries and the increasing number of school leavers arising out of national and MDG (Millennium Development Goals) initiatives which strived to achieve universal primary education (Johnson, et al 2004).
Zero or negative growth of employment in the Industrial sector: Poor or low growth of the industrial sector has not done any good to the situation. Apart from Botswana, Ivory Coast, Ghana and South Africa, the industrial labor force is less than 10% in most African countries (World Bank, 2000). In many African countries, with the notable exception of South Africa and Mauritius, about 85% of the workforce is in the informal, non-wage employment sector. This labor force distribution pattern needs to be kept in mind when developing national TVET policies and strategies.
Mismatch between college training and market labor demands: This situation has led to a case where there are a huge number of unemployed TVET graduates youths even though the market needs skills. Critics argue that the lack of inputs from prospective employers into curriculum design and training delivery are partly responsible for the mismatch. Another reason that is often cited for the incidence of high unemployment among the TVET graduated youths is the absence of effective entrepreneurial training in the school curriculum.
Poor budgetary allocations to TVET: Most African governments give minuscule budgets to TVET hence denying them a chance for quality training. Ethiopia spends only about 0.5 percent of its education and training budget on TVET while Ghana spends only about 1 percent. The figure is 10 percent for Mali and 12.7 percent for Gabon. It must be recognized that TVET is expensive on a per student basis. In 1992, Gabon spent as much as US$1,820 per TVET student (Johanson and Adams, 2004). Unit costs are necessarily expected to be higher in TVET institutions than in primary and secondary schools because of smaller student-to-teacher ratios, expensive training equipment, and costly training materials that are “wasted” during practical lessons.
Theoretical training versus practical training: In Africa, there is undue emphasis on theory and certification rather than on skills acquisition and proficiency testing. High quality skills training requires appropriate workshop equipment, adequate supply of training materials, and practice by learners.
I, Low impression and attachment to TVET: For many years, technical and vocational education in Africa has been considered as a career path for the less academically endowed. This perception has been fuelled by the low academic requirements for admission into TVET programs and the limited prospects for further education and professional development. Worse, the impression is sometimes created by governments that the primary objective of the vocational education track is to keep dropouts or “lockouts” (i.e. students who are unable to move up the educational ladder, not because of poor grades but because of lack of places at the higher level) from the basic and secondary school system off the streets, rather than project this type of training as an effective strategy to train skilled workers for the employment market and for sustainable livelihoods.
Lack of effective feedback mechanism: Training institutions do not track the employment destination of their graduates. Consequently, valuable feedback from past trainees on the quality of the training they have received and the opportunity for their experience-based inputs to be factored into the review of curricula and training packages are lost. Current training programs in many countries are supply-driven leading to non-targeted skills development. In other words, the implementation of tracer studies that can improve the market responsiveness of training program is currently absent in many countries.
Competition from Developed Economies: Globalization and its effects on African economies especially in terms of trade also limit the significance of TVET. As seen before, globalization has led to stiff competition that is indiscriminative and does not spare even the young economies. Globalization invites not only the international transfer of goods and services, but also the influences of the transfer of production technologies and consumption patterns that decrease the demand for products and services from the TVET sector. African economies are forced to import products from abroad because they are cheaper and of higher quality than those produced inwardly. This has strangled the growth of TVET because there is hardly any market for their products.
2.12 Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Youth Economic Development
IIEP (2007) has prepared newsletter on TVET that shows, youth transition from school to work, and from childhood to adulthood, is a major challenge for both families and education authorities. Securing the dividends from educational progress and demographic changes requires effective education and training strategies as well as consistent cross –sector policies. As a result of Education expansion, the transition from school to work is taking place later as young people study for longer. Yet, despite significant progress in school participation and training, youth unemployment remains a major problem. Young people still face serious difficulties in integrating with the labor market, even in those countries where the numbers of young people have fallen due to demographic change. The transition from school to work is therefore an important and active area for public policy, and fertile research field for investigating social and educational change (IIEP, 2007).
As IIEP’s newsletter report, globalization has had profound effects on labor markets. While some countries have benefited from more international competition and trade, others have suffered increased unemployment and under-employment. Youth migration constitutes another dimension of globalization, and is particularly acute in small Island developing states where the domestic labor market offers few job opportunities. Yet, at the same time, migration and the transfer of knowledge, ideas, skills and technology through the return of migrants and general mobility are increasingly recognized as valuable, sometimes vital, contributions. Turning migration into an effective development tool for countries with high emigration is a major policy concern in some developing countries.
While unemployment and employment rates used to be considered as the main indicators of the conditions of youth labor market participation, increasing attention is being paid to those who drop out of the active population when jobs become too scarce. For this reason, an indicator of joblessness is often used, attributed to all those who are neither in education nor in employment. Young people who leave school without qualifications are more likely to be in this situation, and constitute the group of young people most at risk in the labor market.
The large numbers of young people not in education, work or training are increasingly seen as a security problem. Disenchanted, they are easy prey for armed conflict, terrorism and crime. In post conflict situations, demoralized young fighters and child soldiers will return to violence if not given swift access to education and training which facilitates their transition to work (IIEP, 2007).
According to IIEP has reported improving the employability of young people often involves strengthening school-enterprise linkages, providing out of school vocational training programs and offering career guidance and placement services. Employment subsides are also often used to encourage the requirement of young workers.
2.13 Factors Affecting TVET graduated youths in starting their own Business
There are many factors assumed to facilitate or inhabit Vocational graduated youths while starting their own Entrepreneurial Business. This is indicates in many states Administration and Stakeholders are not committed to coordinate, and facilitate conditions for TVET graduates to enter them in Entrepreneurial Ventures. Based on the above materials analysis the researcher of this study tend dedicate the TVET graduates productive power, governments has been taking different strategies through which the young people solve their socio-economic problems. For instances, TVET graduates can get loan opportunity from governmental owned micro finance institutions for those able to save 20% of total start-up capital. Additionally, government also considers young TVET graduates to engage them in government led projects for those unable to save 20% of total start-up capital. Even though, many entries to entrepreneurial business world are there, they do not pay attention to these available open opportunities.
2.14 Unemployment Rate in Ethiopia and Government Responses to Achieving Youths Empowerment
Unemployment is one of the macroeconomic problems facing the Ethiopian society today. Unemployment can be defined as the difference between the amount of labor employed at a given wage and working lends and working conditions as well as the amount of labor not hired at these levels. Ogwumike, (2001) conceived unemployment as a situation whereby people who are willing to work at a prevailing rate are unable to find job. This implies that not everybody should be counted as part of the employed in order not to overestimate the official rate of unemployment. The definition given by the International Labor Organization (ILO), 2004) seem more embracing. The ILO explained that an unemployed is a member of the economically active population who is without work but is available for and seeking for work, including people who lost their jobs and those who have voluntarily resigned as a result of underpay. This definition according to Odusola, (2001) is faulted especially for the purpose of comparison and policy formulation. This Odusola, explained is simply because every country has its characteristic in their commitment to unemployment problems; hence a universal definition stands debatable.
2.14.1 The Role of TVET colleges in Minimizing Youth Unemployment Rate
Youth empowerment is an attitudinal, structural and cultural process whereby the youth gain the ability to make decisions and employment changes in his or her hues and other people including adults. It is usually addressed as a gateway to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building. The language all over Africa including Nigeria and Ethiopia is the creation of specific jobs to take the millions of youth out of the restrict of poverty and underemployment thereby empowering the youth. The need to link entrepreneurial training with TVET would provide gainful employment (paid or self-employment) to the recipient which is the base for industrialization and technological development. The UNESCO, (2003)., while addressing the need for fostering entrepreneurship mind sets and promoting entrepreneurship education among the youth recommends TVET as a sure way out of poverty facing the youth worldwide today. It is a fact that the society needs men and women that are capable of establishing businesses that would help cushion the adverse effects of mass unemployment and poverty which entrepreneurial skills in TVET affords. Entrepreneurial studies allows the beneficiaries to consider various occupational possibilities the work required, available rewards, necessary training and relative advantages and disadvantages of each youths (Nwoye, 2011).The scope of entrepreneurship education according to the UNESCO, (2003) includes creativity, innovations, risk taking and the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives. In line with the scope of entrepreneurship education, and by its definition as the ability to turn ideas into action, the International Labor Organization in its recent appraisal of the world job situation urged member nations to create specific program to engage the youth in vocational areas of automobile mechanic, metal work, electrical electronics, carpentry, tailoring among others. Such intervention, the ILO opined was the solution to the ever-widening challenges of youths’ joblessness worldwide. TVET prepares its graduates for employment in the workplace. It is in this spirit that the federal government of Ethiopia introduced the level by level system of education: in TVET colleges.
The deepening youth unemployment and need to empower the youth requires training them in entrepreneurial education through TVET. Introducing entrepreneurial studies as an explicit goal in the curriculum will be a clear signal that it is important for every student. Moreover, it will make it easier for trainers to spend teaching hours on the subject. A general trend should be on how to shift national curriculum from content to competences. This process would strengthen competency-based teaching and learning to make it easier for entrepreneurship to be included in the TVET colleges programs. It is important that TVET colleges extend entrepreneurial training to all fields of study in TVET. This Dike (2009) opined would enable graduates of TVET to make intelligent use of the product of technology and develop better entrepreneurial skills to become more youth’s innovative workers. Persons who have passed through TVET program become more dutiful and conscientious in their duties. TVET reduces unemployment in the society (Oranu, 1991; Olaitan, 1992). In a country like Ethiopia where high rate of youths unemployment is being experienced as evidence in different studies, likely brought by the system failure, coupled with inability of government to create job for the teaming youth (Muhammed, 2010) means that entrepreneurship in TVET could be employed to develop viable skills in the youth so that they become easily self-employed or employable after graduation. The promotion of entrepreneurial studies would create opportunities for employment with subsequent income multiplier effects for the surrounding community. If job creation and entrepreneurial activities are carefully coordinated, then it would not be argued that increased entrepreneurship would no doubt help the most disadvantaged in the labor market. This become more important because there seem no indication that unemployment will be eradicated completely in the 21st century. The situation according to Maigida (2012) become worse due to the change in the competencies required of job seekers in the labor market brought about by innovations in technology which makes it necessary for youth to acquire specialized skills to enable them cope with the current trends in technology and the labor market. Entrepreneurship in TVET may serve as a tool for achieving youth empowerment. This is possible in the light of TVETs’ immense contributions to social and economic development to individuals.

Chapter Three
Research Design and Methodology
This chapter was consisted of description of the study area, research design, population and sample size, the sampling techniques, data sources and tools of data collection, and method of data analysis.
3.1 Study Area Description
Aksum is one of the ancient towns of the world especially in Ethiopia. It is located in northern part of Ethiopia, central zone of the Tigray regional state. This town is located at 1024 km far from the capital city of Ethiopia which is known as Addis Ababa towards northern direction. The town found at the elevation of 634m above sea level and its annual rain fall is reached up to 656 ml and the average temperature of the town reaches 220c. Aksum is one of the world tourist sites which involve different tangible and intangible historical, archeological, cultural and natural chronicles. This town also locates 241 km far set from Mekelle that is the capital city of Tigray regional state. The location of the town is at 140 W 120N latitude and 380N 720 E. The town is the capital city of central zone and this town administration is classified under five kebelles that include Hawelti, Nigstesaba ,kindya Hayelom and Maebel. According the town administration the town has 85,000 populations in 2016 that categorized as 4505 women and 39950 men. The economic life of this people is based on trade activity, tourism sector, agricultural practice, and service industry and manufacturing practice.
In Aksum town currently the number of TVET colleges becomes increase from time to time. In the town there are public and private TVET colleges. In these colleges there are many youths who attend the TVET training in these colleges.

Map of Aksum town

Source: Aksum municipality office (2018)
3.2 Research Design
The approach of this study was used mixed research approach which used both quantitative and qualitative approach with respecting the descriptive methods. The quantitative method was used to apply frequency and percentage of respondents’ data which has been collected through questionnaire. The Quantitative analysis involves data ranging from simple counts such as: frequency of occurrence to more complex data (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill,1997:287). Thus, according to the authors, whenever quantitative method is applied, analysis and interpretation makes use of the data. To this end, the collected data was coded entered into SPSS software and analyzed the data in the form of frequency and percentage. Because spss is one of the most popular statistical package which can perform highly complex manipulation and analysis with simple instruction.
The Qualitative method was also employed in this study to describe and analyze the information obtained through interview from the OBT coordinators of Aksum poly Technique and Aksum technical colleges. In addition, the interviewed data from the staff members of MSEs and Dedebit microfinances cooperatively work in developing TVET graduated youths ‘entrepreneurial activity. A qualitative research can help to interpret and better understand the complex reality of a given situation and the implications of quantitative data. Due to these facts, the researcher of this study was used a mixed approach of research method.
3.2.1 Targeted Population, sample size and sampling technique
3.2.2 Targeted population
The targeted population of this study was includes the two colleges (Sefeho and Aksum poly technique) outcome based training coordinators and the, two targeted colleges two vocational counselors, the coordinator of TVET office in Aksum town, the coordinator of youths’ affaire of Aksum town and two experts of micro and small enterprises as well as the two colleges’ four consecutive years graduated (1351) youths since (2014-2017) youth who lives and work in Aksum town were the targeted population of this study. Therefore, the total targeted population of this study includes 1361 population to analyze the whole data .
3.2.3 Sampling Technique and sample size
Webster Dictionary defined sampling is a finite part of a statistical population whose properties are studied to gain information about the whole. When dealing with people, it can be defined as a set of respondents (people) selected from a larger population for the purpose with the respecting of connivance sample taking technique. Sampling is the process of selecting some group of subjects from the huge number of targeted populations to be respondents of a study. In such way, the individuals who selected as represents from the larger targeted total population (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005).
It is obvious; the total population of this study was a large, as a result the researcher of this study has taken sample size from the total targeted populations of this study. The sampling technique of this study included non-probable sampling techniques. The non-probable sampling technique was applied purposive sampling technique on the two colleges outcome based training coordinators, vocational counselors, the central zone TVET office coordinator and the experts of micro and small enterprises as well as the youth afire coordinators of Aksum town has been taken sample respondent of this study using non probable / purposive sampling technique. This sampling technique was used to combine valid data from the respondents who had close relationship the case study. On the other hand, the non- probable sampling technique convenience was applied on the two colleges’ four consecutive years graduated youths who live and work currently in Aksum town. The sampling technique of the TVET graduated youths has been applied convenience sampling technique until full filled the required sample size. Therefore, the researcher level of confidence was ensured 95% of this study using Yamane’s/1967/ sample size determination statistics formula which is calculated as: n = N/(1+N (e^2))
When n = is indicates number of sample size
N = indicates the total population of the study (1351)
e = is indicates the level of errors that’s range is = (0.05)
Then to calculate sample size from the total four consecutive TVET graduate students
n = N/(1+N (e^2))
n = 1351/(1+1351(?0.05?^2)) = 308
Therefore the Sample Size of the two TVET colleges’ four consecutive years graduated youths (308) were selected as sample respondents of this study. The sample selection method of this study was applied convenience sampling technique respecting proportionate to size among the five kebelles of Aksum town until the determined sample size fulfilled. Therefore, from each college (Aksum poly Technic and Aksum technic college) graduated youths have been taken 154 respondents at equal manner. These sample respondents conducted by taking their address from the MSEs center which cooperate for all micro and small enterprises in each kebelle. In addition all graduated of TVET have record in each college that describes their address and their work enrolment. Therefore the researcher of this study used this opportunity to meet the sample respondents. Each micro and small enterprises location is known and recoded including their telephone address in every kebelle’s MSEs center of their kebelle.
3.2.4 Data Source and Method of Data Collection
3.4 Sources of Data
The major sources of data for this study categorized into primary and secondary data sources. The primary data sources of this study were include questioner, interview and the researcher of this study personal observation. On the other hand, the secondary source of data for this study was including TVTE training system, the MSEs document that recorded TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity and the TVET colleges tracer study analysis on the graduated youths employability. The major sources of primary data of this study include the coordinators of outcome based training coordinators, vocational counselors as well as the TVET office coordinator, youth affairs coordinator and the experts of micro and small enterprises office in Aksum town.
The secondary sources of data of this study have been obtained from published and unpublished materials. The published source materials of this study included different books and thesis documents and reports in relation of youth entrepreneurial activity. On the other hand the unpublished source of data for this study has been included different documents and records which available in the TVET colleges, micro and small scale enterprise center offices and youth affairs of Aksum town were taken as the sources of secondary data which has list of every trained entrepreneurial activity for this study.
3.4.1Tools of Data collection
I the Questionnaire
In this study, both closed-ended and open-ended questioners have been employed and collected the necessary pertinent data from the TVET graduates. A structured questionnaire was considered as a major data collection tool and it was administered for the sample subjects (graduated youths who live in Aksum town). The structured questioner has been prepared to rate sets of given variables using rating scale as setting their answer in ranking based on their and other labels as preparing the questioner respondents’ answer using “yes” or ” no” of rating scale, which was closed-ended type. It was also invited free response at the end of a given set of variables just to add if there are missed points felt by the respondents. These questionnaires of this study has been consisted of three parts that include items that include background information of respondents, general instructions and the basic questions of the study which focuses on the role of TVET on the development its graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity .
In addition, the other data collection tool was taken an interview data source of this study. On the other hand, the interview data also conducted with selected staff members key informants on the last four years (2014-2017) who were including the two colleges outcome based training coordinators, the two colleges vocational counselors, youths afire the experts of MSEs and the coordinator of TVET office in central zone has been conducted for this study to collect the necessary optimal data in detail on individuals’ based on the key informants legitimized position and responsibility in relation to youths’ entrepreneurial mobilization, Perspectives, and experiences, particularly when the topic explored accordingly, a semi-structured type of predetermined questions are prepared and that conducted with the selected coordinators of the sectors
I Observation
The other tool of data source of this study was included field observation of the researcher in Aksum town TVET graduated youth’s entrepreneurial activity by over viewing and scanning the economic activity of youths.
3.4.2 Data Collection Procedure
I Preparing check list to record the name and address of questioner respondents
Before distributed the research questioner the researcher of this study had been prepared check list which uses to record the respondents name and telephone address in order to minimize the unreturned distributed questioners to remember during collection it. This checklist helped to collect all the distributed questioners from each respondent of this study.
3.4.2.1 Selected data collectors and give technical Training on data collection
The researcher of this study selected five data distributers and collectors from each kebelles of Aksum town. The researcher had been given training them on how to distribute and how to collect the questioner and how can gather from the sample respondents who addressed the questioner of this study.
The necessary data of this study gathered through questioner has been distributed and gathered by the selected data collectors of this study because it was difficult to gather all the distributed questioners’ by the researcher only. Therefore, the researcher of this study has been employed five individuals who able to distribute and collect the prepared questioner. Thus, these data collectors given technical training by the researcher on the process they collected the data from each respondent.
3.4.2.2 Pilot Test
Before spread the questionnaire to the whole sample population of the study, a pilot test was conducted on some selected TVET graduates entrepreneurial youths’ of Aksum poly technic and Aksum technical colleges’ who live in kebelle Hayelom due to their closeness to the researcher residence. To this end, the instruments was accessed for other friends to cross check and judge as the prepared questioner has strongly related with this cases study and message of the items in the questionnaire before it was distributed to the actual sample respondents/ the two colleges graduated respondents. Then, the ambiguity and mismatched questions revised as clear manner for all sample respondents by conducted pilot test. This process of testing helped for the researcher of this study to understand the questioner clarity for readers. Similarly, this pilot testing used in this study is constructing properly, especially in detecting some redundant, ambiguous and unclear items of the questionnaire.
3.5 Method of Data Analysis and Interpretation
The collected data through questionnaire of this study was analyzed through qualitative and quantitative approach with respecting descriptive manner. The data which gathered through questioner was analyzed using SPSS software version 20 in respecting of descriptive data analysis particularly in the form of frequency, percentage and tabular form of data analysis and interpretation. The questioner based data has been analyzed carefully by interpreting the likert’s scale that settled numerical code. This type of data has been encoded carefully analysis through descriptive method of data analysis. Thus, frequencies and percentages of the counted to response of the variables were used for descriptive data analysis. On the other hand the data which gathered through interview data collection instrument has been analyzed and interpreted by compose with the questioner data under each item’s table with the related questioner items.

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Chapter Four
Data Analysis and Interpretation
4.1 Respondents’ Personal Information
This chapter involves data analysis and interpretation on the role of TVET on developing graduated youths entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town. The data analysis process of this study has been used SPSS software version 20 to analyze the questioner data which acquired from the sample respondents based on likert scale and numerical coding. The SPSS software data analysis of this thesis has been used descriptive data analysis nature that conducts in the form of frequency, tabular form, and percentage by testing its validity. From the total purposed 308 sample respondents of this study 11 (3.7 percent) of them were not full filed and returned the distributed questioner data. This was due to the respondent’s different personal occasional factors the researcher can’t able to collect the entire distributed questioner. As result, the questioner based data of this thesis collected from 297(96.4 percent) of the 308 purposed sample respondents of this thesis. In addition, under every item has been developed its own table to describe clearly the questioner respondents’ data interpretation. This every item data interpretation also composed with the interview data and lastly dedicated conclusion under each item.

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Table 4.1 Respondents’ Demography
No Item Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
1 Sex of the respondents Valid
Male
Female 154 51.9 51.9 51.9
143 48.1 48.1 100.0
Total 297 100. 100.0
2 Age of the respondents valid 18-22 years old 197 66.3 66.3 66.3
23-37 years old 80 26.9 26.9 93.2
above 38 years old 20 6.7 6.7 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
3 Respondents’ type of business valid Commercial 71 23.9 23.9 23.9
Employee 178 59.9 59.9 83.8
Manufacturing 48 16.2 16.2 100.0
Total 297 1000 1000
4 Respondents’ of term of graduation Valid Below one year 59 20.0 20.0 20.0
1-2 years 456 52.56. 52.5 72.5
Above three years 82 27.6 27.6 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
5 Respondents’ level of education Valid Certificate 98 32.9 32.9 32.9
College diploma 489 63.6 63.6 96.5
Degree 10 3.4 3.4 100.0

Total 297 100.0 100.0
6 Trainees’ term entrepreneurial training Valid Once 486 62.6 62.6 62.6
Twice 89 30.0 30.0 92.6
Three times 22 7.4 7.4 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
Based on the above Table 4.1 Item number one data the majority 154 (51.9 percent) of the total respondents’ were male. On the other hand, 143 (48.1 percent) of sample respondents of this study were female. Therefore, from this data interpretation the researcher observed the respondents of this study were equitable in on sex based characteristic. This equitable rate of male and female participation uses to avoid any type of sex based discrimination. In addition, this equitable sex ratio uses for this study to assess the TVET graduated youths entrepreneurial activity as inclusive manner of male and female. This is necessary to conduct valid study without sex based biased manner.
As observed from the above Table 4.1 item number two shows the majority 197 (66.3 percent) of the respondents’ age range was fund between 18-22 years old. On the other hand, 80(26.9 percent) of the total sample respondents age was found between 23-37 years old. In addition, 20 (6.7 percent) of the respondents were found above 38 years old. From this survey it is possible to understand most of the respondents of this study age range were found in fair age. This implies most of the TVET graduates were youths. This age is a researchable that needs especial treatment and governmental technical help to bring graduated youths to be self- employ.
According the above Table 4.1 the majority 178 (59.9 percent) of the sample respondents’ type of business was depend on employed. On the other hand, 71 (23.9 percent) of the respondents type of business was depend on trading activity. In addition, 48 (16.2 percent) of the sample respondents’ type of business depend on manufacturing. From this data interpretation it is understand that most of the TVET graduated youth of Aksum town were tend to be public or private employee rather than being self-employee. Therefore, from this survey data the researcher understudied that, most of the Aksum town TVET graduated youths were not confidentially engaged in to entrepreneurial activity.
From the survey data which described in number four in Table 4.1 shows, 156 (52.5 percent) of the sample respondents were graduated between one and two years . Having scanned data from this table 82 (27.6 percent) of the sample respondents’ term of graduated was found between above three years. On the other hand, 59 (20 percent) of the sample respondents’ term of graduation during conducting this survey was below one year. Consequently, from this survey able to understand that, most of the respondents of this study were staying one up to two years term of graduation. As it is shows from the above Table 4.1 the majority 189 (63 percent) of the sample respondents’ level of education are diploma holders. However, 98 (32.9 percent )of the sample respondents’ level of education was certificate level. As part of the total sample respondents of this thesis 10 (3.4 percent) of the TVET graduated sample respondents’ educational level were degree holders. Based on the majority respondents of this study level of education it is possible this is great chance for this study to ensure clear and valid data which generated form educated respondent who able to express his /her idea freely. In addition, educated research respondents contribute different constrictive practical ideas on the level of youths’ entrepreneurial activity and factors which hinder their entrepreneurial performance.
From the above Table 4.1 majority 186( 62.6 percent) of the sample respondents’ replied they had gotten once entrepreneurial training until this survey conducted with them. However, 89 (30percent) of the sample respondents gate twice time entrepreneurial skill and Attitude. Certain 22 (7.4 percent) of the sample respondents of this thesis were gate more than three times entrepreneurial training until this survey. Accordingly, the entrepreneurial training of the TVET graduated youths was not addressed for all trainees as equal manner.
Therefore, the researcher of this study understands as the TVET curriculum gives training on entrepreneur as common course for all trainees at level one. However, as respondent data indicates in Table 4.1 the TVET graduated youths can have additional short term entrepreneurial training out of the formal training which given in colleges. Consequently, the TVET graduated youths have different level knowledge and experience on entrepreneurial activity.
4.2 Basic Research Questions Data Analysis
This basic research data analyze was developed from 297 sample respondents who able fulfill and return the distributed questioner. This questioner developed in the form of likert scale by numerical coding which represented one up to five Arabic numbers to represent respondents’ level ideal agreement. Therefore, 5 represent for strongly agree, 4 agree, 3, neutral, 2 for disagree and 1, for strongly disagree. This questioning system uses to collect data from the respondents’ sketch thinking and practicality on TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial thinking and practicality. In addition, the data which developed from the interview clients of this thesis remixed with the data which acquired through questioner.
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Table 4.2 TVET Graduated youth Entrepreneurial Practice
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly disagree 12 4.0 4.0 4.0
Disagree 71 23.9 23.9 27.9
Neutral 119 40.1 40.1 68.0
Agree 52 17.5 17.5 85.5
Strongly agree 43 14.5 14.5 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
Based on the above Table 4.2 majority 119 (40.1 percent) of sample respondents of this thesis neutral on TVET Graduated Youth Entrepreneurial Practice. While 71 (23.9 percent) of the total sample respondents were replied as they are disagree on TVET Graduated Youth Entrepreneurial Practice. On the other hand, 52( 17.5 percent) of the sample respondents of this study agree on TVET Graduated Youth Entrepreneurial Practice. On the other hand, 43 (14.5 percent) of the sample respondents of this study were strongly agree on TVET Graduated Youth Entrepreneurial Practice in Aksum town. However, 12 (4percent) of the sample respondents replied as they were strongly disagree on TVET Graduated Youth Entrepreneurial Practice in Aksum town.
In addition according the OBT coordinators of the two Colleges Aksum poly Technique College and Aksum Technique College explained currently many TVET Graduated Youth not engaging on Entrepreneurial Practice. This is not implementing formal and non-formal entrepreneurial training which delivered by the TVET colleges for Aksum town youths. In addition, but coordinators of OBT of the two colleges explained the TVET training strategy focuses on practice .
According the majority questioner respondents’ data and the interview key informants’ information the researcher of this study understand that, currently many TVET Graduated Youth of Aksum town not engaging in to Entrepreneurial Practice. This is implies that, the TVET colleges entrepreneurial training has no crucial role on enhancing Youth’s entrepreneurial Practice. As a result many TVET graduated youths currently become not aware and practice entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town.

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Table 4.3 TVET Graduate Youths ‘Want to be Self-employee
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly disagree 17 5.7 5.7 5.7
disagree 114 38.4 38.4 44.1
Neutral 9 3.0 3.0 47.1
Agree 149 50.3 50.2 97.3
strongly agree 8 2.7 2.7 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
According the above Table 4.3, 149 (50.2 percent) of the sample respondents’ agree on the TVET Graduated Youths ‘Want to be Self-employee. However the 9 (3 percent) of the sample respondents were neutral on TVET Graduated Youths’ tendency to be Self- employee. Similarly, 8 (2.7 percent) of the sample respondents of this study were strongly agree on TVET Graduated Youths’ Want to be self-employee. However, 114(38.4 percent) of the sample respondents were disagree on TVET Graduated Youths’ ‘Want to be self-employee. In addition 17 (5.7percent) of the sample respondents were strongly disagree on TVET Graduated Youths’ Want to be Self-employee.
Based on the above data interpretation the current study indicates the TVET Graduated Youths have sufficient tendency to be Self-employee. From this data analysis it is possible to understand the TVET graduated youths of Aksum town self-employee have medium level of entrepreneurial tendency to engaging on personal business out of waiting for public and private sector employee. Therefore, the TVET graduated youths in Aksum town currently shift their tendency from public employee towards self-employee. However, there are many TVET graduated youths still want and expect to be public employed. Therefore, from this data interpretation it is validate to shows most of TVET graduated youths want to be self-employee. However, many TVET graduated youths of Aksum town were not tending to be self-employee based on their occupation and profession. This is implies the TVET entrepreneurial training has its own role on inculcating many youths’ entrepreneurial tendency. However, TVET entrepreneurial training not addressed completely the TVET graduated youths to enhance their sense of self- employment in Aksum town. As result, in the town there are still many TVET graduated youths who wait public employment opportunity due to fear and lack of self-confidence to be self-employed.

Table 4.4 TVET Graduates youths immediately being Self-employed after their graduation
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 45 15.2 15.2 15.2
Disagree 108 36.4 36.4 51.5
Neutral 32 10.8 10.8 62.3
Agree 88 29.6 29.6 91.9
strongly agree 24 8.1 8.1 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
As Table 4.4 data shows the majority 108 (36.4 percent) of the sample respondents of this study disagree on the TVET Graduates youths immediately being self-employed after their graduation. In addition, 88 (29.9 percent) of the sample respondents were agree as the TVET Graduates youths Immediately Being Self-employed after their graduation. Moreover, 32 (10.8 percent) of the sample respondents of this study were replied as they neutral on TVET Graduated youths Immediate Being Self-employed after their graduation. On the other hand, 45 (15.3 percent) of the sample respondents of this study were strongly disagree on TVET Graduates youths Immediately Being Self-employed after their graduation.
On top of the above data the micro and small enterprise coordinator of Aksum town explained many new TVET graduated youth immediately not engaged in to new business after their graduation. According the majority respondents the researcher of this study observed that many TVET graduated youths of Aksum town become not self-employed immediately based their profession and it is not based on the TVET objectives. Even if the TVET courses nature are practical based training, as result, this is not implement comfortable activities for youth’s to be self-employment by investing their professional skill. Therefore, most of the TVET graduated youths of Aksum town not become self-employee using their professional skill. However, it doesn’t mean all TVET graduated youths in Aksum town were immediately engage in to new business rather there are many TVET graduated youths who wait employment opportunity. This is due to different factors which has direct relationship with youths’ self-employment. Some of the factors include such as family economy level and lack of loan accessibility at require time and other factors influence for the TVET graduated youth in to engage in to new business to be self-employment using their graduated occupation.

Table4.5TVET Graduated Youth being Self-employee based their Occupational Entrepreneurial Performance
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 2 0.67 0.67 0.67
Disagree 54 18.2 18.2 18.9
Neutral 148 49.8 49.8 68.9
Agree 72 24.2 24.2 92.9
strongly agree 21 7.1 7.1 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
From this Table 4.5 survey the majority 148 (49.8 percent ) of the sample respondents were replied as they neutral on TVET graduated youths have not any idea being self-employee based their occupational entrepreneurial performance in Aksum town. Based their occupation and entrepreneurial performance in Aksum town Graduated Youth being Self-employee based their Occupational Entrepreneurial Performance.
In addition, 21 (7.1 percent) of the sample respondents of this study were replied as they strongly agree on TVET graduated youths being self-employee based on their occupational entrepreneurial performance in Aksum town. On the other hand, 54(9 18.2 percent) of the sample respondents of this study replied as they disagree on TVET graduated youths not self employed based on their profession. Certain 72 (24.2percent) of the sample respondents were replied for this item as they agree on TVET graduated youths being self-employee
Therefore, from the above data most of the TVET graduated youths of Aksum town they become not self-employed based on their occupation that acquired from TVET colleges. From this data interpretation it is possible to understand that TVET colleges currently not playing their role on enhancing youths’ entrepreneurial activity. In addition the TVET colleges training have small role on implementing youth’s self-employment Ethiopian policy. As a result, many TVET graduated youths in Aksum town become not start self-employee immediately after they graduated.

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Table 4.6 TVET Colleges and MSEs Working Cooperation to develop TVET Graduated Youths Entrepreneurial Activity
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 39 13.1 13.1 13.1
Disagree 220 74.1 74.1 87.2
Neutral 31 10.4 10.4 97.6
Agree 7 2.4 2.4 100.0
strongly agree 0 0 0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
Based on the above Table 4.6 majority 220 (74.1 percent) of the total respondents disagree on TVET Colleges and MSE Working Cooperation to Promote TVET Graduated Youths Entrepreneurial Activity. In addition, 39 (13.1 percent) of the sample respondents strongly disagree on TVET Colleges and MSEs Working Cooperation to Promote TVET Graduated Youths Entrepreneurial Activity. Similarly as the coordinator of MSE coordinator of Aksum town justified for the case of TVET colleges and MSE working cooperation was not strong enough. However, 31 (10.4 percent) of the respondents were replied as they neutral on working cooperatively the stake holders. In addition, 7 (2.4percent) of the sample respondents were replied as they were agree on TVET Colleges and MSEs Working Cooperatively on Promoting TVET Graduated Youths’ Entrepreneurial Activity.
According the result displayed on the above, the TVET colleges and MSEs level of working cooperation on their Common goal was not strong enough. However, both organizations’ have common strategy that focus on enhancing youths’ entrepreneurial activity. Thus, due to lack of TVET colleges and MSEs working cooperatively many TVET graduated youths become waiting to be public employee. As shown in Table 4.6 many TVET graduated youths become late to join in to self – employment. This is due to disintegrated linkage between TVET colleges and MSEs officers to deliver fast loan accessibility, manufacturing and selling place and other technical assistance for TVET graduated youths after their graduation date. As a result many TVET graduated youths face entrepreneurial barrier that created due to lack of strong linkage between TVET colleges and MSEs in Aksum town. Especially the TVET graduated youths who come from lower economical statues family faced such entrepreneurial obstacle in Aksum town.

Table 4.7 MSEs Moral and Technical Assistance for TVET Colleges Graduated youths’ to be self – employed
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 6 2.0 2.0 2.0
Disagree 213 71.7 71.7 73.7
Neutral 42 14.1 14.1 87.8
Agree 27 9.1 9.1 96.9
strongly agree 9 3.0 3.0 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
As it is shown from the above Table 4.7 the majority 213 (71.7 percent )of the sample respondents of this study disagree on MSEs members in providing moral and Technical Assistance for TVET Colleges Graduated youths’ to be self – employed. On the other hand, 42 (14.1 percent) of the sample respondents of this thesis responded as they neutral on MSEs moral and Technical Assisting for TVET Colleges Graduated youths’ to be self – employed. In addition, 27 (9.1 percent) of the respondents were agree on MSEs technical and moral assistance for TVET graduated youths to be self-employment. Moreover, the 9 (3 percent) were strongly agreed on the assistance of MSEs for TVET graduated youths to be self-employment. Similar, based on the coordinator of youth affair in Aksum town currently the office of MSEs playing its role on promoting youths’ entrepreneurial activity through the submission of youth affaire. As he underlined his interview the office of MSEs technical and moral assistance was given after youths graduated for few days not exceed 3 days. However after the introducing training and moral assistance given there was no programmed continues technical and moral assistance for the self-employed youths.
According the MSEs coordinator of Aksum town explained the staff members of MSE try to collaborate for TVET graduated youths to engage in to self-employment using their profession. However due to the staff members over burden work in the staff activity they didn’t deliver continuous technical and morale support for the TVET graduated youths as especial manner. Therefore, the TVET graduated youths technical and moral collaboration of the MSEs staff members of Aksum town was not effectively. It is obvious, new graduated youths need continuous moral and technical support until they testing the fruit of their business.
Therefore, based on the above interpreted able to understand that, the MSEs officers of Aksum town were not give sufficient informal or short period entrepreneurial training for new gradated youths to enhance their entrepreneurial performance. Although, the officers of MSEs trying to give entrepreneurial short period training and assistance to mobilize for TVET graduated youths but it doesn’t has continuity as programmed manner. As a result, there are many TVET graduated youths who didn’t self-employed in Aksum town.

Table 4.8 TVET Graduate Youths enhancing their Economy after they joined in to Entrepreneurial activity
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 6 2.0 2.0 2.0
Disagree 8 3.0 3.0 5.0
Neutral 38 12.8 12.8 17.8
Agree 221 74.4 74.4 92.2
strongly agree 24 8.1 8.1 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
As the above table 4.8 data shows the majority 221 (74.4 percent) of the respondents of this thesis agree on enhancing their Economic performance after they joined in to Entrepreneurial activity. On top of this, 38 (12.8 percent )of the respondents were neutral on their economy performance enhance after they joined in to their own business. The certain 24 (8.1 percent) of the sample respondents of this study strongly agree as they able to improve their economy performance after they started their own business by investing their profession in Aksum town. However 8 (3 percent) of the sample respondents who joined in to entrepreneurial activity disagree on the TVET graduated youths economy achievement after engaged in to entrepreneurial activity. In addition 6 (2 percent )of the sample respondents replied as they disagree on their economy achievement.
.as coordinator of MSEs Aksum town explained According the service based economical level classification the micro scale capital bounded its budget below 50, 000 birr. Whereas, the capital of small scale service based economy sector of Ethiopian economical scale must have 50,000 -500,000 Ethiopian birr. Therefore, in Aksum generally from the 723 TVET graduated youths who engaged in to private entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town since 2014 – 2017 more than 40 entrepreneur youths transferred from micro economic level in to small scale economic level or from the capital level below $50,000 to above $ 100, 00 -500,000 Ethiopian birr in Aksum town. This is shows the youths who joined in to entrepreneurial activity in the town achieving their economic potential at remarkable level based on their business nature initial capital for investment.
Therefore, most of the economical statues of the TVET graduated youths who engaged in to entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town improving their economy statues based on their commitment, business nature, and initial capital for investment.

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Table 4.9 TVET Colleges efficiently working cooperatively with other stakeholders to create smooth youth’s entrepreneurial opportunity
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 10 3.4 3.4 3.4
Disagree 209 70.4 70.4 73.8
Neutral 39 13.1 13.1 86.9
Agree 29 9.8 9.8 96.6
strongly agree 10 3.4 3.4 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
Out of the total sample respondents of this study the majority 209 (70.4 percent of them disagree on the TVET colleges efficiently working with other stake holders to improve youth’s entrepreneurial opportunity in Aksum town. Similarly, the 29 (9.8 percent) respondents of this study were agree TVET colleges efficiently working with other stake holders to maintain TVET graduated youths to develop their theoretical training in to practically that uses for them to exercise their theoretical concept on practice. In addition, 10 (3.4 percent) of the total sample respondents were strongly disagree on this idea.
However, the 39 (13.1 percent) of the respondents were responded neutral on the TVET colleges efficiently working cooperatively with the stake holders in of Aksum town to create smooth youths’ entrepreneurial opportunity. Similarly, 10 (3.4 percent) of the sample respondents strongly agree on working cooperatively with stakeholders. In addition to the above questioner based data, the OBT coordinators of the two colleges explained the TVET colleges working cooperatively with the stake holder organizations. As they explained, the nature of TVET training depends on stake holder organizations. Hence the source occupational standard of TVET training is from the industries. Therefore, effective TVET training depends on stake holders. Hence, the effective TVET training depended on industrial professional market demand. The entrepreneurial strategy of Tigray regional state obligated for all public sectors to take share on promoting youths’ entrepreneurial performance. However the stake holder organization in the town not committed to take part on TVET training to promoting youths’ entrepreneurial performance.
Based on the above data interpretation it is possible to understand that, the TVET colleges of Aksum town not working cooperatively with the stakeholders based on the interface. As a result many TVET graduated youth of Aksum town become unemployed. This was the result of the stakeholder organizations’ officers have low awareness on the advantage of giving cooperative training for the TVET colleges training youths’ to build up their entrepreneurial performance and professional skill to them as human resource of these organization .

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Table 4.10 TVET training strategy to develop graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 0 0 0 0
Disagree 10 3.4 3.4 3.4
Neutral 20 6.7 6.7 10.1
Agree 49 16.5 16.5 26.6
strongly agree 218 73.4 73.4 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
According the above Table 4.10 majority 218( 73.4 percent) of the sample respondents of this thesis strongly agree on the role of TVET training strategy to enhance TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity. In addition 49 (16.5 percent) of the total sample agree on TVET training strategy focuses on graduated youths being self-employed. Similarly, 20 (6.7 percent) of the sample respondents were neutral on this item. However, 10(3.4 percent) of the sample were disagree. From this data interpretation it is possible to understand the TVET training strategy strongly focuses on developing graduated youths. Thus, the end result of TVET training is to develop graduated youths ‘job opportunity and employability. However, this training strategy not implementing in accordance due to weak implementation of TVET officer’s and MSEs officer’s cooperatively as continues manner for TVET graduated youths to be an entrepreneurs.
As the federal TVET strategy 2014 guide line described the end goal of TVET training is 90 percent of the trained youths being employment. The implementation instrument of this strategy is known as deliver logy that proposed 90 percent from the TVET graduated youths being employing by investing their profession within one year after the date of graduation. The TVET training strategy focuses on project based training. This implies every trainee must be design one visible project that able to engage for the trainee in to self – employment. In addition, the Ethiopian TVET training strategy is focus on inculcating saving practice for every trainee as part of the TVET training. The purpose of saving strategy in TVET training is to develop graduated youths’ entrepreneurial initial capital with correlation of MSEs strategy that implement by saving 20% and taking 80% loan access for them the Dedebit micro finance. This strategy is not implemented through single institution’s efforts rather it is implementing cooperatively with other stake holders such as MSEs, DMF, YA and other administrative bodies to joined graduated youths in to entrepreneurial activity.
According the TVET office coordinator of Aksum town The Ethiopian TVET training strategy implementation system that focuses on:
Demand – orientation: this implies all the TVET colleges in Ethiopia have respond to the skills needs and qualification requirement in the labor market based on competitiveness of all economic sector through competent workforce and towards improving people’s employability in the labor market and with regard to self- employability.
Quality and relevance: the TVET system strives for the highest quality and relevance of all TVET offers. In addition this is emphasizing with effective means of quality management through the support of different stake holders to achieve quality standard.
Permeability: the TVET training system promote vertical and horizontal mobility between and progression between different TVET occupations and different qualification levels, and TVET and general higher education’s to create career progression and continuity of learning.
Equal access and equal opportunity: this is the strategy of training that strive social inclusion by increasing overall access to the society by formal non formal and informal training for different targeted group of peoples as equal manner.
Life-long learning: this TVET training system focuses on providing life- long learning opportunity including initial and further training for the group of peoples with the rapidly changing work environment by technological progress and development in work organization.
Flexibility: this is the responding to the change of occupational requirement and to accommodate the different training circumstance and preconditions of the various target groups training on dynamic development of the training offer.
Gender sensitivity: the Ethiopian TVET system deliver all TVET opportunities will be equally accessible to girls and boys, women and men. The TVET training strategy, stand against girls and boys discrimination rather treating equally in the organization.
Project based training: project based training is purposely established to engage TVET graduated youths in to entrepreneurial activity based on their profession. As the principle of TVET training, every trainee minimally designed one visible project that can be source of bread after the trainee’s graduation. However the TVET colleges of Aksum town not effectively implementing this project based training deliberation in accordance its principle. As a result, many TVET graduated youths in the town not joining in to self-employment due to the absence of s designed project during their training in the colleges.

Table 4.11 TVET Colleges’ Efficient Project based Training implementation at all Levels of Training
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 89 30.0 30.0 30.0
Disagree 144 48.5 48.5 78.5
Neutral 28 9.4 9.4 87.9
Agree 28 9.4 9.4 97.3
strongly agree 8 2.7 2.7 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
According the above table 4.11 majority 144 (48.9 percent) of the sample respondents of this study disagree on TVET Colleges’ Efficient Project based Training implementation at all Levels of Training. Similarly, 89 (30 percent) of the total respondents were strongly disagreed on TVET Colleges’ Efficient Project based Training implementation at all Levels of Training. Similarly 28 (9.4 percent) of them were neutral on the above item. On the other hand, 28( 9.4percent) of the sample respondents of this study were agree on TVET colleges effective project based training delivery for all levels of training. In addition based training. In addition, 8 (2.7percent) of the sample respondents of this study were strongly agree on TVET Colleges’ Efficient Project based Training implementation at all Levels of Training.
Moreover, the OBT coordinator of Aksum poly technique college explained project based training implementation is key factor to develop TVET graduated youths to adopt entrepreneurial practicality. However, there are many challenges which hinder effective project based training implementation in TVET training system. Some of the factors which affect project based training are include trainees’ attitude towards public servant than self – employment, trainees’ and trainers’ lack project designing experience, trainees’ lack of current market opportunity, and trainees’ lack of initial capital are the main challenges of project based TVET training implementation system. Based on this data interpretation currently the TVET colleges of Aksum town introducing project based training to achieve youth’s entrepreneurial activity. However, it has its own challenges to implement in accordance the principle of project based training system in Aksum town. As result, many TVET graduated youths in Aksum town currently become confuse to engage in to self-employment based on their designed project during their training.

Table 4.12 TVET Training System Motivate Youths to enhance their Attitude and Practice of Entrepreneurial activity
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 8 2.7 2.7 2.7
Disagree 40 13.5 13.5 16.2
Neutral 28 9.4 9.4 25.6
Agree 212 71.4 71.4 97.0
strongly agree 9 3.0 3.0 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
Based on the above Table 4.12 the majority 212 (71.4 percent) of the total respondents of this thesis were agree on TVET Training System Motivate Youths to support their Attitude and Practice of Entrepreneurial activity. Whereas, 28 (9.4 percent) of the sample respondents were replied as they neutral on the above item. In addition 9(3 percent) of the sample respondents were strongly agree on TVET training system motivated for youths to be an entrepreneur using their professional skill. However, 40 (13.5 percent) of the sample respondents were disagree on TVET Training System Motivate Youths to support their Attitude and Practice of Entrepreneurial activity. Keeping in mind this idea 8 (2.7percent) of the respondents of the sample respondents replied as they strongly disagree on TVET training system motivate trainees to promote their entrepreneurial attitude and practice.
It is further stated by the OBT coordinators of the ATC as the TVET training system has great role on developing youths’ entrepreneurial attitude and activity. Hence, the TVET training delivering system always began with its policy justification that focus on entrepreneurial and self-employment opportunity and its mantling system. Some of the entrepreneurial activity maintaining system included delivering project based training, delivering entrepreneurship training as a common course for all trainees, make linkage between trainees and stake holders through cooperative training. Some of the TVET training stake holders include such as MSEs, DMF and YA to support the chance of TVET graduated youth’s entrepreneurial opportunity using stake holders’ technical, moral and financial assistance. Therefore based on the majority respondents and key informant response it motivate to indicates that, TVET training system motivating for youths to support their entrepreneurial attitude and practice to be self-employed. However, this effort not implementing by TVET colleges only, rather this process engaging different stake holder organizations based on professional nature.

Table 4.13 TVET Graduated Youths’ Employability Opportunity
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 21 7.1 7.1 7.1
Disagree 25 8.4 8.4 15.5
Neutral 28 9.4 9.4 24.9
Agree 204 68.7 68.7 93.6
strongly agree 19 6.4 6.4 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
The majority 204 (68.7 percent) of the sample respondents of this study agree on TVET Graduated Youths’ Employability Opportunity. In addition 21 (7.1 percent) of the sample respondents strongly disagree on the TVET graduated youths’ employability opportunity. Similarly 25 (8.4 percent) of the total sample respondents were disagree on TVET graduated youths’ employability. However, 28 (9.4 percent) of the respondents were neutral on TVET graduated youths’ employability. Similarly 19 (6.4 percent) of the sample respondents were strongly agree on TVET graduated youths’ employability.
The TVET office coordinator of Aksum town explained on the TVET graduated youth have high employability opportunity. This opportunity uses to reduce youths’ unemployment rate among the graduated youths. The Ethiopian government came up with the 2008 National TVET Policy that focus so youths’ solving unemployment rate. This policy tries to addresses the issues unemployment by creation of better employment opportunities for the youth. The strategies applied: development of youth enterprise programs incorporating small business management, basic skills and business training; provision of basic skills training facilities (through consolidation of existing skills training centers), infrastructure, finance, business advisory services and extension services to youth and incorporation of basic skills and business training in TVET curriculum.
According the data undertaken from the respondents of this study the TVET Graduated Youths’ has high Employability opportunity than the other training center in Aksum town. According the TVET office of Aksum town conducted tracer study in January 2018 indicated, from the two colleges graduated youth (1351) who live in Aksum town since 2014-2017 above (68.7 percent) may have opportunity of employment in public sector. Therefore, from this data interpretation it tends to conclude the TVET graduated youths have high employability opportunity. This highs employability opportunity is the result of practical based training delivering system. Thus public and private sector preferring TVET trained mane power who able to maintain the required organizational task.

Table 4.14 Challenges of TVET Graduated youths on enhancing Entrepreneurial Activity
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 10 3.4 3.4 3.4
Disagree 12 4.0 4.0 7.4
Neutral 12 4.0 4.0 11.4
Agree 53 17.8 17.8 29.2
strongly agree 210 70.7 70.7 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
According the majority 210 (70.7 percent)of the sample respondents replied as strongly agree as there are Challenges of TVET Graduated youths on enhancing Entrepreneurial activity. In addition 53 (17.8 percent) of the respondents agree on this idea. In addition the 12 (4 percent )of the sample respondents of this study neutral on challenges of TVET graduated youths on enhancing entrepreneurial activity. On the other hand 12 (4 percent) of the sample respondents were disagree. Moreover, 10 (3.4 percent) of the sample respondents were replied as they strongly disagree.
On the other hand, the enterprise coordinator of MSEs in Aksum town and the coordinators of OBT in the two colleges justified as there were challenges of TVET graduated youth’s entrepreneurial activity. Accordingly some of the challenges which hinder TVET youths’ entrepreneurial development can be classified as personal and external challenging. Some of the personal challenges of TVET graduated youths on entrepreneurial activity in included lack of designing visible business plan, lack of initial capital to start up the designed business plan, lack of self-confidence to operate their own business, lack of personal interest on entrepreneurial activity and expecting public employment.
On the other hand, the external challenges that affect youths’ entrepreneurial activity include, market demand influence on the business nature, socio cultural influence on business nature, administration bureaucracy, and lack of technical and moral assistance for youths, lack of infrastructure accessibility affect TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town.

Table 4.15 TVET Graduated Youths’ public employment tendency
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 11 3.7 3.7 3.7
Disagree 19 6.4 6.4 10.1
Neutral 51 17.2 17.2 27.3
Agree 190 63.9 63.3 91.2
strongly agree 26 8.8 8.8 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
The majority 190 (63.9 percent) of the respondents of this study agree they tend to be public employed. In addition, 51 (17.2 percent) of the sample respondents were neutral to be public employment. More over 26 (8.8 percent) of the sample respondents were strongly agree have tendency to be public servant. However, 19 (6.4 percent) of the sample respondents were disagree to be public employment. In addition, 11 (3.7 percent) of the sample respondents were strongly disagree to be public employment.
According the above majority respondents data, the researcher observed that many TVET graduated youths have public employment tendency. Although many TVET graduated youths joined in to self-employment in Aksum town. However, many new TVET graduated youths in Aksum town tend to be public employment rather than self-employment. As result, many TVET gradated youths in Aksum town not use their self –employable opportunity rather they search public employment notice.

Table4.16 Personal Challenges of TVET Graduated Youths on Developing Entrepreneurial Activity
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 11 3.7 3.7 3.7
Disagree 17 5.7 5.7 9.4
Neutral 8 2.7 2.7 12.1
Agree 36 12.1 12.1 24.2
strongly agree 225 75.8 75.8 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
As the above Table 4, 16 data shows the majority 225 (75.8 percent) of the sample respondents of this study strongly agree on personal challenges on developing Entrepreneurial activity. In addition, the 36 (12.1 percent )of the total respondents of this study were agree as they face personal challenge on engaging in to entrepreneurial activity. Similarly, the 8 (2.7percent) of the sample respondents were neutral percent on personal challenges of TVET graduated youths to engage in to self-employment. On the other hand, the 17 (5.7 percent) of the sample respondents of this study disagree on the personal challenges to engage in to entrepreneurial activity. In addition, 11 (3.7 percent) of the sample respondents of this thesis strongly disagree on personal challenges that occur on TVET graduated youths in the process engaging in to entrepreneurial activity.
Based on the majority respondents of this study there is personal challenges on TVET Graduated Youths on Developing Entrepreneurial activity. Based on the coordinator of MSEs explained, most of the TVET graduated youths of Aksum town face personal challenges on developing entrepreneurial activity. Some of the challenges of youths include lack of self-confidence on entrepreneurial activity, lack of loan collateral, lack of designing ability of visible business plan,
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Table 4.17 Youths Affair Officers effort to Enhance TVET Graduated to be Entrepreneurial Activity
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 10 3.4 3.4 3.4
Disagree 220 74.1 74.1 77.5
Neutral 18 6.1 6.1 83.6
Agree 28 9.4 9.4 93.0
strongly agree 21 7.1 7.1 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0
Source: Own Survey march, 2018
The above table 4.17 majority 220(74.1) respondents’ disagree on Youth Affair Officers Enhance TVET Graduated Youths to be Entrepreneurial Activity. In addition, 10 (3.4 percent) of the sample respondents were strongly disagree on youth Affair officers effective contribution to develop TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity. However, 28 (9.4 percent )of the sample respondents were agree on Youth Affair Officers Enhance TVET Graduated Youths to be Entrepreneurial Activity. Moreover, the 21 (7.1) percent of the sample respondents were strongly agree on youth affair officers enhance TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity. Similarly the 18 (6.1 percent) of respondents were neutral on the above issue. In addition the enterprise coordinator of Aksum town was underlined as the youth affaire officers of Aksum town were not supporting for the TVET graduated youths to be them an entrepreneurial.
The TVET graduated youths in Aksum town were not gate sufficient support and coordination from the youth affairs of Aksum town. As result, many TVET graduated youths in Aksum town were not engaging in to entrepreneurial activity.
Table 4.18 Family and Friends Influence on TVET Graduated Youths Self-employment
Description Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strong disagree 89 30.0 30.0 30.0
Disagree 16 5.4 5.4 35.4
Neutral 28 9.4 9.4 44.8
Agree 144 48.5 48.5 93.3
strongly agree 20 6.7 6.7 100.0
Total 297 100.0 100.0

Source: Own Survey march, 2018
Based on the above Table 4.18 majority 144 (48.5 percent) of the sample respondents of this study agree as there was family and friends influence on TVET graduated youths self-employment. On the other hand, 28 (9.4 percent) of the sample respondents of this study also neutral on this number. Similarly, 20 (6.7)percent of the sample respondents were strongly agree. However, 89 (30percent) of the sample respondents were strongly disagree on Family and Friends Influence on TVET Graduated Youths Self-employment. In addition, 16 (5.4 percent) of the respondents were disagree on family and friends’ influence for TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity and self-employment in Aksum town. In addition the MSEs staff members explained some parents and friends of TVET graduated youths protest their entrepreneurial activity. As a result, many youths who want to be self- employment treating due to their family and friends objection this indicates the communities of Aksum town were having lack of entrepreneurial attitude and self- employment. Community has an influence on youths’ entrepreneurial activity. Hence, the youths are member of the society.
Family, role models and association with similar types of individuals: Where an environment is entrepreneurially orientated, supportive and beneficiary to the individuals that reside within, those people are likely to follow the same foot-steps. Similarly, personal networks, as well as family members who own their business ventures may influence entrepreneurial attitudes for young people who live with them in the same environment. In addition, financial conditions: The financial conditions of a person, whether favorable or adverse, can pull or push him/her to start-up a new entrepreneurial venture for a variety of reasons

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CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 SUMMARY
This study conducted on the role of TVET on developing graduated youths entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town. The data analysis process of this study has been used SPSS software version 20 to analyze the questioner data which acquired from the sample respondents based on likert scale and numerical coding.
The respondents of this study participated in equitable in on sex based characteristic. This equitable rate of male and female participation uses to avoid any type of sex based discrimination. In addition, this equitable sex ratio uses for this study to assess the TVET graduated youths entrepreneurial activity as inclusive manner of male and female. This is necessary to conduct valid study without sex based biased manner.
According the majority questioner respondents’ data and the interview key informants’ information the researcher of this study observed that, currently many TVET Graduated Youth of Aksum town not engaging in to Entrepreneurial Practice. This is implies that, the TVET colleges entrepreneurial training has no as such crucial role on enhancing Youth’s entrepreneurial Practice. As a result 40 percent TVET graduated youths currently become unconscious and not apply practice entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town.
Most of the TVET graduated youths in Aksum town want to be self-employee. However, many TVET graduated youths of Aksum town were not tending to be self-employee based on their occupation and profession. This is implies the TVET entrepreneurial training has its own role on inculcating many youths’ entrepreneurial tendency. However, TVET entrepreneurial training not addressed completely the TVET graduated youths to enhance their sense of self- employment in Aksum town. As result, in the town there were many TVET graduated youths who wait public employment opportunity due to fear and lack of self-confidence to be self-employed.
Many TVET graduated youths of Aksum town become not self-employed immediately based their profession. Even if the TVET courses nature are practical based training, but practically is not comfortable for youth’s to be self-employment by investing their professional skill
The economical statues of the TVET graduated youths who engaged in to entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town not improving their economic statues based on their commitment, business nature, and initial capital for investment. However, the TVET colleges of Aksum town not working cooperatively with the stakeholders based on the interface. As a result many TVET graduated youth of Aksum town become unemployed.
According the MSEs coordinator of Aksum town explained the staff members of MSEs try to collaborate for TVET graduated youths to engage in to self-employment using their profession. However due to the staff members over burden work in the staff activity they didn’t deliver continuous technical and morale support for the TVET graduated youths as especial manner.
According the TVET office coordinator of Aksum town the Ethiopian TVET training strategy implementation system that focuses on Demand – orientation, Quality and relevance, Permeability, Equal access and equal opportunity, Life-long learning, Flexibility, Gender sensitivity, Project based training. Many TVET graduated youths in Aksum town currently become confuse to engage in to self-employment based on their designed project during their training.
The TVET training system has great role on developing youths’ entrepreneurial attitude and activity. Hence, the TVET training delivering system always began with its policy justification that focus on entrepreneurial and self-employment opportunity and its mantling system. Some of the entrepreneurial activity maintaining system included delivering project based training, delivering entrepreneurship training as a common course for all trainees, make linkage between trainees and stake holders through cooperative training. Some of the TVET training stake holders include such as MSEs, DMF and YA to support the chance of TVET graduated youth’s entrepreneurial opportunity using stake holders’ technical, moral and financial assistance.
However, there are many challenges which hinder TVET youths’ entrepreneurial development can be classified as personal and external challenging. Some of the personal challenges of TVET graduated youths on entrepreneurial activity in included lack of designing visible business plan, lack of initial capital to start up the designed business plan, lack of self-confidence to operate their own business, lack of personal interest on entrepreneurial activity and expecting public employment.

5.2 CONCLUSIONS
This chapter presents conclusions based on the majority respondent’s agreed or disagreed items using the likert scale coding in number. Therefore, the majority findings of this study observed on the role of TVET training strategy and practicality on developing TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town. The source of data this study participated both sexes as equitable manner in order to conduct fair study regardless sex based baseness. This is shows as this study fairly participated both sexes without any type of discrimination in assessing the role of TVET on developing TVET graduated youths entrepreneurial activity.
Most of the respondent of this study way of life depend on public and private employment rather than self- employment. This opportunity used for this study to assess the TVET graduated youth’s enrolment on the whole economic activity of Aksum town. In addition, this economic multinomial engagement of TVET graduated youths use to assess this study widely in different economy activity of Aksum town. Most of the respondents’ term of graduation was three years above. This long term observed data of respondent’s uses for this study as evidence for existed phenomena on youths entrepreneurial and employment opportunity in Aksum town.
This study observed that the TVET sector offers a wider variety of subjects than available in other higher education institutions, implying that TVET can pervasively contribute to personal and socio-economic development. The TVET sector also strives to increase equity in educational opportunities implied by the inclusive student body that it caters for. Through TVET individuals without academic qualifications have an opportunity for training increasing their chances for employment into the formal labor system.
The majority TVET graduated youth in Aksum town not inter practically in to entrepreneurial practice. From the total TVET colleges (APTC& ATC) graduated youths since 2014 -2017 the 40percent) of the graduated youths have low practice. Even the TVET graduated youths have better job opportunity based on their profession in Aksum town. Currently most of the TVET graduated youths unattractive their entrepreneurial tendency. Especially, the TVET graduated youths who have no initial capital budget to startup new business they wants to engage in to entrepreneurial self-employment in the town. However, many of the graduated youths who didn’t gate the chance of gating initial capital to start up a new business they wait an employment opportunity either privately or publically. Most of the TVET graduated youth’s gate job opportunity with in short period of time. However, they must be competent against the Ethiopian Occupational standard based their profession level by level.
Youths who graduated in the Ethiopian TVET have wide job opportunity. Hence, the TVET is training system of in this institution conducting professional market assessment or tracer study for each occupation in TVET training minimally twice a year. Therefore, the TVET training system is lead based on market demand drive. As result the graduated youths have wide job opportunity in private sector, public sector and self – employment by investing their market demanded profession in their local market. In addition the Ethiopian TVET entrepreneurial trains system delivering as formal and informal system. The formal trainee took the entrepreneurial training as unit of competence and as the introduction of all training as a strategy which an informal trainee.
The TVET training system not conducted separately by TVET colleges’ effort only; rather, it needs an integrated work with different stake holders through cooperative training. Hence, the stake holder organizations they have direct involvement to promote TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial practicality. The TVET Training stake holders depend on the nature of the profession. This indicates different TVET training professions has a linkage with its sector. There were some public organizations that have working cooperatively interface with the TVET colleges’ entrepreneurial training process. Some of these organizations include such as micro and small enterprise .However, the level of cooperation between TVET colleges and the MSEs and other public and private stakeholders in Aksum town was not strong enough. This weak cooperation between the TVET organizations and these organizations was due to the staff members of stake holder organizations were not committed assisted for the youths to self -employment. As a result, many TVET graduated youths in the town waiting and search for public employment due to lack of working cooperatively with the stake holders in the town.
The TVET graduated youths joined in to different task as private sector employee, public sector employee and self-employment .As the finding of this study shows the self-employment graduated youths economy performance is better than the public or private employed. It is obvious that, the TVET graduated youths certified theoretical and practical on their profession, then when they engage in to self-employment they strive to alleviate poverty by investing their profession with in short period of time. Therefore, when compared the economy performance of self-employed and public or private employed of TVET graduated youths’ among similar batch graduated the self-employed youths achieve better economic performance in Aksum town. This study examined the TVET training strategy on developing youths’ entrepreneurial performance. in the Ethiopian TVET strategy, the overall objective of the National TVET Strategy is to create a competent, motivated, adaptable and innovative workforce in Ethiopia contributing to poverty reduction and social and economic development through facilitating demand-driven, high quality technical and vocational education and training, relevant to all sectors of the economy, at all levels and to all people. Accordingly, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) institutes and colleges are specially considered as a major tool to achieve the desired development through creating job opportunities. The Ethiopian TVET training approach realization system that focuses on:
Demand- orientation: this implies all the TVET colleges in Ethiopia have respond to the skills needs and qualification requirement in the labor market based on competitiveness of all economic sector through competent workforce and towards improving people’s employability in the labor market and with regard to self- employability.
Quality and relevance: the TVET system strives for the highest quality and relevance of all TVET offers. In addition this is emphasizing with effective means of quality management through the support of different stake holders to achieve quality standard.
Permeability: the TVET training system promote vertical and horizontal mobility between and progression between different TVET occupations and different qualification levels, and TVET and general higher education’s to create career progression and continuity of learning.
Equal access and equal opportunity: this is the strategy of training that strive social inclusion by increasing overall access to the society by formal non formal and informal training for different targeted group of peoples as equal manner.
Life-long learning: this TVET training system focuses on providing life- long learning opportunity including initial and further training for the group of peoples with the rapidly changing work environment by technological progress and development in work organization.
Flexibility: this is the responding to the change of occupational requirement and to accommodate the different training circumstance and preconditions of the various target groups training on dynamic development of the training offer.
Gender sensitivity: the Ethiopian TVET system deliver all TVET opportunities will be equally accessible to girls and boys, women and men. The TVET training strategist and against girls and boys discrimination rather treating equally in the organization.
Project based training: project based training is purposely established to engage TVET graduated youths in to entrepreneurial activity based on their profession. As the principle of TVET training, every trainee minimally designed one visible project that can be source of bread after the trainee’s graduation. However the TVET colleges of Aksum town not effectively implementing this project based training deliberation in accordance its principle. As a result, many TVET graduated youths in the town not joining in to self-employment due to the absence of s designed project during their training in the colleges.
The TVET colleges in Aksum town motivated for each their trainees to save $100 birr monthly to become the users of MSEs loan delivery strategy that is known as 20% save and 80%) loan accessibility from Dedebit microfinance to be TVET graduated youth’s self-employment. As result, many TVET graduated youths in Aksum town followed loan taking and being self-employment strategy. From this point it is possible to observe that TVET graduated youths in Aksum town have wide employability opportunity. Thus, from the total TVET graduated youth of Aksum town (68.7 percent) of the respondents were gate employability opportunity. This employability opportunity created because of the nature of TVET training system is delivered outcome based through the respecting of practical and theoretical based training and followed assessed the professional competent. This professional competent of the TVET graduated youths leads them to be market demanded as public or private sector and self-employment by investing their professional knowledge, skill and attitude in Aksum town.
The study examined a number of factors that are assumed to have influenced the current state of entrepreneurship in Aksum town. In Aksum town there were different challenges of TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial practice. According the finding of this study, the challenges of TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity. Generally, these challenges classified as personal and environmental challenges of youths entrepreneurial activity. Some of the personal challenges of entrepreneurial activity include lack initial capital to start up new business. On the other hand, many TVET graduated youths face lack of personal interest to engage in to entrepreneurial activity. Similarly, many youths in Aksum town faced lack of experience and self-confidence on leading and operating private business. In addition, many graduated youths in the town want to be public employee than self-employed. On the other side the environmental challenges of TVET graduated youth in Aksum town were include societal influence to engage in to entrepreneurial activity. In addition, lack of selling and manufacturing land, lack of collateral to gate loan accessibility to start up new business and administrative bureaucracy of at any level of administration in the in Aksum town were the challenges of TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity. In addition, funding, teaching plans, donors, human resource, culture and contact with industry were also the challenges of entrepreneurial activity. Moreover family and friends of the TVET graduated youth influenced for them morally and ideally in order to not engage in to self– employment, rather they push them to wait and search public employment opportunity.
This study assessed the strife of the different stakeholders to solve the above listed challenges of youths’ entrepreneurial activity cooperatively with the TVET colleges. Thus, the critical and diverse positions which stakeholders were not taken as their program development demonstrate their role on TVET graduated youths’ employability. However, the TVET colleges of Aksum town exerted their effort to shape all trainees by entrepreneurial thinking. However, due to the lack of the stake holder officers exerted their effort to develop TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity many graduated youths in Aksum town waiting for public employment. This is the result not gate sufficient moral and technical assistance to be self-employment. From the stake holders of TVET graduated youths’ that help to develop youths entrepreneurial activity is the youth affair of Aksum town. However, this office not assisted for TVET graduated youths as an agent to engage immediately after their graduation into entrepreneurial activity.

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5.3 Recommendations
The following recommendations are provided on the role of TVET on developing youths’ entrepreneurial activity. This recommendation uses to enhance the performance of TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity by strengthen working cooperatively among the office of MSEs, TVET colleges, youths affair in Aksum town. This recommendation drowned based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are forwarded.
In order to achieve TVET graduated youth’s entrepreneurial activity the TVET colleges of Aksum town should be delivered, their training based on project based on TVET training strategy. This project based training system uses for TVET graduated youths to develop their entrepreneurial tendency and interest due to their designed project before they become graduated. In addition this project based training help for TVET colleges to meet their organizational goal that focuses on 90% of the total graduated youths of each college being delivered to become an employment either privately and publically. This project based training also uses for the TVTE colleges to develop their project designing skill and experience.
The relationships of TVET colleges with others stakeholders of TVET training should be strengthen by implementing their interface on develop TVET graduated youths’ entrepreneurial activity. This strong degree of cooperation with different stake holders uses for youths to develop their professionalism knowledge, skill and Attitude. If so the TVTE graduated youths become experienced for future business operating process.
The staff members of MSEs of Aksum town should be supported technically and morally for the TVET graduated youths. Hence, the new graduated youths need strong moral and technical assistance to engage into self –employment by delivering continues training. For TVET graduated youth’s needs mobilization and entrepreneurial training to develop their entrepreneurial activity through providing necessary information on how tasks and needs are changing over time since the information link between MSEs and TVET colleges.
The TVET colleges should be assessing the type of occupations which reached market saturated point. Hence, some TVET occupations faced market demand saturating point. Therefore, these occupations should be terminated based on the TVET training strategy.
The challenges of TVET graduated youths on developing their entrepreneurial activity should resolved by every concerned body based on their responsibility. In Aksum town the TVET graduated youths ‘face personal and societal influence on their entrepreneurial activity. Therefore, the societal influence on youths’ entrepreneurial development should be solved by the MSEs staff members by giving educational training for youths and the society to develop entrepreneurial activity. In addition, the personal challenges of TVET graduated youths should be solved through delivering continuous entrepreneurial training to develop their entrepreneurial activity.
The MSEs staff members should be solves the financial scarcity of TVET graduated youths’ through collaborating them with Dedebit microfinance to access them loan opportunity as well as selling and manufacturing land.
The stake holders of Aksum town should be positively collaborated to give practical entrepreneurial activity in order to exercise business practice. This system uses to full fill youths’ entrepreneurial attitude and practice by avoiding their shortage of experience.
The TVET graduated youths of Aksum town should be have entrepreneurial confidentiality though adopting their occupational quality insights that can guarantees their self – employability and private employability out of waiting public employability.
The family and friends’ of TVET graduated youths should be encouraging for the graduated youths to be self – employability rather than de motivating them to not being self – employee and entrepreneurs. Thus, the critical and diverse positions which family and friends take in program development demonstrate their role on employability development.

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Appendix I
Aksum University

College of Business and Economics
Department of Management
Questionnaire on the role of TVET on Developing Youths’ Entrepreneurial Activity in Aksum Town
Dear respondent: the Objective of this questioner is to conduct research on the role of TVET on developing youths’ entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town particularly in Aksum poly Technique College and Aksum Technique College. This study has been conducted for academic purpose. Hence the researcher kindly requests your honest and valuable responses to fill this questioner. Your honest response or information is relevant for the validity of this thesis. I would like to assure you that, any information which gained from you will be treated confidential and use only for scientific study.
Thank you in advance for your cooperation and for your diligent.
Part I: part background of the respondents
Instruction I: Put the mark of “x” in the prepared box in the encircled box for your personal information choice
1. Sex: Male Female
2. Age: 18-22 years old 23-37 above 38 years old
3. type of business: Commercial Manufacturing Employ
4. Level of education: certificate College Diploma Degree
5. Term of graduation: below one year 1- 2 years Above 3 years
6. Have you ever taken any entrepreneurial training on self-employment? yes No
7. If your answer for Q 7 is “yes “for how many times: once twice three times
PART II: Basic Research Questionnaires
Instruction II
Put your answer for the below basic questioners based on code in number in the space on the right side space provided for each option that you requested to be responded with your best answer which given below. The scale of number is represented as 5 =for strongly agree, 4= agree, 3= neutral 2= disagree and 1= strongly disagree which is discussed under the below table:
No Statement / Description Put the code in number in the given tables as: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1

Questions to analysis the employability of TVET graduates
youths in Aksum town
1 TVET graduate youth’s entrepreneurial practice in accordance their trained in Aksum town? 5 4 3 2 1
2 The TVET graduate youths’ want to be self-employ using their entrepreneurial skill and knowledge
3 The TVET graduated youths become employ immediately after they become graduated in TVET colleges
4 The major TVET graduate youths become self-employ using their occupational entrepreneurial performance?
5 The TVET colleges and micro and small enterprise in Aksum town works cooperatively on youths’ entrepreneurial activity
6 the TVET colleges’ graduated youths gate full assistance of micro and small enterprise in terms of capital, technical, morality to be self-employ
Questions to examine the economic performance of TVET graduated youths in Aksum town
7 TVET graduated youths enhance their economic performance after they joined into entrepreneurial activity.
8 If you answer for the above question number 8 is: yes” what type of economic progress do you achieve?

Questions to identify the level of cooperation between TVET and others stockholders of TVET training in Aksum town
9 the TVET colleges efficiently working corporately with the stock holders to create youth’s smooth entrepreneurial opportunity

10 The assistance of micro and small enterprise officers for TVET graduate youths to be an entrepreneurial in Aksum town.

11 Questions which assess the TVET training strategy implementation in relation to youth’s entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town
The TVET training strategy is aims on youth’s entrepreneurial enhancement
12 The designed project based training strategy of TVET is fully joined in to self-employ business practice by the TVET graduated youths in Aksum town
V. Questioner to identify the major challenges of TVET graduates youths to start up new business in Aksum town.
13 Employability and Entrepreneurship of TVET Graduated youths in Aksum town
14 There are challenges of TVET graduated youth’s to be practice entrepreneurial activity in TVET colleges of Aksum town

15 The TVET graduated youths in Aksum town influenced by public employment tendency rather than self-employment.
16 The personal challenge of TVET graduate youths on developing entrepreneurial activity in Aksum town include lack skill on preparing business plan, lack of business initial capital and lack of personal confidence to start up new business.
17 In Aksum town there is lack of youths affair cooperation and motivation for TVET graduated youths to enhance their entrepreneurial activity
18 The role of family and friends influence TVET graduate youths To be self-employ in Aksum town

Thank you for your scarify your golden time and your commitment to answer my questioner
Appendix II
PART I. Interview Check list for OBT Coordinators, Vocational Counselors, youth Affairs and Coordinators of Small and Micro Enterprise in Aksum Town
Interview Questions for OBT and TVET office coordinator
What is the level of TVET graduated youth’s employability rate in Aksum town?
What is the TVET training strategies implement in your college?
What are the basic challenges of TVET training strategies implementation in your college?
How you evaluate the TVET graduated youths entrepreneurial activities in Aksum town?
PART II. Open Ended Questions for the Vocational Counselors’ of the Two TVET Colleges in Aksum town
What is the level of TVET College graduated youths on startup new business in Aksum town?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
When you compare the number of private and public sector employability of TVET graduated youth in Aksum town which sector has the highest employability rate?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
From the 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 TVT colleges graduated youths what percent of them become self-employee?
____________________________________________________________________
INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MSES COORDINATOR OF AKSUM TOWN
Do the TVET graduated youths have visible business plan when they accomplish their training?
What is the tendency of the TVET graduated youths to be self-employed?
How your offices collaborate and organize for the TVET College graduated youths to be self-employed as individually and associational?
What is the economic performance of TVET graduated youths self-employed in Aksum town?
What are the major challenges of TVET graduates youths to not start up new business in Aksum town?
IV. INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR YOUTH AFFAIR COORDINATOR OF AKSUM TOWN
1. Do the youth affair officers work cooperatively with micro and small enterprise officers to promote youths’ entrepreneurial skill?
2. What is the level of cooperation between TVET and Youth affair office to enhance TVET graduated youth’s entrepreneurial development in Aksum town?
3. What are the major challenges of TVET and youth affair not yet promote TVET graduates youths’ start up new business in Aksum town?