The indiscipline cases could be caused psychologically, physically, and physiologically. The students’ behavior such as fighting, crying, shouting, arguing and over activity can be considered normal for the child mental level. Laing ; Chazan (1986) agree by adding that much aggressive behavior is entirely natural, especially in the early years. Peason (2004) talked about some causes of indiscipline includes: The school, the society, wrong ideas, idleness, lack of good leadership, injustice, lack of realistic rules, bad home training and upbringing. Actually, the main functions of school heads involve Implementation of school instructional programs, the welfare of staff and students personal, development and maintain of physical plant and promotion of healthy school-community relationship. There are factors that contribute to the disorder in children adolescents called antisocial behavior. For example, genetic and temperamental predispositions, along with inconsistent and coercive parenting practices-especially when discipline is based on physical punishment, frequent parental discord and conflict-may play some part in contributing to contact disorders (Gabel, 1997, Horne, Glaser, and Calhaun, 1999).
Bullying is a serious problem in US schools system and is receiving increasing attention and has been refers as minor but it is evident that there are serious and lifelong consequences from being bullied at school victims often suffer from lower self-esteem, chronic absenteeism school a voidance, feeling unsafe and insecure in school setting. Bullying disorganizes educational, progress and success. (Espelage ; swearer 2010, Finkelhor 2008 Olweus 1993) Bullying is particularly problematic because schools are institutes of socialization.
However, according to UJ Digispace, other causes include family problems such as divorce and domestic violence, poor teacher-student relationships, and failure of the school to effectively enforce school rules and regulations. The general suggested pathways disciplinary actions may contribute to students’ psychological problems; student misbehavior may be encouraged through ineffective and unintentionally paradoxical learning experiences; and disciplinary practices may damage students’ relationship with school. Lack of cooperation between teachers and parents also causes indiscipline because parents may fail to support teachers in disciplining the students and below are the causes and the effects of indiscipline can be noted as follows:
2.5.1 Parental factors
Home is the first school of the child and as one of the socialization; it becomes mandatory on the parents and senior members of the home to impart into the child the belief system, attitudes and interest of the society through provision of the essential needs of life in psychologically, emotionally and physiologically. Hence, there is need for parents to teach the child the concept of moral, and home trainings (Table manner, eating habits, greetings, good dressing, personal hygiene and respects for elder’s etc.) and social discipline in all ramifications.
Nowadays, parents ignore their duties towards proper upbringing of their children; the school, the society, wrong ideals, idleness, lack of good leadership, injustice, lack of realistic rules and little time is spent with these children which results in moral negligence which is demonstrated by a student. In supportive to this, Lagu (2007) said that children at age two-experience daytime absenteeism to day-care enter school or evening lessons. Among the-family problems mentioned by teachers and attributed as causes of indiscipline at school, the following were mentioned: lack of guidance from the family; bad attitudes and behaviors learned at home; absence of cleared and stable rules; conflict of roles; meddling of grandparents and domestic violence.
The act of instability in families contributes to the indiscipline of students in schools, as nannies, housemaids, and many others by foster parents or in schools by house parents or masters and mistresses brought many of them up. (Gardner1987. Patterson and Stouthamer- Loeber, 1984), three specific parental practices are particularly associated with early conduct problems: (1) a high level of parent-child conflict, (2) poor monitoring, and (3) a low level of positive involvement (Wasserman et al., 1996).
2.5.2 Environmental factors:
Every child is born genetically equal, but a person`s whole being is shaped by how and what circumstances that surrounds the raising and nurturing of the child, which means every child s determines to a large extent the behavior and characteristics that will exhibit by the child when he/she becomes grown up. Soet (2005) stresses that, what a child sees, how it is done, and when it is done, dose not goes out of the child’s mind. The result of environmental influence on children is the power of influence on the behavioral capacity of the child either to be of good behavior or to be of bad behavior, it all depends on the level of his or her exposure to environmental factors. The power of environment on children influences the ways of reasoning, character, and emotional development, and due to this action environment pose a great challenges on children of school age especially when metamorphoses into adolescents.
Today`s society is full of various kinds of atrocities due to the environmental effects on children. The civil war in the country and others has contributed to the situation. Environmental experiences are a second influence of the social learning of violence in children. Albert Bandura reported that individuals that live in high crime rates areas are more likely to act violently than those who dwell in low-crime areas (Bandura, 1976: p.207). This assumption is similar to Shaw and McKay’s theory of social disorganization. They believed that a neighborhood surrounded by culture conflict, decay and insufficient social organizations was a major cause of criminality (Bartollas, 1990: pp.145).
In the light of growing cases of indiscipline in South African schools in quantity and magnitude, the issue of trying to address the challenge becomes imperative (Harber 2001; Thompson2002). Effective and meaningful learning is possible in an environment where learners are disciplined and classroom management is often a headache for many teachers.
The teacher and students relationship is essential for any learning process. If there is a breakdown in this relationship, indiscipline emerges. The effects of media activities frustrate efforts of family socialization of the youth people. Most act such as violence and brutally, indecent dressing, crazy fashion and immorality today are learnt by the young people from the media and all these parents and government appear helpless over the young people.
The economic meltdown of the nations of the world contributed to the high level of indiscipline in schools as everyone in the educational system tries to make both ends meet, resulting to unacceptable ways of making a lot of money to meet up with the demands of livelihood. Psychological problems hamper one’s way of life and because they do not know how to deal with their emotions or self-related and biological problems such as stress and depression. This is mostly account for the level of corruption in the country. Corruption is the major aspect of lives of people children natured in this kind of unhealthy environment are bound to have problems with moral values. All this includes lack of proper funding, inadequate provision of teaching and learning facilities, lack of staff motivation, lack of proper supervision, monitoring and formulation of academic policies and implementation.
2.5.3 School factors:
When school leaders are found of bending moral rule, little do they know that they are unlocking the keys that can destroy them by the way some of them display non-Challenge attitudes towards a student’s indiscipline in schools. The situation is nothing to write home about in most of our public schools were students were left alone without adequate care and monitoring by the teachers and even the principal of the school. Teachers who favor some students in their teaching and classroom management may cause indiscipline.
The other students may see this as a sign that everything is allowed in spite of the rules. Other students may also see this favoritism as offense against them that leads to rebellion. Indiscipline has a very bad effect upon everyone. It is the student who suffers the most. Often, educational institutions are closed down for indefinite period of time and examinations are often postponed. The entire educational machinery goes out of gear. There is a colossal waste of precious and budding human life, namely, the students. Often feeling of provocation and hostility lingers even after the rowdy acts of indiscipline.
2.6 Rule measures
The success or failure of any educational institution depends upon the personality of the head of that educational institution. He must possess some philosophy of discipline. He must have some well-grounded fundamental principles that guide him to his treat the teachers and students. Inculcating good discipline among children at young age, enforcing school rules and regulations more effectively, and cultivating good student-teacher relationships can solve indiscipline among secondary school students.
The teacher is the fountainhead of discipline and character formation. With good teachers, half the problem of school discipline disappears. Besides, his cleverness and originality, every teacher should be a good disciplinarian himself. This will depend on his keen insight, patience, sympathy, love, justice and impartiality. Organize and facilitate training of staff to enhance their capacity to manage challenging behavior.
In every secondary school, students should be properly associated with the administration of discipline as well as with the health, sports, dramatics and community activities in students a sense of self-control and self-confidence, which is the cornerstone of discipline. Such Social co-operation, respect for authority and leadership training can pave the right way of instructing them in the fundamentals of true discipline. If appropriate methods of teaching are employed, the chances of students getting in-disciplined or going stray will be few and far between. Classroom methods should be directed towards producing well-adjusted and self-disciplined individuals and towards the building up of a high morale.
Every school should prepare its calendar in the beginning of new educational session, giving a clear idea of the aims, the courses of study, administrative rules and regulations, the plans of curricular and co-curricular activities and training of teachers on guidance and counseling program. Therefore, the commendable and successful efforts on the part of the students must be recognized and rewarded which does not encourage unhealthy competition among students. A sense of unity, co-operation and fellow feeling, prevailing among the school staff is sure to reflect upon the pupils. The young pupils in schools watch very minutely the activities of their teachers and try to imitate them for good or bad, as the case may be. It is therefore necessary that in order to promote discipline among pupils, it must first be established and maintained among the members of school-staff. The base of discipline should be loved, trust and goodwill as fear or doubt based discipline is quite temporary or momentary.
For maintaining true discipline, there should be loved for each other among school authorities like principal, teachers and students. Love originates trust and sets the foundation of discipline. It is most essential to keep and maintain co-operation between principal and teachers, teachers and lady teachers, teachers and pupils, teachers and guardians and students and students. The guardians should be encouraged for making family life beautiful and comfortable as the child passes most of his time in home. Thus, through various means, the guardians should be motivated for making their family life healthy and adaptable. Act promptly against all forms of student in discipline by way of both preventive actions and restorative justice practices where students assume responsibility for their actions. There is need to establishment of active school-based families in schools to help curb indiscipline in the school. Further research in specific aspects of discipline, for example, role of the church or the surrounding communities, is needed to come up with more creative and innovative approaches to arresting upheavals in our high schools. ?
2.7 Summary of literature review
Discipline is the backbone of the national unity. Citizens of disciplined nations can work more smoothly and are filled with the spirit of unity, brotherhood and co-operation. However, discipline does not mean strictly, the withdrawal of personal liberty and authority.
On the other hand, it provides one with the guideline to use its freedom in a right manner. But that too is possible only if they do not take law in their own hands. Hence, review has discussed and examined secondary school students’ discipline and the factors that contribute to students’ discipline. These include concept of discipline/indiscipline, significance of discipline, types of indiscipline, causes and factors of indiscipline and the summary was part of moral education, which is essential in the development of the society.