The implementation of information and communication technology projects especially for development in the telecommunication sector had been on the increase over the years

The implementation of information and communication technology projects especially for development in the telecommunication sector had been on the increase over the years. However, these projects have been recording high failure rates, possibly, due to poor project scope, design and management. Project sponsors, project managers and project team members must understand the processes and methods involved in managing projects in order to improve upon success rates (United Nations, 2010). Among telecommunication firms, managers of projects (sponsors, project managers, team members and other stakeholders) must see project management as a method, discipline and a process that has a set of tools for planning, implementing, maintaining, monitoring and evaluating the progress of project tasks and activities in order to accomplish organizations’ goals and objectives (United Nations, 2010). Top managers who plan to introduce the project management discipline in telecommunication projects, or who wish to improve existing project performance, must pay attention to socio-cultural background of team members, organizational structures in place, experience and so on. Project management demands quality information, discipline and goal-orientation and requires team-working skills, rather than rigid functional divisions. In summary, key factors to consider as project management elements in ICT projects include; people, process and technology.
The telecom services involved can consist of typical voice services, or Internet services, or software products that are added to the user’s or provider’s network to improve performance or provide functionality. Or they can consist of equipment integrated into the network to provide service or enhance service, such as a LAN that allows the small business to integrate all data services, or the messaging system that allows business users to pick up voice messages on email. Again, there are many types of projects, with differing requirements on the project managers and their teams. Yet despite the specific product related needs, there are also many project management related requirements in common for all of these projects. So, what type of projects might the service provider undertake? Developing a new service Developing new features for an existing service Analyzing the introduction of another company’s competing new highspeed access service, enabling the service provider to determine the best competitive response. Work with a major national customer to implement his network in a way that gives him significant savings, while at the same time improving his service by moving him onto a new broadband network with better management capabilities. Design, implement and manage a network within a conference complex for a group of UN leaders who will be attending a meeting in your city. The communications includes incoming and outgoing voice and data calls to and from the complex, internal communications amongst the Project Planning & Integration xv politicians and their support staff while in the complex, plus a secure LAN within the meeting room itself which allows each politician to communicate and share files with his or her own ‘Sherpa, or knowledgeable assistant’ during the meeting. Managing a serious cable cut in a remote area, in which the cable was carrying over 40 percent of the national backbone traffic, and the redundant backup facility is currently being upgraded, and therefore cannot reliably carry its full traffic capacity Implement a new IPV6 capability in a separate network for customers willing to move to the leading edge protocol Equip the current network with a new billing system which is more flexible that the current one, allowing new rating models to be adopted when desired Move all customer service for medium business clients to one common national call center Introduce a new culture to the employees that is more conducive to determining customer requirements clearly before initiating design of a new service, and provides them with the tools to be able to do this. Somewhere in this continuum we would also find companies who do the research into potential new technologies and products, and who also provide assistance in the technical and management aspects of integrating these upcoming products into the current networks and environments. We can include these under the equipment vendor heading, although not all such companies fall into place in the overall model.

The model for project management that will be assessed is the network provider –EMTEL.

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Scope Management

Executing the scope management phase of a project will allow you to create and maintain the scope management that outlines the deliverables you need to produce by the end of your project.Emtel has to produce the product and it was set to produce.And these must include all the required capabilities and features,meeting the level of quality that was defined.Meeting scope,time then are the three main requirements of Emtel.
Time,scope and cost are completely interlinked.If Emtel run behind in schedule, there are many ways to get back on track but most of them involve spending more money than planned,or cutting back on project scope.

We can start with the PM, and the people on the team. They need a well-defined project, with a scope that can be accomplished within the required timeframes, and the assigned budget. They need to know who all of their primary contacts are. There will also be the support group that will provide ongoing support. They will need to ensure that the technology is correctly set up, and also that the trouble reporting procedures are workable, to allow them to provide high quality technical support. The corporate marketing department will want to ensure that the technologies the hotels use are ones they want to support for the future, and that the selected services are provided at the right price. 24 Project Planning & Integration The sales department wants to ensure that nothing jeopardizes the sale and that no-one interferes with their client relationship. The purchasers for the hotel chain want to ensure that they obtain enough equipment, of the right type, and for the best price. The hotel management at the individual hotels wants to be involved in determining what the guests will see in the room, and what the cost is, as this will impact the rates they charge to the guests, how the charges will be applied (directly, or through the hotel bill), how the guests will obtain support, and what the standards are for the technical support. The hotel guests are concerned about the availability of the service, the operability of the service, and what functionality is provided (eg. Web browsing, or high-speed email, etc.) The manufacturing department will be concerned about the number of units that will have to be supplied, during specific timeframes, and the shipping department will be concerned with the number of units that need to be shipped to different national locations. Hotel security might be concerned about having to send hotel staff into guest rooms in which the physical equipment might have connection problems. Even housekeeping might be involved if they might be saddled with answering questions, and ensuring that each room has the required cables, etc. There will probably be other vendors who are bidding for this opportunity. They will be stakeholders who would really prefer that we fail on this project. And they will come up with many creative ways to ensure that this might happen. We might want to ensure that we have the right sales, marketing and technical support to enable us to anticipate their moves, and be prepared to out manoeuvre them. The shareholders in the vendor company might even get involved, if there are some large shareholders who support, or do not support, this project. But this is usually a more remote possibility.

Influence of the Aspects of Time management Very
Poor % Poor % Neither
Good
Nor
Poor % Good % Very
Good
%
Activity definition 2.7
13.5 18.2 57.5 8.1
Activity Sequencing 2.7 10.8 24.2 54.2 8.1
Activity duration estimating 2.7 13.5 40.5 37.8 5.4
Schedule Development 2.7 13.5 40.5 37.8 5.4
Schedule control 2.7 13.5 43.2 29.7 10.4
During a survey done at Emtel showroom we concluded the table below.

Majority of the respondents 57.5% thought activity definition is sustainable whereas 54.2% thought activity sequencing was good as well. 43.2% of the respondents were not sure about schedule control. Regarding activity duration estimation 40.5% of the respondents rated as neither good nor poor. 40.5% rated schedule development as neither good nor poor. Similarly 37.8% of the respondents agreed that activity duration estimation and schedule development was good. Only 29.7% of the respondents thought schedule control was good. From the results it can be seen that time management has a low rating with regard to implementation of telecommunication network equipment projects in the organization. The importance of activity duration estimation, schedule development and schedule control should be emphasized to those involved in the projects. The purpose of the time – model is to indicate when in the future and in what sequence the planned work is to be performed, so that the intended work and the consequences of any changes, or departures from that intention can be predicted, communicated and managed efficiently. Because, at any one time, the time – model can only be as accurate a prediction of the future as current knowledge will allow, it must be conceived as a model which can be improved upon as information becomes available or circumstances change. In order to facilitate efficient time management, the time – model should be constructed so as to differentiate between work that can be predicted; in outline in the long term; in detail but with some information missing in the medium term; and accurately as to the content sequence and resources to be employed on work which will be carried out in the short term.

Time Management
The purpose of Time management is to create a realistic schedule with the Emtel team.
A schedule in which every tasks of Emtel can be completed for example scratch cards expiry date, promotion on emtel box etc.
Now HOW will they proceed is the question.

Project scope description- Emtel produces services to customer in order for the later to benefit from it like high quality mobile network without bugs and all.Moreover,scratch cards quality should be in par with the World health organisation so as not to affect health of users.

Project Deliverable
These could be could be any of the building blocks of a Emtel including project documents, software of physical objects.

Project Exclusions
These represent things that outside of the project boundaries.

Project Constraints
There are three types of project constraints:

• Technological constraints relate to technologies emtel uses which requires maintainance.

• Resource constraints relate to the lack of necessary resources that may force parallel activities to be performed in sequence.

• Physical constraints may be caused by contractual or environmental conditions.
The reason for identifying them is to highlight possible delays to the completion of the project.

Project Assumptions

Assumptions presume that what you’re planning or relying on is true, real, or certain. For example, your project might require someone with specific technical skills and your assumption is that this person will be available when needed.

Control Scope
The Control Scope process involves monitoring the status of the project and managing changes to the scope.
.
The process involves assessing additional requirements from the customer or proactively overlooking the project scope. Managers measure the work product against the scope baseline to ensure that the project stays on track, helping to prevent any unnecessary changes.

Cost management
Managing a project?s cost starts early during the marketing and sales phase of the project when tentative cost estimates are created. During this phase, estimates are iteratively specified to provide accurate and reliable information to be used in tendering and pricing the delivery project. During the project specification phase, a tentative project budget is set, a specification-to-cost approach is exploited to ensure cost-effective specifications and, typically, the letters of intent with the main suppliers are signed. Before the implementation phase, the project budget is created based on the latest cost estimates. In the project planning phase, the resources for the work tasks are allocated, cash flows are planned and typically cost contingencies are set. During the planning and implementation phases, the actual costs of the project are monitored. In addition, cost estimates and forecasts are constantly updated and then compared with the project budget. In the implementation phase, the project revenues are monitored, invoicing is performed and cost contingencies are released. In some projects, funding is also ensured during the implementation phase.

Influence of the Aspects of Cost management Very Satisfied Satisfied Neither satisfied nor Unsatisfied unsatisfied Very unsatisfied
Resource planning 10.8 43.2 8.1 27 10.8
Selection of estimating method 10.8 40.5 18.9 21.6 8.1
Cost estimation 10.8 37.8 24.3 21.6 5.4
Budgeting 16.2 32.4 18.9 18.9 13.5

The information in the Table reveals that 43.2% were satisfied with resource planning, 40.5% were also satisfied with the selection of estimating method. 37.8% of the respondents were satisfied with cost estimation while 32.4% were satisfied with the way budgeting is done in the organization. Only 27% of the respondents were unsatisfied with resource planning. In agreement with most of the respondents the cost management process is most effective when it is formalized and integrated with the enterprise’s project management policies and procedures. A formalized cost management process ensures that all project personnel in all projects follow a specific set of established procedures. A formal management structure has the added advantage of keeping all project stakeholders involved in, or at least informed of, the performance status of the project, thereby contributing to team spirit and good morale. The objectives of the cost management process are to track progress, compare actual values to planned values.

PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT IN EMTEL
Project Procurement Management and Implementation of Telecommunication Network Equipment Projects Many telecom projects require procurement of equipment of services from outside the company. Most service development projects involve some acquisition – perhaps purchasing ADSL equipment or service components for wireless service. However, in most telecom companies of any size, the purchasing department is responsible for the procurement processes, and this department works closely with project teams. Depending on the organization structure selected for a specific project, the procurement person may actually report to the PM for the duration of the project, or may continue to work within the home department, contributing to the project from there. The project manager and project team also play and integral role in procurement, as they define what is required, produce the specs and handle the control. Project procurement management is more important to project management than most non-project managers realize. Project managers tend to work on one of two types of projects which are; internally funded or externally funded. A tiered arrangement is not uncommon in large complex projects with a customer, a prime contractor and component suppliers , each with a project manager looking after the interests of their employers. As part of this fiduciary responsibility, each project manager needs to understand and manage procurement from
both the buying side of obtaining services and equipment and from the selling side, in terms of preparing tenders or quotes to their particular customer. When conducting procurement, a project manager is exposed to a number of potential sellers all of whom want the project manager’s business. Conducting procurements involves releasing procurement documents to the market, collecting proposals, analyzing those proposals, evaluating them and selecting the preferred seller. Having selected a seller and negotiated a contract, the project manager needs to administer the contract, i.e. track progress, and ensure that what was requested is in fact delivered and that payments are made as appropriate. Often this is left to other parts of the organization to manage; however, it is the project and, thereby the project manager, who experiences any contract mismanagement impacts. As such, the project manager needs to be fully aware of contract progress.
Influence of the Aspects of Very Procurement management poor Poor
Neither good nor poor Good Good Very
Soliciting planning 0 5.4 21.6 64.9 8.1
Solicitation 0 10.8 32.7 51.4 5.4
Source Selection 0

5.4
27 54.1
13.5

Contract adminstration 0 8.1 24.3 48.1 18.9
Contract close out 0 16.2 24.3 45.9 13.5

Project Communication Management and Implementation of Telecommunication Network Equipment Projects

Project communication management is the knowledge area that employs the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval and ultimate disposition of project information. Project communication is the responsibility of everyone on the project team. The project manager, however, is responsible to develop the project communication management plan. Planning communications is the process of determining the project stakeholder information needs and defining a communication approach. The process responds to the information and communications needs of the project stakeholders; for example, who needs what information, when they will need it, how it will be given to them, and by whom. While all projects share the need to communicate project information, the informational needs and methods of distribution vary widely. Identifying the information needs and determining a suitable means of meeting those needs are important factors for project success. Improper communication planning will lead to problems such as delay in message delivery, communication of sensitive information to the wrong audience, or lack of communication to some of the required stakeholders. A communication plan allows the project manager to document the approach to communicate most efficiently and effectively with stakeholders. Efficient communication means providing only the information that is needed. The results of this planning process should be reviewed regularly throughout the project and revised as needed to ensure continued applicability. Communication is a key element of project success in high technology product development projects. Communication is the link between cells, without it nothing would work. The project leader?s management and communication skills need to be in good shape to have control over various stakeholders and keep the project running towards decent lead time and productivity. Communication has also an indirect influence in project financial performance through product concept effectiveness.

Human resource management

The local exchange carriers retain the most experienced technicians in the industry with 61% of technicians having more than 10 years tenure, down from 66% in 1998. There are several other interesting features of their staffing practices. Local carriers have the lowest level of annual rate of quits at 1.6 percent and terminations at 1.2 percent. They have the oldest technician workforce, average age 40. They employ a disproportionately large number of field technicians, approximately 82% of the local exchange carriers’ technicians work in the field, compared to 74% in other segments of the industry. Local carriers are also the most heavily unionized segment of the industry with 97% of the eligible technicians being represented by a union or 63% of total network employees.

Quality management

Quality Planning is identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. Quality Assurance is the evaluation of overall project performance on a regular basis to provideconfidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. Quality Control is defined as the monitoring of specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards, and identifying ways to
eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. Lastly, Quality Management is determining and implementing the quality policy.

If the customer defines the expectations, and the team gets agreement on these, this sets the quality standards. But if the team sets the standards, and the customer doesn’t agree, it doesn’t matter how well the product meets the standards, the client will not be happy. So it is crucial that there be early agreement on the standards. It is recommended that this agreement occur before the project parameters are set. Otherwise the team may not have the right type and amount of resources to meet the quality requirements: a set up for failure. It is the responsibility of the PM to ensure that there is full buyin to the standards at a detailed level, then to manage the expectations as well as the project.
Since quality standards have to be set, these must be communicated, agreement must be reached, work must be monitored, and continued communication is required, it is obvious that there is a cost to producing quality. This cost includes not only the cost of the work mentioned, but also any cost that is incurred to meet the standards that are set. This cost can be considerable. On the other hand, what is the cost of not meeting agreed upon standards? Possibly dissatisfaction with the whole project, which might have consequences like non-payment for the work, non-acceptance without significant rework, loss of future business, difficult working environments if there is future business with the customer.

Steps to quality improvement.

Source: Celia Desmond Project management for telecommunication.

Process of Risk Management

There are different underlying concepts and strategies of risk management which result in different standards on international, national and organisational levels. This becomes especially apparent when it comes to the risk management process. According to Woods (2011), the process involves five main steps: (1) Identification, (2) Assessment, (3) Treatment or Response, (4) Reporting and (5) Controlling or Monitoring

external environment have to be assessed. This suggests that a risk manager needs to have knowledge about the company, its objective, culture, attitude towards risk, the market itself and competitors. Under consideration of all these aspects, he will be able to identify risks and opportunities that might affect the achievement of objectives. A few examples of techniques that can be used in order to identify the risks are brain-storming, questionnaires, checklists, interviews, workshops, flow-charts, inspection, audit, SWOT and PESTLE analyses. After the business risks have been identified, they have to be quantified and prioritised. To be able to determine the likelihood of a risk to happen, the source and the motivation of the threat have to be analysed, as well as, the capability of the source. The combination of the likelihood and the impact of risk can be identified in a likelihood chart or table, which enables the ranking of them by calculating a score for every single risk. Thus, the risk manager will be able to assess the significance of the risk and he can decide where to focus.
TYPES OF RISKS Organisations experience a lot of different and complex risks, which is why it does make sense to categorise them into groups. Major risk categories are explained below. Product and Market Risk Product and market risks arise when introducing a new product and they often go together. If the organisation has just a limited understanding of the market, there is the danger of misreading signals or concentrating on wrong aspects and finally, developing a product that may not be feasible or lacks unique qualities.

1. Risk identification
2. Establishing risk management strategy
3. Assessing risk attitude
4. Risk quantification and assessment
5. Risk Response
6. Inclusion of contingency

1. Risk Identification
Identifying the project risks is the responsibility of the Project Manager,
but everyone associated with the project should assist with this. The PM
should spend some focused time on this, with the team, early in the life of
th e project. However, throughout the project people will continue to identify
risks, and the team should always be prepared to assess these, and to put
plans in place for dealing with potential problems

Just a few sources of risk could be:

• project nature
• project environment
• extended team members
• project stakeholders
• unclear requirements
• unknown or obsolete technologies
• new processes
Product and Market Risk
The Chilli and My.t have over-run the long-established brand Emtel that has simply missed its chance to grab its share of the lucrative smart-phone market at the right time. The company has developed their own range of services, but sales series go slow. The service lacks uniqueness and emtel cannot keep up pace with other service providers. Due to the increasingly strong competition in this market

Strategic Risk
After having teamed up with Canal plus, Emtel’s CEO described this alliance and the development of the service as Emtel’s principal strategy . However, emtel not the only manufacturer that uses the platform. The day emtel box was launched, My.t also brought a Wifi Dongle in the market and Chilli was also planning to introduce a wifi services with the new technology just a few weeks after the launch of the emtel box.
Political Risk
Emtel has a wide production, which means that political risk plays an important role in decision-making. Outsourcing brings massive political risks with it, like culture alignment, hidden costs, quality issues and the theft of data and intellectual property, which is especially important in the mobile network industry.
Environmental Risk
All over the Mauritius, masses of network electronics are causing problems, and as one of the leading mobile servicer, Emtel plays an important part. Furthermore, Emtel is in a battle with its competitors to be more sustainable, create “greener” devices and use better and more recycle material. As Emtel has already been overtaken in the development of innovative technology, it might also face the risk of being too slow in the development and implementation of measures in regards to sustainability and environment protection. Their suppliers are another risk factor for the company because they might produce the individual parts under bad environmental conditions, or use raw materials that come from an unfriendly and morally questionable background. To find out where every component comes from exactly is a big challenge for every manufacturer that purchases parts from all over the world. In addition, Emtel has to ensure the health and safety of all its workers which might be hard to control.

Reputation Risk
Emtel is at risk of losing its reputation, especially because of the recent lay-offs of employees (30 in 2011 and 10 in 2012) and the shift of production toward internet. They have been named “grasshoppers” which in German is a metaphor for something that might be best described as “corporate raiders” means an organisation that exploits one service after another and moves on. Apart from their reputation as a fair and good employer and a responsible organisation, Emtel is losing its image of a manufacturer of innovative services. During recent years, all the financial, environmental, strategic, product and market risk eventually reflect the organisation’s reputation and its reputation might be damaged and with that there is the risk of the whole organisation going down.

NOKIA’S STRATIGIES TO MANAGE RISKS

Alliances
The purpose of alliances in the business world is the sharing (transferring) of risks and resources. Currently Emtel is working in collaboration with Canal plus, who is providing them with new services. Thanks to this alliance, Emtel has been able to increase their offer of applications from 6,00 to 80,0.

Market Research and Marketing

Emtel has to understand the markets and to analyse and predict future demands, which is why accurate market research is essential. The company has to improve in this area, and might want to think about bringing in new people, methods or even hiring a special agency for these tasks, to avoid mistakes like group-think and too narrow assessments that have been made in the past. On the basis of clear results from market research, target groups can be established and appropriate marketing measures can be implemented. With this the consumers’ perception of the brand Emtel will improve which will help to mitigate reputation risk.
Insurance
The traditional way of hedging risk is by transferring them to insurance companies. For Nokia, this can be used as a treatment for several risks, such as political risk, turmoil, war, terrorism, catastrophic events, failed products, accidents etc. Equity risk, for example, can be treated by reinsurance or hedging.

Integration Management.

The degree of integration of the enterprises in the telecommunications markets is high. Since the organizational structure of the majority of domestic corporations built and implemented over the holding type, then in the post-industrial economy, they are less adapted to the effective operation and development of the competitiveness of individual elements of corporations and corporations in general, which, in turn, requires more flexibility from large enterprises. Forms of integration of business structure, based on the networking of participants in the process of combining the specific interests and resources in creation of value, have confirmed their advantage over the forms of integration, based on mergers and acquisitions, with the size presets and direct transaction costs, less investment in the implementation of the value chains,same goes for Emtel network provider.

CONCLUSION
Although the mobile phone industry environment has changed drastically, Nokia has yet to adopt its strategies to realise the changes. However, in business, one regress as soon as one stops progressing, which has caused exactly the problems Nokia is facing. In order to get back on the track and create new opportunities, a company has to be daring and take new risks. One of the important principles it should apply is a very thorough risk management, because enterprise risk management helps an entity get to where it wants to go and avoid pitfalls and surprises along the way. This way should lead to innovation and continuous change, but yet it is questionable, if Nokia will be able to bridge the gap with the competitors like Apple, Samsung and HTC and if the evolutionary process of the survival of the fittest will eventually bring an end to the once most successful mobile phone manufacturer of the world.