The studied on the women’s autonomy and
The authenticity of the results increases when it is validates with literature related to it. The present study design is a purposive sampling techique. Findings of the study regarding gender power dynamics on reproductive health decisions among married women in Pakistan. Anwar, Shoaib, & Javaid (2013) studied on the women’s autonomy and their role at household decision making.Today,women are so empowered and autonomous due to education,knowledge,awareness and freedom of speech.138married women were selected from four villages of Tehsil Sambrial,Sialkot.The study concluded that there is a positive relation between women’s autonomy and their role in decision making at household level that shows that in Pakistan,women are still less empowered and dependent on their male members of the family (Anwar, Shoaib, & Javaid, 2013).
The findings of the present study reveal that there is a significant difference between scores of the use of family planning methods and work status. In this study, we found that employed women have more autonomy in family planning decisions than unemployed women. Employed women used more contraceptive techniques than unemployed women. Most of the women reported that withdrawal is an effective method. Most of the respondents reported that financial situations and desire for a daughter may be a hurdle among the size of family planning.Similar findings were seen in the research by Arooj et.,al (2012) focusing on Married Women having paid work & education are more likely to participate in decision making. Independence of women’s autonomy is positively associated with employment, education, number of living children and age. Educated women have consent of marriage (93.3%), have autonomy to purchase their household items (46.7%), have political autonomy (86.7%) whereas illiterate women having no purchasing power (0.0%) and political decision making (77.8%) .Contraceptive use is significantly associated with decision autonomy than autonomy of movement (Arooj et.al.,2013).
In the present study, the results indicated that there is no difference between women’s household decision-making power among educated and uneducated married women. This is also supported by the findings of Fatima’s study (2014) that equal response was noted about the women’s household autonomy.The study revealed that the low levels of empowerment among women are a serious concern, especially in developing countries. In the case of Pakistan, the statistics show that women lag behind men in most areas, including educational attainment and labor force participation. A possible reason for the lack of significance at the household level may be that women within a household tend to have similar levels of schooling, i.e., education varies mostly across rather than within households (Fatima, 2014).
On the other hand, Matthews et al. (2005) measured the women autonomy by the frequency of purchasing important household items. We found in this study that usually women purchase household items for daily use herself. In Pakistani society, usually women take care of house so they better know about the required appliances of household. That’s why women are mostly purchase these items which show women autonomy because they can continue purchasing these things if they are not stopped by anyone from the household. In the study it was found that most women often buy household items (Shoaib, Saeed ; Cheema, 2012).
In the present study, the finding indicated that there is no difference between the scores of age and contraceptive use. It may be said that mostly women were between 20-30 years of age in our present research. According to the TDHS, the use of any contraceptive method varies according to the age of the women. The current use of any method is at its lowest among currently married women aged 15–19 (KISA, ZEYNELOGLU, ; DELIBAS, 2013). And the in the current research the finding also illustrates that 53% women reported that they used condom under aged 20-30 years.76% participants in this study had used contraceptive vaginal ring.63% women used female condom to avoid pregnancies. Only 20% participants preferred the withdrawal method, which is not a modern method.
In the present study, the findings ndicated that there is significant results between educated and family planning methods. In this study, the educational level was positively linked with the usage of contraceptives.
In the literature, it is well established that the use of contraception has increased with education and that being exposed to education have a significant effect on the behavior of an individual. The study in Kenya also found that even after controlling for husband’s education and other relevant factors, a woman’s education is positively associated with use of contraception (Saleem, n.d.).
In Pakistan, men are dominating in decision making power especially in family planning. It may be said that most of respondents did not allow their wives to practice family planning because their wives were in young age and those who allowed their wives were in old age (Ayub, Kibria, ; Khan, n.d.). In Pakistan, there was high demand for contraception among but usage was quite low (Tabassum,Manj, Gunjial, ; Nazir, n.d.).