Table Theories of leadership and management PAGEREF _Toc510031208
Table of Contents TOC o “1-3” h z u I.Introduction. PAGEREF _Toc510031204 h 2II.
Definition and roles of both managers and leaders. PAGEREF _Toc510031205 h 31.Definition PAGEREF _Toc510031206 h 32.Differences between management and leadership PAGEREF _Toc510031207 h 3III.
Theories of leadership and management PAGEREF _Toc510031208 h 51.Theories of leadership PAGEREF _Toc510031209 h 52.Leadership style PAGEREF _Toc510031210 h 63.Management theory PAGEREF _Toc510031211 h 74.Apply in the case PAGEREF _Toc510031212 h 9IV.
Chaos theory and management by objectives PAGEREF _Toc510031213 h 91.Chaos theory PAGEREF _Toc510031214 h 92.Management by objectives PAGEREF _Toc510031215 h 103.Applying to Tesco PAGEREF _Toc510031216 h 10References PAGEREF _Toc510031217 h 11Introduction.Tesco is a British multinational trading company. It was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen. Tesco is the leading retailer in the world.
The company operates 3,956 stores, under 5 models, in 13 countries. The smallest, Express, is also a model for the Fresh & Easy store in the US, focusing on fresh produce and processed foods labeled Tesco. A slightly larger size is the “Metro” type store and the largest is the “Tesco Extra” store with an area of over 18,000 square meters, not only for food, but for electronics, clothing and accessories. Appliances.Recently, Tesco launched the Homeplus chain, selling everything except food.
Other strengths of Tesco are their own labeling products. While US retailers are still struggling to convince consumers that their own labels are as good as big names, Tesco branded products accounts 60 % of sales in many countries. Some of Tesco’s premium products, such as yogurt or chocolate Tesco Finest, also sell up to 50% more than the likes of Cadbury and Danone.
CITATION ??n09 l 1033 (Lê, 2009)Like all other companies, even Tesco follows a certain hierarchical structure according to which the business positions and responsibilities are divided into many parts so that proper and smooth working can take place and that the workplace is always well coordinated. The ones at the top of the business pyramid have the maximum responsibilities and power.Chairman:Next in line of the TESCO business hierarchy is the Chairman who is the chairman or head of the board of directors and plays an important part of the decision making process.
The chairman of the board is the person who plays a key role in the decision-making process. And the company’s goals are set by the chairman. The chairman cannot make these decisions alone so he is helped by his colleges (other directors).
From the board of directors, these goals are passed on to the CEO, who transfers it to the geographic manager after being resolved. From there the targets are passed to the regional managers.CEO:He is the manager of the managers and the head of the administrative staff.Senior Vice President and CFO:Both the Senior Vice President and CFO come at the same level of business position in TESCO. The senior vice president reports to the president and handles many important duties. He is also the head of the finance departments and handles the money matters.Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer (COO):Persons in this position are responsible for handling the daily workplace tasks.
This is a high level position and a highly responsible position. Senior Vice President of Top Drive and Surface Produce Vice President of Manufacture and General Manager:As far as the manufacturing division is concerned, the vice president holds a key role. He is also currently the general manager who supervises the duties of all the other managers of the company. CITATION Jan14 l 1033 (Orozco, 2014)Definition and roles of both managers and leaders.DefinitionLeaderLeaders must have three elements: vision, inspiration, and influence.
They have the ability to create visions for an organization or group and using their power to influence those who follow it.According to Stogdill, leaders must always be defined with the attachment of personality, behavior, influence on others, interactions, relationships, managerial positions, and another view of the legitimacy of power and influence creation.House defines that a leader is an individual who is capable of influencing, stimulating and encouraging others to contribute to the effective and successful activities of their organization. CITATION Quý18 l 1033 (Quý Ngô, n.d.
)ManagerManagers are those who work in the organization, control the work of others and take responsibility for their performance. Managers are the ones who plan, organize, lead and control people, finances, material and information effectively to achieve goals.Differences between management and leadershipLeadershipImpact and concern for people:Leadership is the process of influencing people so that they try to volunteer and enthusiastically strive to achieve the goals of the organization. Leaders are not behind to motivate or urge, they put themselves first, motivating people to accomplish the goal set.Orientation:Communicating the overall goal of the organization for people to understand. Attaching people to personal goals and team goals to support broader goals. Management of high standards and good results: Regardless of how much decision sharing you have and how well you connect with people, you are still responsible for achieving results and achieving goals.
Maintain high standards, for you, and for the people you lead. This means dealing with people that work inadequate.Be a good role model CITATION Lan06 l 1033 (Dao, 2006)ManagementEmployee trainingManagers will give subordinates the direction of the business and the way to do it. They are instructors and trainers for subordinates. The purpose of training is to grow the business by enhancing the human potential of the business.PlanningPlanning is one of the management functions as well as the daily work of every manager. Managers are the ones who plan the future of the organization and think about the way to implement it and the resources it needs.
Motivating employeeOrganizationOrganization is one of the next steps in planning and motivating. Without a degree of organization, your business will be disturbed. Because every business has many different parts, opinions and behaviors. So organization is a part of the manager that makes the difference of the business.
AuthorizeSuccessful managers will know how to deliver the right people. We cannot find good managers without empowerment. Empowering employees is also the way we see the difference between a successful manager and a bad manager. CITATION Joh17 l 1033 (Reh, 2017)Applying to this case of TescoBerian is a true leader. He manages his team well to ensure they can produce the right products to meet their needs at key times. He received all the comments from other members of the group.
So his employees may feel comfortable introducing ideas to improve productivity. In addition to creating a comfortable environment for the staff, Berian is able to build relationships with employees through which he not only gets the information he needs, understands the aspirations of his subordinates, Appropriate policies and solutions in the management process, but also a great incentive for employees to work better.Theories of leadership and managementTheories of leadershipTrait theory of leadershipThis theory postulates that people are either born or not born with the qualities that predispose them to success in leadership roles. That is, that certain inherited qualities, such as personality and cognitive ability, are what underlie effective leadership.
Transactional leadershipTransactional leadership is a work-oriented leader in which a leader delegates authority to an employee with a specific guidance. Employees have an incentive based on rewards or penalties agreed upon with the leader.Transformational leadershipTransformational leadership is a relationship-oriented leader.
Leaders inspire their employees, motivate their employees with values, trust their followers, believe in creativity, capacity of followers.Behavioral theoryBehavioral leadership is one of the oldest leadership theories developed by Lewin (1890-1947). Accordingly, Lewin said that leaders often have one of three leadership styles: autocratic, democratic, and laissez faire. Later scholars have added to this doctrine some new leadership styles.
Kurt Lewin’s behavioral leadership, however, is still considered the most universal and the practical value of this theory remains intact in today’s business and governance context.Situational theoryThis theory assumes that no leadership style is optimal. Instead, effective leadership is based on addressing specific situations.
Great man theoryThis may be the earliest theory of leadership theory. This theory holds that leadership is innate rather than exercised. The leader is someone who has been endowed with the qualities of leadership, which is the qualities that make him always attract others, have the ability to dedicate and insight stand out. Anyway, that person will take charge of the leadership.
According to this theory, the leader is the “great”, the “outstanding” personality with innate characteristics that outperform other individuals in contemporary society. This theory focuses all attention on the individual’s leadership, without regard to external circumstances. This is the point that most critics. In fact, successful leaders also have to understand the external environment, understand the leader, and the conditions for executing their leadership.
CITATION Osc18 l 1033 (Guzman, n.d.) CITATION Tr?12 l 1033 (Hoa, 2012)Leadership styleLaissez-faire leadershipThis type of leader is not directly involved in the decision-making process and places a lot of trust in his staff.
However, they still know what is going on when they need it. The advantage of this type of leadership is that it helps employees feel valued and confident in their own abilities. But it will reveal a major shortcoming when employees begin to find themselves able to abuse the credibility of leaders to make decisions beyond their control.Autocratic leadershipThe autocratic leaders will control everything, make all decisions, and will not let anyone speak out during the work. In fact, this style of leadership is well suited to situations of urgency, where decisions must be made quickly, drastically, or when you are the most sober and knowledgeable person on the subject.
This style should not be applied consistently because it is easy for employees to feel unloved and respectful.Democratic leadershipThis leadership style is the neutrality of the authoritarian and authoritarian leadership. The boss listens to the opinions of all employees, but will still make the final decision. If you are in the democratic leadership style, you have just won the hearts of your employees and have the space to show your leadership. Only in fast-paced environments, should decisions be made in the short term, then democratic leadership can make things stagnant.The Transactional LeaderDo good to be rewarded, done badly fined.
That is the style of transactional leadership. If you follow this type of leadership, you will have to be as thorough in your work as possible, and have to lay down a rewarding and rewarding mechanism. The good part of the leadership style is that you will ensure fairness in your work, and the staff will not complain because everything has a reward / punishment policy. But be careful because your employees may lose motivation if they are penalized for transient, unintentional mistakes while working.The Transformational LeaderThis leadership style is very psychological, trustworthy and modest. They have a vision and inspire every employee about that vision, so that they all grow together. Transformational leadership has many advantages, as you will maximize your employees’ performance if they are motivated enough to inspire them.
It’s only true if your employees do not agree and do not feel connected to the vision you give them. CITATION wal17 l 1033 (wallstreetenglish, 2017)Management theoryManagement by objectivesManagement by objectives (MBO) is a system that manages the organization’s goal alignment with the performance of individual and organizational development with the participation of all levels of management. Starting by identifying the goals of the highest level, then defining the goals and targets of the lower levels or in the shorter term. MOB manage entire work based on objective measurement and goal-based execution plan.Classical managementAppearing at the beginning of the twentieth century, classical management theory included two major management theories:Bureaucracy (Max Weber)Bureaucracy is an administrative system designed to carry out large-scale administrative tasks by systematically coordinating the work of many individuals. Weber has observed three types of power in the organization: traditionally based, credible and based on legitimacy or bureaucracy. Max Weber has come up with the ideal management of management, which is the management of power, organizations that carry out management work through positions.
Weber’s theory is widely accepted in the general administration especially in the public administration and military administration.The main elements of Max Weber’s management theory include:The role of the job is clearly defined.A hierarchy of agencies.Standardization procedures.
Detailed text.Labor recruitment if they meet specific standards for bureaucracy are phenomena of many organizations in different social regimes, and are closely linked to the trend of rationalization human movement. CITATION qua18 l 1033 (quantri, n.d.)Henri Fayol’s management theoryFayol’s theory is to look at management issues at the whole enterprise management organization, look at top-down management, focusing on high leadership with the basic functions of the manager.
He attributes the success of management not only to the virtues of managers, but principally to their directives and the methods they use. High level managers have to be able to cover, while for the lower level the expertise is the most important. Management ideology is consistent with modern business systems, and from those principles (in industry) can be applied to the management of other types of organizations.
The problems that Fayol’s theory has solved quite clearly are the implications of the management concept, the basic functions of management, organizational structure, and the operating principles of the organizational apparatus.He defined management functions including planning, organizing, controlling, coordinating and controlling. This is an overview of the management functions, ensuring smooth and efficient operation. The management function only affects people, is the management of social organization for people (not direct impact on raw materials, equipment …).
Fayol is the theory of social organization. Fayol distinguishes leadership from management, in which management is only a means of ensuring leadership in order to achieve the goals of the whole organization. And therefore the chief activity of the leader is to promote the effects of management through management activities to promote the organization’s activities.
Fayol also outlines the principles of management for flexible use:Division of workMatched authority and responsibilityThe scalar chain of commandUnity of commandSubordination of individual interestsBehavioral managementBehavior management was born in the 1920s and 1930s, due to the change in the economic context. The proponents of this approach in governance point out that it is important to place people at the center of attention in the organization’s activities.Contingency TheoryTraditional organization theory researchers believe that optimal structures can be identified for all organizations (Fayol, 1949; Taylor, 1911; Weber, 1946).
However, in practice the organizational structure has changed significantly. Contemporary theorists argue that there is no single “best” organizational structure for organizations. The performance of an organization depends on its suitability for organizational structure and contextual variables such as environment, strategy, technology, scale, culture (Chenhall 2007).
Appropriate theories between organizational structure and context variables are collectively referred to as contingency theory. CITATION lua18 l 1033 (luanvan, n.d.
) CITATION Nga11 l 1033 (Ngan, 2011)Apply in the caseBerian is a democratic leader. Because he allows staff to contribute ideas and implement work according to the capacity of each person. In addition, by agreeing to split the time off to maintain productivity, Berian not only helps the company produce the right products to meet the needs at key times but also promotes the morale of the employees, making them more confident to continue to contribute more creative ideas to the company.With the characteristics of a democratic leader, Berian has created a comfortable working environment for his staff.
But more importantly, he can create closer relationships with his employees through which he can also inspire his staff so they have better solutions. Besides, he also believes in his staff so he allows the team to be responsible for achieving the desired result. Though the final decision is still Berian. In addition, Berian set a clear goal for the group.
From the above characteristics, Berian is a leader pursuing transformational leadership theory. Chaos theory and management by objectivesChaos theoryIn organizational development, chaos theory is part of general chaos theory that combines the principles of quantum mechanics and presents them in a complex systemic environment. To the observer the system seems to be in turmoil.
The organizational development of a business system is the management of that chaos. Concepts from recent chaos theory have been applied as a model to explain organizational change and understanding of organizational behavior. CITATION Ray95 l 1033 (Raymond Thietart, 1995)Management by objectivesPeter Drucker’s goal-setting approach was introduced in 1954, because of its simplicity and efficiency, it was used by many businesses such as Google, Apple, Metro Cash & Carry. The essence of goal management is to establish, link the goals together with actions towards the goals of every employee in the company. An important part of objective management is to measure and compare the actual performance of employees with the standards. Ideally, employees are involved in setting goals and selecting action plans, they will be more likely to fulfill their responsibilities.
According to George S. Odiorne, objective management systems can be considered as a process in which managers and employees jointly identify common goals, expectations of management for employees, and use of Measurement measures the direction of the organization’s performance and evaluates the results of the individual.Modern management today applies targeted management as a component of human resource management. CITATION ihc17 l 1033 (ihcm, 2017)Applying to TescoTesco is the company that applies the MBO theory. Because they encourage the creativity and initiative of their subordinates, they are involved in setting goals and responsibilities for fulfilling the requirements and effectiveness of each person’s work.References BIBLIOGRAPHY Anon.
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