TABLE OF CONTENT Research Topic

TABLE OF CONTENT
Research Topic:
Why are so many teenagers suffering from depression and anxiety?
Introduction
Depression is more than just a low mood – it’s a serious condition that affects your physical and mental health
In an anxiety-related disorder, your fear or worry does not go away and can get worse over time. It can influence your life to the extent that it can interfere with daily activities like school, work and/or relationships. Fear, stress, and anxiety are “normal feelings and experiences” but they are completely different than suffering from any of the seven diagnosable disorders plus substance-induced anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and trauma- or stressor-related disorders.

While depression is often considered a low energy state and anxiety is considered a high energy state, anxiety and depression are more related than people think. Inside, a depressed person often experiences a lot of anxiety – even leading to panic attacks.

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Of course, having panic attacks can itself be a depressing thing. Any lack of control within our lives can contribute to depression.

Link between Depression and Anxiety
Anxiety and depression disorders are not the same although there are similar elements. Depression generates emotions such as hopelessness, despair and anger. Energy levels are usually very low, and depressed people often feel overwhelmed by the day-to-day tasks and personal relationships so essential to life.

A person with anxiety disorder, however, experiences fear, panic or anxiety in situations where most people would not feel anxious or threatened. The sufferer may experience sudden panic or anxiety attacks without any recognized trigger, and often lives with a constant nagging worry or anxiousness. Without treatment, anxiety and depression disorders can restrict a person’s ability to work, maintain relationships, or even leave the house.

Both anxiety and depression treatment are similar, which may explain why the two disorders are so often confused. Antidepressant medication is often used for anxiety and depression and behavioural therapy frequently helps people overcome both conditions.

Why are Depression and Anxiety linked?
Believed to be caused in part by a malfunction of brain chemistry, generalized anxiety is not the normal apprehension one feels before taking a test or awaiting the outcome of a biopsy. A person with an anxiety disorder suffers from what President Franklin Roosevelt called “fear itself.” For a reason that is only partially known, the brain’s fight-or-flight mechanism becomes activated, even when no real threat exists. Being chronically anxious is like being stalked by an imaginary tiger. The feeling of being in danger never goes away.

Being both anxious and depressed is a tremendous challenge. Clinicians have observed when anxiety occurs together with depression, the symptoms of both depression and anxiety are more severe compared to when each disorder occurs alone. Moreover, the symptoms of depression take longer to resolve, making the illness more chronic and more resistant to treatment.

Research Problem
Depression and Anxiety is a caused and is a problem because of the following:
By Meghan W. in Mental Health ; Coping 22/05/2013
Adolescence can be a very turbulent and difficult time, even for the well-adjusted teen. Depression strikes teenagers and adults alike, and can have far-reaching implications when young people suffer from emotional difficulties that they aren’t sure how to manage. After noticing the signs of depression it is important to get the help and treatment you need and to understand the root of your depression. This can help to make the situation more manageable for everyone involved. While this is by no means a comprehensive list of all causes of teen depression, these ten situations can be very common contributing factors to depression.

Academic Stress – Teens are under an enormous amount of pressure to succeed academically, especially as the costs of higher education rise and more families are reliant upon scholarships to help offset the expense. Stressing over classes, grades and tests can cause you to become depressed, especially if you’re expected to excel at all costs or are beginning to struggle with your course load.

Social Anxiety or Peer Pressure – During adolescence, you are learning how to navigate the complex and unsettling world of social interaction in new and complicated ways. Popularity is important to most teens, and a lack of it can be very upsetting. The appearance of peer pressure to try illicit drugs, drinking or other experimental behaviour can also be traumatic for teens that aren’t eager to give in, but are afraid of damaging their reputation through refusal.

Romantic Problems – In adolescence, romantic entanglements become a much more prominent and influential part of life. From breakups to unrequited affection, there are a plethora of ways in which budding love lives can cause teens to become depressed.

Traumatic Events – The death of a loved one, instances of abuse or other traumatic events can have a very real impact on anyone, causing them to become depressed or overly anxious. In the aftermath of a trauma, it’s wise to keep an eye out for any changes in your behaviour or signs of depression.

Separating or Divorcing Parents – Divorced or separated parents might be more common today than it was in generations past, but that doesn’t mean that the situation has no effect on emotional wellbeing. The dissolution of the family unit or even the divorce of a parent and step-parent can be very upsetting for teens, often leading to depression.

Heredity – Some people are genetically predisposed to suffer from depression. If a parent or close relative has issues with depression, you may be suffering from a cruel trick of heredity that makes you more susceptible.

Family Financial Struggles – You may not be a breadwinner in your household or responsible for balancing the budget, but that doesn’t mean that you’re unaffected by a precarious financial situation within the family. Knowing that money is tight can be a very upsetting situation, especially if you’re worried about the possibility of losing your home or the standard of living you’re accustomed to.

Physical or Emotional Neglect – Though you may seem like a fiercely independent being that wants or needs nothing from your parents, you still have emotional and physical needs for attention. The lack of parental attention on either level can lead to feelings of depression.

Low Self-Esteem – Being a teenager isn’t easy on the self-esteem. From a changing body to the appearance of pimples, it can seem as if Mother Nature herself is conspiring against you to negatively affect your level of self-confidence. When the self-esteem level drops below a certain point, it’s not uncommon to become depressed.

Feelings of Helplessness – Knowing that you’re going to be affected on a personal level by things you have no control over can easily throw anyone into the downward spiral of depression. Feelings of helplessness and powerlessness often go hand in hand with the struggle with depression, and can make the existing condition even more severe.

It’s important that you speak to a medical professional or your doctor about any concerns you have regarding your emotional wellbeing, especially if you suspect that you may be suffering from depression. Depression is a very real affliction that requires treatment, and is not something that should be addressed without the assistance of a doctor. Your general practitioner or paediatrician should be able to help you determine the best course of action if you are dealing with depression, including referrals to a therapist or medication.

Research Objectives
I want to know and understand why so many teenagers are suffering from depression and find ways or solutions to help them.

I want to understand what leads to depression in both adults and teenagers.
I want to find out where their depression comes from and what exactly causes it.

Recognize the importance of effective detection and treatment of depression in adults and teenagers.

Identify manic and hypomanic symptoms associated with bipolar disorder in depressed people.

Formulate management plans for the longitudinal care of people with depression.

Develop prevention plans, including health education and behavioural change strategies, for anyone with depression
Research Design
Cohort Design
I chose this design because it closely relates to my research topic and the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.
According to RV Labaree, it is often used in the medical sciences, but also found in the applied social sciences, a cohort study generally refers to a study conducted over a period of time involving members of a population which the subject or representative member comes from, and who are united by some commonality or similarity. Using a quantitative framework, a cohort study makes note of statistical occurrence within a specialized subgroup, united by same or similar characteristics that are relevant to the research problem being investigated, rather than studying statistical occurrence within the general population. Using a qualitative framework, cohort studies generally gather data using methods of observation. Cohorts can be either “open” or “closed.”
Open Cohort Studies involve a population that is defined just by the state of being a part of the study in question (and being monitored for the outcome). Date of entry and exit from the study is individually defined, therefore, the size of the study population is not constant. In open cohort studies, researchers can only calculate rate based data, such as, incidence rates and variants thereof.

Closed Cohort Studies static populations, such as patients entered into a clinical trial involve participants who enter into the study at one defining point in time and where it is presumed that no new participants can enter the cohort. Given this, the number of study participants remains constant (or can only decrease).

What do these studies tell you? (Advantages)
The use of cohorts is often mandatory because a randomized control study may be unethical. For example, you cannot deliberately expose people to asbestos, you can only study its effects on those who have already been exposed. Research that measures risk factors often relies upon cohort designs.

Because cohort studies measure potential causes before the outcome has occurred, they can demonstrate that these “causes” preceded the outcome, thereby avoiding the debate as to which is the cause and which is the effect.

Cohort analysis is highly flexible and can provide insight into effects over time and related to a variety of different types of changes e.g., social, cultural, political, and economic, etc..

Either original data or secondary data can be used in this design.

What these studies don’t tell you? (Disadvantages)
In cases where a comparative analysis of two cohorts is made e.g., studying the effects of one group exposed to asbestos and one that has not, a researcher cannot control for all other factors that might differ between the two groups. These factors are known as confounding variables.

Cohort studies can end up taking a long time to complete if the researcher must wait for the conditions of interest to develop within the group. This also increases the chance that key variables change during the course of the study, potentially impacting the validity of the findings.

Due to the lack of randomization in the cohort design, its external validity is lower than that of study designs where the researcher randomly assigns participants.

Sampling Design
Purposive or Judgmental Sample
A purposive or judgmental sample is one that is selected based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study. 
Advantages
1. It reaches a targeted sample quickly.Purposive sampling provides options. When a targeted sample needs to be reached quickly, the different types of sampling make it possible to make generalizations from the results that are being studied.

2. There are numerous types available.Purposive sampling has 7 different primary types. This allows researchers to find homogenous samples, perform typical case sampling, seek out deviant case sampling, or look at characteristics from an entire population.

3. Research designs can involve multiple phases.Each phase in purposive sampling can build upon the previous one. That means different sampling technique types can be used in each phase, which makes it possible to achieve a wider range of non-probability sampling for researchers to draw conclusions upon. It allows for identifying phenomena that may require further investigation.

Disadvantages
1. Proportionality is a problem.Purposive sampling does not account for proportionality as one of its primary concerns. The goal is to find a range of cases to provide as much insight as possible in the fastest amount of time.

2. It is prone to researcher bias.Purposive sampling is based on the researcher. That means their conscious or unconscious bias goes into the data being collected. That bias may make the data seem to be valid, but it can also influence the data and provide false results.

3. It can be difficult to defend.Because researchers use their judgment in selecting cases, people, or targets for purposive sampling, it can be difficult to defend the conclusions that are reached from the data. Readers typically need additional convincing through other forms of data gathering to find that the results from this type of sampling are valid.

These purposive sampling pros and cons show that it can be a fast form of data collection. They also show that there is an inherent bias that researchers must account for in their work to validate the data they collect.

Literature Review
After reading and researching information about depression and anxiety I have discovered that so many suffer in silence especially in black communities or black families. And this because black parents are not informed or they do not understand what it is exactly. For teenagers it comes across as a “phase” or as one attention seeking and that leads to suicidal thoughts and isolation and feeling unloved by parents.

Depression in teenagers is caused by even “little” things like fitting in a group of friends. It could cause one to question themselves even when there is absolutely nothing with them, or not even the clothes one wears or affords.
Furthermore, I discovered that it is not only teenagers that suffer or fall into depression and anxiety but adults too. I have come to a realization that everyone out there is fighting a battle that no one knows about or understand.
Like in the beginning of the assignment or the research it is explained that depression is more than just a low mood – it’s a serious condition that affects your physical and mental health. Meanwhile, anxiety is a person with anxiety disorder, however, experiences fear, panic or anxiety in situations where most people would not feel anxious or threatened.

However, anxiety and depression disorders are not the same although they are linked closely linked to each other there are similar elements. Both anxiety and depression treatment are similar, which may explain why the two disorders are so often confused. Antidepressant medication is often used for anxiety and depression and behavioural therapy frequently helps people overcome both conditions.

Depression and anxiety are two of the most underrated conditions that people face every day everywhere. And this because most people are either misinformed or not informed and educated and everyday there a life is self-taken due to not knowing how to express or be open about what is going on in their head and the thoughts they have.
Moreover, I have realized that our peers and the people we laugh with and see smiling are the same people that go through the most in life. And I somehow wanted to put myself in other people’s situations to try and understand where and how it all started, it’s shocking and saddening to realize how much people go through and there are still people who are unappreciative of the little things.

Trying to understand how it would feel for me to constantly live in fear due to my anxiety, constantly having a mental and physical breakdown due to depression, not knowing how to handle failure as a lesson or happiness because it’s a seldom feeling to you.Data Collection
For my data collection I will be using the Secondary data collection type that is data that has already been published in books, newspapers, magazines, journals, online portals etc. 
There is an abundance of data available in these sources about my research area, almost regardless of the nature of the research area. Therefore, application of appropriate set of criteria to select secondary data to be used in the study plays an important role in terms of increasing the levels of research validity and reliability.

These criteria include, but not limited to date of publication, credential of the author, reliability of the source, quality of discussions, depth of analyses, the extent of contribution of the text to the development of the research area etc.

It is easier collecting data from books, the internet, magazines, etc. than it is to do a Snowball, Probability and Questionnaires. The statistics are already given.

Finally, according to statistics found on the internet depression exacerbated by anxiety has a much higher suicide rate than depression alone. In one study, 92% of depressed patients who had attempted suicide were also plagued by severe anxiety. Like alcohol and barbiturates, depression and anxiety are a deadly combination when taken together.

Although no one knows exactly why, depression and anxiety often occur together. In one study, 85% of those with major depression were also diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and 35% had symptoms of panic disorder. Other anxiety disorders include obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because they so often go hand in hand, anxiety and depression are considered the fraternal twins of mood disorders.

Data Analysis Techniques
The choice of my data analysis technique is the Descriptive Data Analysis Technique.

The reason for choosing this type of technique, it will help in my research because the descriptive analysis technique gives an insight into the past. This type of statistical technique does exactly what the name suggests – “Describe”.  It looks at data and analyses past events and situations for getting an idea of how to approach the future.

Descriptive analytics looks at past/historical performance to understand the reasons behind past failure or success. 
It allows us to learn from past behaviour’s, and find out how they might influence future performance.

Formula for the Descriptive Analysis Technique
Coefficient of variation (CoefVar)
The coefficient of variation is a measure of relative variability calculated as a percentage.

Formula

Minitab calculates it as:

Benefits and Advantages:
Subjects or participants are observed in a natural and unchanged environment. An example would be an anthropologist who wants to study a tribe without interfering with their normal activities or behaviour’s.

Descriptive research may be a pre-cursor to future research because it can be helpful in identifying variables that can be tested. A researcher may be looking at the health outcomes for the children of low income families living in a particular neighbourhood.  The finding may point the researcher to specific variables that may be impacting health that warrant further study.

The data collection allows for gathering in-depth information that may be either quantitative (surveys) or qualitative (observations or case studies) in nature. This allows for a multifaceted approach to data collection and analysis.

Descriptive studies result in rich data that is collected in large amounts.

Surveys can be used by companies and organizations to study in beliefs, attitudes, behaviour’s and habits of members of a target audience, company or other organization.

Limitations and Disadvantages:
Participants or subjects may not be truthful or may not behave naturally when they know they are being observed.

Descriptive studies cannot be used to correlate variables or determine cause and effect.

Confidentiality can be an issue.

Researcher bias may play a role in many ways. For example, the choice and wording of questions for the questionnaire may be influenced the bias of the researcher. The researcher may also make subjective choice about which information to record and emphasize in the findings.

No variables are manipulated, therefore statistical analysis is not possible. Because of this, some scientists regard descriptive studies as unreliable and unscientific.

The results are not repeatable and typically the study cannot be replicated.

Findings may be open to interpretation
Report Review
References:
Ashley C, February 04, 2018
Google Websites:
Libguides.use.edu/writing guide/research-designs.com
https://connectusfund.org.

https://research.methodology.net/https://study.com/academy/lesson/intellspot.com/>Data science
https://cirt.guc.edu/developmentresources/research-ready/…/