Spirometry pulmonary disease (COPD), restrictive lung disease and
Spirometry is one of the most common, non-invasive pulmonary function test. It measures how much air a person can inhale and exhale (volume) and how fast a person can empty the air out of lungs (speed). Spirometry is helpful in assessing breathing patterns that can diagnose breathing problems such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), restrictive lung disease and other disorders affecting lung function. It is also used as part of a system of health surveillance. Doctors can use the spirometer to monitor chronic lung conditions to check whether current treatment is improving a patient’s breathing.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a medical test to measure the electrical activity of the heart. The electrical activity is related to the electrical impulses that travel through the heart. The impulses not only determine the heart rate and rhythm, but also provide evidence of blood flow to the heart muscles.
When the electrical impulses cause the heart to contract and relax, they are detected by an electrocardiograph machine which transforms them into form of waves. The waves will then be displayed on a graph. This happens because electrodes can detect the electrical changes on the skin that arise from depolarizing and repolarizing of the action potentials in heart muscle.
ECG test allows the doctor to assess patient’s cardiac condition. The test can determine if there is any irregular heart rhythm or abnormal ECG morphology such as enlargement of the heart due to high blood pressure. Therefore, it is very useful for the diagnosis of diseases of the heart rhythm, abnormalities of the heart such as myocardial infarction and so forth. Additionally, it can help to identify the size and position of the heart chambers, any damage to cardiac muscle cells and effects of drugs on the patient. People are advised to take an ECG test if they have any symptoms or risk factors of heart disorders.