Since the Hawthorne experiments

Since the Hawthorne experiments, there has been an increased interest in and an application of, behavioural science in management. The human relations approach has evolved into modern behaviourism. The term modern behaviourism refers to the current stage of evolution of the behavioural school of management, which gives primacy to psychological considerations but treats fulfillment of emotional needs mainly as a means of achieving other primary economic goals. Much of the discussions under behavioural schools can as well be considered under organizational (modern) humanism in modern management theory. Important behavioural scientists who contributed to gain insight in ways to achieve managerial effectiveness and developing techniques to utilize people more effectively in organizations, are Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, Chris Argyris, Frederick Herzberg, Rensis Likert, Kurt Lewin, Chester Barnard, Mary Parker Follett, George Homans and Warren Bennis. They had rigorous training in various social sciences and used sophisticated research methods. They regard the classical management theory as highly mechanistic, which tends to degrade the human spirit and is non-responsive to the human needs. As against overly specialized jobs, under-utilized people, too much control over employees with no scope to make decisions and little concern about subordinates’ needs for recognition and self-fulfillment, the behaviourists preferred more flexible organization structures with jobs built around the capabilities and aptitudes of average employees. It is difficult to classify all these researchers as neoclassical theorists. Many of them should be considered as contributors to modern management theories in general, social syste