Sher-Kaila OuterbridgeSeptember 16, 2018
Biochemistry Assignment: Meiosis and Mitosis
Cell division is an essential role in a cell’s life cycle; therefore without it, living organisms would not be able reproduce causing them to die eventually. The two significant processes in cell division are cytokinesis and nuclear division (Quizlet, 2018). Mitosis and meiosis are similar in their processes because they result in existing cells creating new ones. They also differ in their specific ways and products; the difference is the class of cells each process makes. Mitosis and meiosis are processes where cells divide and replicate for growth and reproduction.
Mitosis is the process that splits parent cells into two daughter cells that are genetically identical. Meiosis is a reduction division producing daughter cells that are not genetically identical (Socratic, 2018). Mitosis occurs in the haploid of 23 chromosomes while meiosis occurs in the diploid 46 chromosomes. In meiosis, diploid means the nucleus has divided twice creating four nuclei, and in mitosis, haploid means the nucleus has divided once creating two nuclei. Meiosis produces gametes such as sex cells such as gametes that are sperm and egg cells; while mitosis produces somatic cells such as body cells.
Both mitosis and meiosis go through interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis; mitosis goes through the processes once and meiosis goes through the processes twice. Mitosis and meiosis include breaking down of nuclear membrane and the genetic material separates into two groups. This process is followed by cell division and reformation of the nuclear membrane in each cell.
Mitosis and meiosis are present in all life forms, though mitosis is used very widely for the organic growth of tissues, fibers, and membranes (Raven, 2018). Mitosis is used in the growth and development for organisms replacing existing cells; meiosis is used in sexual reproduction. Mitosis creates more body cells allowing the body to maintain itself and not run out of cells.
Prophase and prophase II, chromosomes begin to connect together to condense which allows the nucleus to divide. Prophase I, homologous chromosomes gather to exchange genetic material. Metaphase and metaphase II, chromosomes are prepared to be pulled apart while spindles are attached to each side of the centromeres to hold together sister chromatids.
Metaphase I, spindles are connected to different chromosomes from opposite sides of the cell. Anaphase and anaphase II, physical splitting takes place where sister chromosomes are separated by being pulled to different sides (GetRevising, 2018). Anaphase, divided sister chromatids are identical but anaphase I, sister chromatids are not similar but go through the crossing in prophase I and stay together until moved in opposite directions after pulled apart.
Telophase, the last phase in cell division. Telophase and telophase II, reverses the process of prophase. Telophase, it goes into cytokinesis resulting in two diploid cells and telophase II, has been through one division enters cytokinesis and results in four haploid cells.
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