She brought Nursing and Anthropology together and established the term ‘Transcultural nursing’ as an essential area of theory and practice. Transcultural nursing may be referred to cross-cultural, intercultural or multicultural nursing. (Andrews & Boyle, 2008) Transcultural nursing focuses on holistic and comprehensive care.

It is the only theory that focuses on discovering factors that influence human care. (Leininger & McFarland, 2002)The Transcultural Nursing theory first appeared in Leininger’s Culture Care Diversity and Universality, published in 1991, but it was developed in the 1950s. Madeleine Leininger’s theory of Transcultural Nursing, also known as Culture Care Theory. She identified that care and culture were the two major missing elements in nursing.

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She continued her research and as the outcome, created her “Culture Care Theory”.


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