Screening test for Gonorrhoea Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection

Screening test for Gonorrhoea
Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection; caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In male it may be develop burning sensation with urination, penile discharge, or testicular pain. Women may have burning with urination, vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding between periods, or pelvic pain. Untreated gonorrhea can spread to joints or heart valves. Gonorrhoea is transmitted through sexual activities and also spread from mother to a child during birth.
Gonorrhoea is easily detectable by gram stain and culture & by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing. These PCR-based tests require a sample of urine, urethral swabs, or cervical/vaginal swabs. Culture and gram-stain can also be used to detect the presence of N. gonorrhoeae in all specimen types except urine.
Screening tests should be carried out among sexually active females younger than 25 years and all older risk womens.
An online survey had been done to measure screening for gonorrhea. It was done by commissioners of sexual health services in the 152 upper-tier English Local Authorities (LAs). The samples collected by the NCSP; and carried out by dual testing. They assumed that the prevalence for gonorrhea was between 0.1% and 1%. Sensitivity of the test was 99.5%.Specificity of the test was 64.Test identified that over half (53% (52/98)) reported using dual tests in community settings. There was no significant difference. 93% positive gonorrhoea results were confirmed with supplementary tests (38/41). Approximately 450-4500 confirmed gonorrhoea diagnoses and 2300 false-positive screens might occur through use of dual tests on NCSP samples each year. According to the findings the positive predictive value (PPV) of the screening test was 17-67%.