Robotics

Robotics:
? Robotics is a branch of science that has the techniques to design, construct, operate the robot.
? The first time that the word “robot” was introduced in 1921 in Rossum’s Universal Robots play by Karel Capek. The play describes mechanical men that are built to work on the factory assembly line and then they went against the humans. The idea about it started a long time ago in 320BC
? The idea of robotics originated from Aristotle from his famous quote: “If every tool, when ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that befits it… then there would be no need either of apprentices for the master workers or of slaves for the lords.”
? First sketches of robots were made by Leonardo Da Vinci in 1495 which was pre-robots
? Afterward, the term robotics came as it was mentioned by Isaac Asimov a Russian-born American. He was a science-fiction writer, he mentioned the term” robotics” in his short story Runabout.
? Isaac Asimov showed robots not from a bad perspective as they are a helpful servant for humans. He made the “Three Laws of Robotics”:
? “The First Law states that a robot should not harm a person or let a person suffer damage because of their inaction.”
? “Second Law states that a robot must comply with all orders that a human dictates, with the proviso that occurs if these orders were in contradiction with the First Law.”
? “The Third Law states that a robot must take care of its own integrity, except when this protection creates a conflict with the First or Second Law. ”
? Through hard work and dedication, the fiction about robotics became reality. It became a branch of science that has the technique to construction, design, applications, and operation of robots. The combination of the robot includes Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Computer Science
? Robotics can be defined as the construction of devices that can perform the assigned task for it.
? There is five generation of robots:
? Generation 0: Pre-Robots (up to 1950)
? It was industrial robots included only pneumatic or hydraulic system.
? The idea of automated robots came after the first industrial revolution (1883) to improve the industrial development.
? Aristotle and Da Vinci considered being in this generation.
? All machines were managed by a worker as they had no electrical capacity.
? The first automation technique was the punch card the was used as an intake of programming for the first computer.
? Generation 1: First Manipulators (1950-1967):
? Characteristics:
? Simple algorithms were used that were from point to point.
? The information regarding the environment was absent.
? The technology rapidly developed to increase the productivity of products.
? Numeric controller (NC).
? The combination of NC and manipulators was the reason behind the formation of first generation robots.
? The technology growth led to the discovery of first digitally controlled a mechanical arm. It did reapable simple tasks such as picking and placing.
? It was considered first industrial robot “UNIMATE”.
? UNIMATE helped improve the production which leads other companies to research about robotics.
? Generation 2: Sensorized robots (1968-1977):
? Characteristics:
? Awareness of their surroundings.
? Sensory systems like force, torque, and vision.
? Learning by seeing.
? These kinds of the robots are being used up to this day in industry and have a large footprint.
? These robots generation were to respond to their environment differently depending on the challenges.
? The first Sensorized mobile robot was manufactured by Stanford Research Institute. The robot contained various sensors i.e., tactile sensors and vision camera
? Many investments were made during this generation to adapt to industrial environment i.e. PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)
? PLC is an industrial digital computer which was used for the activities that required high adaptability
? KUKA which was known as one of the world’s leading manufacturers of an industrial robot built Famulus in 1973.
? Famulus had 6 electromechanical-driven axes called Famulus
? Generation 3: Industrial robots(1978-1999)
? Characteristics:
? They have new programming languages
? They are reprogrammable robots
? New programming language for robots
? They have fixed controllers (computers)
? Increase about 80% due to the huge investments are done in automation of simple tasks like:
? painting,
? soldering,
? moving or assembly
? The technologies that allowed such development was general internet access is 1980
? In 1983 Ethernet became a standard necessary by the robot (IEEE 802.3)
? In 1991 Linux KErnel was announced in which there was an increase to the usage of Linux systems
? Programming languages for robots became popular during this time i.e.,
? In 1979 Unimation used VAL
? In 1988 FANUC developed Karel
? In 1994 Rapid was created by ABB
? This made the Robots re-programmable machines that have a fixed controller
? At the end of 1990s companies started thinking about robots and kits to be created outside industrial environments. There are two important entertainment kids that were the reason behind hundreds of roboticists
? The first Lego Mindstorms kit in (1998)
? 717 pieces (LEGO bricks. Motors, gears, different sensors, and an RCX Brick with an embedded microprocessor)
? It taught the principles of robotics. It allowed also many designs to be made
? Sony’s AIBO(1999)
? It was the first entertainment robot
? It cost $1500
? It is usually used in research and development
? It contained
? Distributed hardware
? Software architecture (OPEN-R)
? It was built to encourage users to join robotics and show them what is it about.
? Generation 4: Intelligent robots (2000-2017)
? Characteristics:
? The ability of the robot to do a complex computing
? Computers carry out logical reasoning and learn from their environment, and they work with data too
? Work on artificial intelligence began, and they started to include it partially and experimentally
? The complexity of the sensors as it started to send information to the controller and after that, it gets to be analyzed through complex control strategies.
? Robots action are base on solid and reliable pieces of information
? Introduction of the Collaborative robot.
? The first vacuum cleaner robot was designed by a robot Roomba
? In 2000 Da Vinci robotic surgical system through the use of laparoscopic was approved. It was the start for the human-machine interfaces
? It gave a haptic feedback about the inside of a human body
? Among the technology that appeared:
? Software:
? Player/Stage Project (2000)
? Gazebo simulator(2004)
? Robot Operating System (2007)
? Hardware:
? Single Board Computers (SBCs): Raspberry Pi
? These systems made it one step closer for artificial intelligence
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.08617.pdf
http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/technology/historyofrobotics.html
http://theinstitute.ieee.org/tech-history/technology-history/timeline-the-rise-of-robots

Envisioning the future of robotics

Citation:

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“History of Robotics – Timeline, AI, Industrial, Toy Robots, Robotic Arm, Technology.” Science Kids – Fun Science ; Technology for Kids!, www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/technology/historyofrobotics.html.

“?.” Robohub, robohub.org/envisioning-the-future-of-robotics/.

Davis, Amanda. “Timeline: The Rise of Robots.” Military Drones: From World War II to the Present – IEEE – The Institute, theinstitute.ieee.org/tech-history/technology-history/timeline-the-rise-of-robots.