Questions Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C
The research problem each article addresses The research problem in this article seeks to improve a patient’s quality of life by analyzing the efficacy of two interventions in comparison to the routine care patients receives for decreasing negative behaviors and perceptions that surround the management of pain and the intensity of pain in cancer patients.
This study seeks to identify if there is a correlation between adverse neonatal outcomes in relation to maternal health and maternal fetal attachment (MFA) by predominately African American women from low-socioeconomic backgrounds.
The purpose of this article is to gain a better understanding of the Nurse Practitioners experience with providing care to the homeless.
Its significance to nursing practice This study is significant to nursing practice because it identifies the use of coaching and motivational interviewing as a potential way to reduce the negative behaviors and attitudes that surround the management of cancer pain and was shown to improve the overall management of pain experienced by cancer patients. While other studies have identified adverse neonatal outcomes of low birth weight and pre-term births in ethnic minorities, this study is significant to nursing practice because it provides a better understanding of the importance of maternal fetal attachment, health practices, and adverse neonatal outcomes among low-income, and mainly from African-American descent. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding prenatal health disparities among all racial and cultural minorities. This study helps to ensure all women of child-bearing age are given the opportunity to experience a healthy pregnancy and birth. This study is significant to nursing practice because it offers healthcare workers a better understanding on how to meet the healthcare needs of the homeless and identifies resources that can assist them in their role.
The researcher’s hypothesis or phenomenon of interest This researcher hypothesized that motivational coaching would be more beneficial in improving the attitudes, behaviors and quality of life towards the management of pain in cancer patients than the use of conventional education and current practices.
This researcher hypothesized that with increased maternal fetal attachment and proactive health practices during pregnancy, there would be less adverse neonatal outcomes and that the presence of health practices while pregnant will facilitate the relationship between adverse neonatal outcomes and MFA. This study’s phenomenon of interest was directed at understanding the advance practitioner’s perspective and experiences with caring for the homeless.
The independent and dependent variable(s) or core variable The dependent variables in this study are the attitudes to cancer pain management in relation to intensity, relief, functional ability and quality of life. The independent variables in this study are education intervention, coaching intervention and standard care. The independent variables in this study are maternal fetal attachment and health practices and the dependent variable is adverse neonatal outcomes to include low birth weight, preterm delivery in low income populations. Due to the qualitative nature of this study – there are no dependent and independent variables in this study.
The sample used in the research The convenience sample for this study was obtained from six oncology clinics with the parameters that patients could communicate in English, had greater than six months to live, reported an average pain level of at least 2 out of 10 pain on a 0-10 pain scale, had no prior pre-existing psychological conditions or pain non-related to their current cancer condition and, self-managed the administration of their pain medications.
The convenience sample of 167 eligible participants for this study were obtained from three urban obstetrical clinics that served predominately low-income populations. Participants were required to be at least 16 years of age, speak English, be between 24 and 28 weeks gestation with single pregnancies and not have any pre-existing pregnancy related conditions, chronic health conditions, or prior fetal demise (spontaneous abortion or fetal death after 24 weeks gestation). The sample of Nurse Practitioners (NP) used in this study were selected using a purposive and snowball sampling. These NPs were required to have 6 months of experience and work in a healthcare setting that provides care to the homeless. The researcher in this sample attempted to contact 12 NPs in which 9 agreed to participate in the study.
Whether the sample was appropriate for the research question The sample selection for this study was appropriate because this study enrolled 289 participants to satisfy the necessary 240 sample size to detect a medium effect,
the participates were selected from clinics that specialize in the treatment cancer, it was obtained through a non-biased convenience sampling method, and all patients reported an average pain score of 2 or more on a 0-10 scale.
The sample for this study was appropriate because it utilized the unbiased process of a convenience sample to obtain participants. Of the participants, 93% were African American with a household income of less than $30,000 per year and 88% were single or unmarried. These statistics substantiate the low-income population parameters that were established for this study and utilizes women that are pregnant.
I feel the sample for this research question was appropriate due to the qualitative nature of this study. Even though a limited number of NPs participated in this study, this type of study tends to utilize smaller sample sizes and focuses on understanding the phenomena being studied.