PREHISTORY Points to study

PREHISTORY
Points to study:
Chronological line of Prehistory.
Archaeology
Paleolithic
Neolithic
Metal Ages
TIMELINE
Prehistory is the longest period in the history of writing (from our first ancestors to the invention of writing). To study Prehistory you use fossils. This science is named archaeology.
Archaeology is not totally accurate because we can’t know all of the information and, for example, a new study can come out today and change everything.
Palaeolithic
From our fist ancestors to 8000 years B.C.
Nomadic life (hunting and gathering)
Neolithic
8.000 years B.C. to 5.000 years B.C.
Sedentary lifestyle related to the beginning of the agriculture and cattle. Polished stone and pottery to keep food.
Metal Ages
5.000 years B.C. to 900 years B.C.
Trade routes to get metals and the first cities turn up. 3 stages:
Copper, 5000 – 3500 B.C
Bronze, 3500- 1500 BC (History first writing)
Iron, 1500- 900 B.C.
THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS
We are studying a linear process from Australopithecus to homo sapiens sapiens, but there were really plenty of branches that became extinct.
There are three starting point to evolve from apes to human:
Walking on two legs which helped them to be capable of using their hands to do other actions, saving energy, being capable of seeing a wider view and exposing less skin to the sun. It made them run slower and having it harder to climb, though.
Opposable thumbs in order to grab things (remember in past we didn´t have technology to counteract disadvantages)
Increasing brain capacity
PALAEOLITHIC EVOLUTION LINE
Take into account a new discovery can change the dates suddenly:
Sahelanthropus tchadensis, discovered in 2002.
Where Lived: West-Central Africa (Chad)
When Lived: Sometime between 7 and 6 million years ago
Today Sahelanthropus tchadensis is thought to be the link between chimpanzees and humans. Walking upright may have helped this species survive in diverse habitats, including forests and grasslands.
Previous to this discovery the link was Australopithecus afarensis.
AUSTRALOPITHECUS
Apes evolve into us 6 millions years ago in the African forest.
Walk on two feet—-keep watch, reach food/ changes in the body: spine, pelvis…..
There were plenty of them but there was only several lines of evolution (Darwin)
Until the discovery of Sahelanthropus chadensis, australopithecus was the link between apes and homos.
HOMO HABILIS
This species, one of the earliest members of the genus Homo, has a slightly larger braincase and smaller face and teeth than in Australopithecus or older hominin species. But it still retains some ape-like features, including long arms and a moderately-prognathic face.
Skill to produce their own tools. Due to the change of the diet (more meat=more protein) their brains were more human-alike.
2 – 1.6 millions of years.
HOMO ERECTUS
1.6 mill- 300.000 years ago.
Spread out of Africa.
They controlled the use of fire 800000 years ago. Why is it so important? Because we could get protected by it, could cook food and stay hot with its help. It also killed bacteria and extended the daytime. What did they think the fire was? They thought fire was an animal.
The use of fire Why does the video talk about the beginning of human societies? Because thasnks to the use os fire and having to gather food and cook it societies started to be made.
The 1st one that made art.
NEANDERTHAL
In Europe (related to the cold) 300.000 – 30.000 years ago.
A different body structure.
Neanderthal was not so rude as it is thought to be.
HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS
200.000 years ago.
From Africa they spreaded out 60000 years ago. This species arrived to Europe 40000 years ago and they lived with Neanderthals for 10000 years. How did the Neanderthal go extinct?

Art: you draw what you see.
To attract animals (related to magic)
As a talisman, to attract good luck.
Fertility: sexual attributes extremely exaggerated (boobs/ hip)
For pleasure
After studying Paleolithic I would like to underline several facts:
It was the longest period in Prehistory.
The complete evolution to homo sapiens sapiens was developed in this stage.
They developed the art, a way to communicate each other….
Nomadism
Hunting and gathering
Humans are weak in comparison to a lot of wild animals. In spite of that why do we impose on them?

NEOLITHIC
Why is Neolithic supposed to be the first revolution in the history of humanity?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1FaVW1nCuc Neolithic and the origin of complex societies.

Explain the differences of life between Paleolithic and Neolithic.