Personality Development Tips
1. Being a better listener,
2. Learning to have a Good conversation with other people,
3. being positive in outlook and attitude,
4. More reading and building interest,
5. Being a good courteous,
6. More and more Interaction with new people,
7. being helpful to other people,
8. Giving respect if we want respect back,
9. Being Confident about ourselves.
So what exactly makes up a personality? As described in the definitions above, you would expect that traits and patterns of thought and emotion play important roles. Some of the other fundamental characteristics of personality include:
• Physical appearance: It is refers to the physique of an individual.
• Character: It is refers to the ethical or moral aspect of a personality which one possesses. The character of an individual is judged by the level of consistency exhibited in his or her behavior.
• Temperament: It is refers to the deep-rooted emotional trends present in an individual. It is result of secretion of endocrine glands as well as habit form.
Temperament plays an important role in one’s ability to adjust to his or her environment.
• Interests: It is refers to felt need. It is connected to three aspects, the need to know feel and perform.
• Ability: It is refers to a special natural power to do something well, physical or mental.
• Sociability: It is refers to an ability of the individual to socialize him or herself in a social environment and how other perceive his or her presence in the group.
• Emotionality: It is refers to the ability of an individual to show mature emotional behavior in suitable situations.
• Consistency: It is generally a recognizable order and regularity to behaviors.
Essentially, people act in the same ways or similar ways in a variety of situations.
• Psychological and Physiological: Personality is a psychological construct, but study suggest that it is also influenced by biological processes and needs.
• It impacts behaviors and actions: Personality does not just influence how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways.
• Multiple expressions: Personality is displayed in more than just behavior. It can also be seen in our thoughts, feelings, close relationships and other social interactions.
There are a number of theories about how personality develops. Different schools of thought in psychology influence many of these theories. Some of these major perspectives on personality include:
• Type theories are the early perspectives on personality. These theories suggested that there are a limited number of “personality types” which are related to biological influences.
• Trait theories tend to view personality as the result of internal characteristics that are genetically based.
• Psychodynamic theories of personality are heavily influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud and emphasize the influence of the unconscious mind on personality. Psychodynamic theories include Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stage theory and Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development.
• Behavioral theories suggest that personality is a result of interaction between the individual and the environment. Behavioral theorists study observable and measurable behaviors, often ignoring the role of internal thoughts and feelings. Behavioral theorists include B. F. Skinner and John B. Watson.
• Humanist theories emphasize the importance of free will and individual experience in developing a personality. Humanist theorists include Carl Rogersand Abraham Maslow.
Importance of Personality
Personality plays a very important role and is an ingredient in contributing to one’s success in life. Enough care has to be exercised by the parents at home and teachers at school in molding the personality of children. A good, strong personality helps the child to be emotionally stable and adjust to the various social maladies which he/she may come across in the whole life span. Good personality traits not only help the individual to get a good reputation and social standing in the society but also help achieve goals in life.
Personality can be determined through a variety of tests. However, dimensions of personality and scales of personality tests vary and often are poorly defined. Examples of such tests are the: Big Five Inventory (BFI), Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), Rorschach Inkblot test, Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006,3 or Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R).
? The Big 5 Models:
The Big Five represents taxonomy (classification system) of traits that some personality psychologists suggest capture the essence of individual differences in personality. These traits were arrived at through factor analysis studies.
The five factors are Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
The following are some of the important characteristics of the five factors.
-The factors are dimensions, not types, so people vary continuously on them, with most people falling in between the extremes (Soldz ; Vaillant, 1999).
-The factors are stable over a 45-year period beginning in young adulthood (Soldz ; Vaillant, 1999).
-The factors and their specific facets are heritable (McCrae, 1998).
-The factors probably had adaptive value in a prehistoric environment (Buss, 1996).
-The factors are considered universal, having been recovered in languages as diverse as German and Chinese (McCrae ; Costa, 1997).
-Knowing one’s placement on the factors is useful for insight and improvement through therapy (McCrae & Costa, 1992).
The Big Five factors and their constituent traits:
? Openness – Appreciation for art, Emotion, Adventure, Unusual ideas, Imagination, Curiosity and Variety of experience
? Conscientiousness – A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior.
? Extraversion – Energy, Positive emotions, Surgency, and the tendency to seek stimulation and the company of others.
? Agreeableness – A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others.
? Neuroticism – A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability; sometimes called emotional instability.
Psychology Applications Of Personality
Research on personality can yield fascinating insights into how personality develops and changes over the course of the lifetime. This research can also have important practical applications in the real-world.
For example, personality assessments are often used to help people learn more about themselves and their unique strengths, weaknesses, and preferences. Some assessments might look at how people rank on specific traits, such as whether they are high in extroversion, conscientiousness, or openness. Other assessments might measure how specific aspects of personality change over the course of development. Such personality assessments can also be used to help people determine what careers they might enjoy, how well they might perform in certain job roles, or how effective a form of psychotherapy has been.
Traits may be unique, common to some group, or shared by the entire species, but their pattern is different for every individual. Thus each person, though like others in some ways, has a unique personality. Characteristics are unique qualities of an individual that include such attributes as temperament, physique, and intelligence (Feist, J., & Feist, G., 2009).A personality traitis “a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations”.Common personality traits include:
• Personality and Emotional Intelligence
One of the main challenges to getting EQ (Emotional Quotient) recognized as a legitimate measurement of an individual’s ability to function and interact on an emotional level is the role that personality plays in these types of actions. The study of personality examines the issue from the perspective of the Big Five personality traits commonly accepted in psychological circles. The Big Five are considered to include: openness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Virtually every personality test there is relies to some degree on these five characteristics; whether or not they are predictive and broad-ranging enough is a common concern within the psychological community and, at times, come into conflict with the concept of EQ.