Multiculturalism as a basis of establishment of
the lasting peace in the world
§1.What is Multiculturalism?
§2. Azerbaijani model of Multiculturalism ?
“Peace in the homeland, peace in the world!”
Mustafa Kamal Ataturk
The one of the greatest challenges in globalized world, which humanity have faced, is realization of the lasting peace in Global Society. In order to providethis aim not only international organizations and states but also individuals have to participate in formation mutual trust and confidence among nations. From this point of view, study and propagation of multicultural values has indispensable importance.
If we look at the history of the humankind, we can see thatfrom the shaping of people groups in the form of nations till today civilization has gone through several securitization phases:
1. The age of traditional understanding of security
(military security age until 1945 );
2. Cold War period, when security problems were solved by International Organizations with diplomatic instruments and till today.
And in our days humanity is passing through third phase, in terms of brand-new age of lasting peace and stability challenge. An essential character of this new phase is that, discussion of security issues is spread not only vertically but also horizontally. It means that today dialogue onsecuritization problems transcend the frame of interstaterelations and involves individuals who are carriers of various cultures. Because interactions between individuals today base on intercultural values. As a Turkish-Islamic philosopher YunusImre said, threats that surround us are consequences of unawareness of people about each other`s values. People who are the residents of the same world in many cases incline to treat each other through stereotypes and prejudices about different ethnic, national, cultural, religious varieties. Such kind of groundless behaviors damage tolerance and trust among people and cause to the hostility. In consequence, It bring to the bloody conflicts not only between states but also among carriers of different cultures within the one particular state. It is no coincidence that, as a result of ongoing conflicts in Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Somalia, Republic of Myanmar thousands of people were killed and displaced in their homelands. Today one of the most important problem for Europe is migration of victims of Middle East crisis. In present each of us is deeply concerned aboutCivil War in Syria and atrocious activities of so-called terrorist organization Islamic State in Iraq and Syria and also its terrorist attacks in different European countries. Because the essential fact of new age that we experience now is globalization of non-traditional threats. That is why people of the world should strengthen joint efforts to address these problems in order to create an atmosphere of mutual trust, respect others and refrain from biased condemnation. For elimination of such kind of difficulties world states have to demonstrate mutual will to decrease cultural, ethnic, religious barriers among nations and increase mutual endeavor to be closely familiar each other. This is the most important obligation of humanity to future generations. In this point of view, spread of multicultural values, exchange of experiences between different nations in this field, reciprocal promotionof material and non-material cultural heritage, demonstration of tolerance, justice and compassion in relationship to others are one of the most important and crucial condition. In order to achieve peace, tranquility and security in global level we have to develop culture of peace and tolerance and this is a responsibility of each man and women, family and state, nations and national minorities and all of the humanity. For this reason there is a great need for detailed analysis of multiculturalism.
What is Multiculturalism-?
Whoever you are, just come!
Multiculturalism is neither an theory or ideology, nor political doctrine. Mostly it could be explained as practical mutualliving process, which base on principles of respect, and tolerance far from stereotypes and prejudice against each other. Such kind of co-existence style have however been formulated on the basis of historical experiences of people it was just in local level and haven`t taken massive character in global space. Because from the age of primitive society till now people groups, clans have been shaped in terms relative relations, then relative clans unified in tribes after the tribes which share the same customs and traditions have created among themselves tribal unions and in following tribal unions who share the same language, custom and traditions gradually become people and the political awakening of this people resulted in formation of nations. The notion of traditional nation based on ethno-political identity phenomenaunsurprisingly emerges via the rise of ideas about identifying themselves through differentiation from others.For that reason the formation of each nation passed through the struggle for maintaining its existence, territory, resources and also the preservation of cultural distinctiveness. In fact this historical process shows that generation of nations has originatedin the situation of integration of people under the influence of language, affinity, customs and traditions, single geographical area and other this kind of principles. If taking consideration that it is a permanent process then we can argue that gradual elimination of physical and cultural barriers and in the result of this process integration among people which base on peace and mutual respect is inevitable. Therefore multiculturalism in terms of national, regional and global cultural integration is political, societal and economic lifestyle of future. So for acceleration of this process and preparation of global society to the future life, which is constructed on the basis cultural diversity, wehave to benefit from experiences of different multinational countries.
Azerbaijani model of Multiculturalism
Who doesn`t love his/her nation,
he/shecan not love other nations
Azerbaijan, a country, which is located in the junction of East and West has always been one of the most unique places of coexistence and prosperity of different cultures and religions.In very few places of the world we can observe together location of churches, mosques, synagogues and even fire worshiper`s temples. Azerbaijan and its capital Baku is one of the such kind of most unique places in the world. Here in Azerbaijan you can see Shiites prying in Sunnite mosque and wise versa. For Azerbaijani people it is just daily lifestyle and it is reflection of historically formulated humane values in mentality and national psychology of them. So that, sympathize to the creatures for creator, whether in GokTengri belief or in Islamic religion keeps essential place in public relations. In sacred book of Islam Koran is said that killing one person is equal killing all human being, to save one person is equal to save of life of mankind. From ancient times of the history Azerbaijani people get used to live in this values and even to be tolerant and benignant in attitude against enemy has been considered as bravery by Azerbaijani people. Countries are brought closer by people and their relationships become warm thanks to citizens of this countries. It is not accidental that these values takes place in an ancient Azerbaijani epos Dede Korkud. In several episodes of the epos is emphasized on relations to surrendered enemies by Turkish warriors and is pointed out that Turkish warriorsnewer killed unarmed enemy. Imagine that this value has been reflected in international law only in 1949 in provisions related to militarycaptives ofGeneva Convention. In Azerbaijan these values are also state politics and forms the core of Azerbaijani national law. In 1918 when Azerbaijan first time in history gained her independence,her declaration of independence become first legal act in Islamic world where clearly depicted that Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan recognize all rights of all people living in its territory regardless of language, religion, gender, social status and political views and considers that providing their mutual and equal development, protection and prosperity is sacred duty of state . Decleration with all of its progressive features exceed most European countries28-30 years in that time. This proves that tolerance as the keystne of cultural divercity is one of the national values in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan in 1991, after 70 years captivity, gained her independence once again and in 1995 adopted constitution by referendum. In related provisions (Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan Section I Chapter II – Bases of State, provision: 12; 16; 18. Section II Chapter III – Essential citizen rights and freedoms, provisions: 24; 25; 26; 40; 44; 45; 46; 47.III; 69;70) values mentioned above have found their reflection in constitution in terms of multicultural legal norms. Moreover, according to decree “About protection of rights and freedoms of national minorities and ethnic groups and state assistance for development of their language and culture” of 1992 equal development and protection of their language, customs and traditions, culture and life style is protected through legal ways. At the same time, provision 11 of “The Low on Culture” , provision 7 of “The Law of Education” , officially provide free use and development of culture and language of minorities. So all this facts confirms that multiculturalism in national experience of Azerbaijan is also one of the legal norms. Because this policy at the same time is one of the most important ways to provide national community, to strengthen security of Azerbaijani Turkish people who consist absolute majority of population, to protect territorial integrity of state and to maintain international image of state. It means that In Azerbaijan multiculturalism is an essential part of national interests. In this point of view nowadays Azerbaijan has an important experience that could be used by other countries as a model. It should be noted that 2016 has announced as a year of multiculturalism by Azerbaijani government. For this purpose in this year in Azerbaijan will held several important international events, conferences and meetings which will promote joint efforts for broader popularization of multicultural values.
So however, Azerbaijan is not a big country in terms of territory and population,she maintains her historical uniqueness as a multicultural country where have been living numerous national minorities, carriers of different cultures. Today according to official statistics more than thirty ethnic groups and minorities have been registered and they compactly live in different places of the country. Number of religious associations in Azerbaijan, according to official reports, is six hundred forty nine. 625 of them are Muslim and 24 of them are non-Muslim religious organizations.
Consequently,multiculturalism is undoubtedly indispensible phenomena for awareness of world people about each other, formation of national, regional and global confidence atmosphere and for providing peace either in different countries or in the whole world. It is a serious challenge of contemporary age and duty of humanity to the future generations. It is important to benefit from experiences of the countries as Azerbaijan to increase effectiveness of multiculturalism as a process and to ensure transition to the period of multicultural values in international and public relations. At the same time it should be taken consideration that transition process to the multiculturalism must be in “down up” version for providing permanency of the process. In the end I would like to notice that however, nowadays in the light of the processes taking place in the world, multiculturalism is the only way of solution global problems, but in present complex military-political and socio-economic circumstances this transition process will be continue for a long time and it has to be taken consideration that it is no realistic to complete the processin near future. So multiculturalism is cultural, political, public and economic lifestyle in terms of national, regional and global levels.