Lung cancer is the single largest cancer killer, which caused nearly 9,000 deaths from lung cancer mortality is the single largest cancer killer. Lung cancer has a higher mortality rate than the other common malignancies and has been less amenable to therapeutic advances. Colorectal and pancreatic cancers were the second and third most frequent causes of morality. Cancer rates in upstate New York are generally higher than those found downstate. The difference in cancer rates is found among counties in New York. This research is looking into other underlying factors that lead to the high lung cancer incidence and mortality within both New York counties and the lower Quebec province, which would include the income per capita and air factors that would be used in this research. The purpose of this study is to see if there’s a correlation between Lower Quebec Province’s air pollution and the high lung cancer incidence and mortality rate in Clinton, Franklin, Jefferson, and St. Lawrence County.
The North Country is a region of New York that borders the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Clinton, Franklin, Jefferson, and St. Lawrence county borders the northern frontier of New York, which is only adjacent to Quebec province separating by St. Lawrence River. The population of these four counties consists of over 362,000 people. The workforce that makes up these counties’ industry include the Healthcare ; Social Assistance, retail trade, manufacturing, utilities, Scientific, Tech Services, and Educational Services, Public Administration, Mining, Quarrying, Oil, and Gas Extraction in Jefferson, St. Lawrence County. Although the northern country has a strong workforce, they also have a high number of lung cancer incidence and fatalities. Lung cancer is the top leading causes and the most common cancer among New Yorkers with an average of over 13,000 reported incidences annually and 9,000 related death. Men have higher lung cancer than a woman because more likely to be a current or former smoker. However, when checking the smoking rate, only Franklin has some significance in smoking compared to Jefferson, Clinton and St. Lawrence County. So, there might be other underlying factors, such as air pollution that might contribute to lung cancer in these counties.
According to the Snapshot of Cancer in New York, from “2015, there’s been over 115,0151 New Yorkers that were diagnosed with cancer, over 35,038 die from cancer and an estimated of 1,043,900 living that diagnosed with cancer (New York State Department of Health, 2018). In 2015, the overall cancer incidence reported was the rate of 482 cases per 100,000 people in New York. New York was ranked the fourth highest among 50 states and significantly above the national average of 437.7 of 100,000 people. New York was also ranked 3 in the top 10 by the rate of new cancer case in 2005 with 59.2 rates per 100,000 people. It’s ranked number one from the top 10 caused by death 36.2 rates per 100,000 people. In NYS, smoking-related death is a sizable toll. An average of 44,00 cases of tobacco-related death diagnosed each year. Almost half over 100,00 cancer accounting for over 20,000 dies from cancer death. The largest contributor to both incidence and mortality is lung cancer. According to the incidence and mortality from tobacco-related death to lung and bronchus death are 13,628 incidence rate per new case and 9,042 average death. There are many risk factors that attribute to most cancers, and most have more than one known cause. In 2008, the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention calculated the number of death from 19 diseases and that were attributable to smoking in each state (Johnson, Hayes, Brown, Hoo & Ethier, 2014).
The table shows the deaths from these cancers can be linked to smoking. Over 7,602 people die averagely per year to smoking, with 9,520 total over death per year under the lungs and bronchus category (New York State Department of Health, 2013). The counties analyze three fields, including income per capita smoking rate in Clinton, Franklin, Jefferson, and St. Lawrence County and its mortality.
Through analyzing the lung cancer incidence and mortality data from New York State Cancer Registry, the results show from local Moran’s I map that for smoker shows a high cluster in the Eastern and Western Adirondacks with a p-value of 0.05. The high-high cluster includes both Genesee and New York County. The smoking rate is relatively low in Jefferson, Lewis, and Warren County. There is a High-Low Cluster in Franklin, Fulton, Oneida, Onondaga and Chemung County, and the rest of the 51 counties proved to be insignificant.
From the local Moran’s I map, readers will learn that there are a significant number of lung cancer incidence and fatalities which included all the north country counties. However, when checking the smoking rate, only Franklin has some significance in smoking compared to Jefferson, Clinton and St. Lawrence County. Which meant that there might be other underlying factors, such as air pollution in lower Quebec region that might contribute to lung cancer in these counties.