Literature Review

Literature Review:
Data security in Cloud Computing Using AES Under Heroku
Cloud

Introduction:
Cloud computing become one of the new technology and many organizations are coming toward
cloud. By using cloud computing platform with encryption technology under. Heroku apply third
party data center models. Heroku maintenances many programming language that are used for
authorb applications. Heroku is very powerful system to running moderns apps. It provide high
security for data from third party. Now a days the common and big issue is data security in cloud
computing, which is handle using cryptography techniques. In this paper author introduced Heroku
as a cloud platform and then apply AES for security in Heroku. The data security concerns is one
of the reasons that limit the expansion of cloud computing to all business functions .Author first
talk about the definitions of data security and cloud computing and their importance. Author then
move towards data security technologies techniques and algorithms. After that researcher will
discuss data security in cloud computing by first addressing most of the threats that may occur by
using could computing. After discussing all major issues author will talk about different possible
solutions and algorithms. The last part in this literature review will be about the security
benefits/advantages of cloud computing.
Literature Review:

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With the quick growth of cloud computing many users submit their data on cloud. Due to some
new characteristic cloud is not fully safe. So to remove these challenge or to solve problem, a new
homomorphism encryption algorithm is introduced for data security in cloud. To resolve these
issue, author introduced a new homomorphism encryption algorithm to secure data. Fully
homomorphic encryption includes two basic homomorphism types. They are the multiply
homomorphic encryption algorithm and additively homomorphic encryption algorithm. Security
is a big problem for the development of cloud computing. Due to integrity, confidentiality data is
not secured. So to finish these problem a fully homomorphism is applied and it gives better result
regarding security of user’s data. (Feng Zhao, 2014)
Cloud computing is a platform to growing skills. As many people use cloud for professional
documents and to save important work. Cloud may become unsecure platform and third party hack
the data. So to resolve these issue author introduce encryption and decryption algorithm so that
when client sends data then it will be encrypted with a specific key. Security problem is a big threat
for user when they upload or download their documents or data. To overcome these limitations

author introduced encryption and decryption algorithm. However third-party box work as gateway
between client, and cloud which work as crypto box, or develop program work as
encryption/decryption mechanism that maybe built-in between client’s and cloud server as
cryptography secure session’s agreement . (Jaber1, 2013)
Cloud computing is latest technology in the world. Cloud computing is latest technology in the
field of distributed computing. It provide many servicing for user but the problem is security the
user”s data is not secured. Most of security issues in cloud computing are:
Location Transparency and Data protection .To explain these author represent RSA, DES, and
blowfish algorithm to secure data. Cloud computing is a platform where user wants security .So
for this there are many algorithm RSA, DES, AES and blowfish and AES gives better results.
(Singh, 2015)
Cloud computing is very powerful to upload and download data. In this paper the work done in
relation with security in cloud, encryption algorithm and different types of attacks are investigated.
After investigation a new approach is present under standard AES, cloudsim, Data security. To
secure data on cloud author want implement new algorithm but based on AES .So author
introduced CLOUDSIM which is same as AES algorithm Most of the people store their data in
hard disk rather than in any virtual memory, because they faces the problem of data security .To
resolve the issue of security AES under algorithm is introduced and it is very fast in speed and
efficient. (Santosh Kumar Singh, 2016)
Cloud computing refers to distributed computing over network. Ability to execute application and
programed over many computer. But another problem which has a prominent role while dealing
with cloud data is authentication. To resolve the issue of authentication author introduced digital
signature. It is used for verifying the authentication of person who are sending document to the
recipient. When sender sends data to recipient than hacker stolen the data either data is changed
and not secured. For this purpose encryption algorithm is for security and digital signature is
introduced for authentication purpose. The device which is actuality used for confirming
authentication is digital signatures. For both digital signature generation and signature verification
process, same hash function is used. (Nikhitha K. Nair, 2015)
Cloud computing is getting popularity especially in field of business. Data is stored in distributed
manner on the server and client does not maintain the local copy of data so integrity and
confidentiality of data becomes a more challenging problem. In this paper author tried to identify
these problems and solutions to overcome the problem. This paper also contains find the latest
techniques and knowledge that are used to check the integrity of data with various different
algorithms. To enable data integrity on a cloud the approach designed was TPA (third party
auditor). For considering the public auditability in RSA based security algorithm was applied on
the chunks of data for checking the authentication of outsourced data. Author studied a number of
techniques to audit the data .previously few algorithms were designed to handle the data and
maintain a local copy of the data which was on the cloud. Author also faced storage over burden
and computation costing by dealing with third party auditing algorithms. And finally author find

out the latest problem which is handling all the auditing with Third party auditing mechanism in
dynamic updating of data on the cloud. (shakti Arora, 2016)

Cloud Computing is current buzzword in the market. Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability,
Authenticity, and Privacy are essential security issues for Cloud providers and Consumers. In this
paper author will discuss how to provide security for the data from the unauthorized users and
provide integrity and availability of confidential data to the authorized users.
There are different security issues for cloud computing as it encompasses many technologies
Including networks, databases, operating systems, virtualization, resource scheduling, transaction
Management, load balancing, concurrency control and memory management.
Security Issues faced by Cloud computing .There are four types of issues.
1. Data Issues
2. Privacy issues
3. Infected Application
4. Security issues
For building that trust worthiness confidentiality, Integrity, Availability must be provided.
Steganography AES Algorithm. This paper applied different technique about data security and
privacy, focusing on the data storage and use in the cloud environment, for data protection in the
cloud computing environments to build trust between cloud service providers and consumer. (Ch,
2016)

This paper is about data encryption in cloud. Go to the cloud, has always been the dream of man,
but these cloud providers must provide guarantees on the protection of privacy and sensitive data
stored in their data centers shared between multiple clients using the concept of virtualization.
Virtualization techniques are numerous, and the choice of the proper technique requires a detailed
study of IT platform to virtualize.
A. Virtual Machine:
B. Isolator:
C. Full Hypervisor.
D. Para virtualization.
This paper is about to encrypt data before sending it to the cloud provider, but to execute the
calculations the data should be decrypted every time author need to work on it. Until now it was
impossible to encrypt data and to trust a third party to keep them safe and able to perform distant
calculations on them. They are compared based on four characteristics; Homomorphic Encryption
type, Privacy of Data, Security applied to and keys used. (Maha Teeba, 2103)

Within the cloud computing world, the virtual environment lets the user access computing power
that exceeds their physical worlds. There are several algorithms that categorized as classical.
i) Caesar Cipher:
ii) Vigenere Cipher

iii) Play fair Cipher
Several modern encryption techniques exist but here in this paper we will focus on two variants of
Data. The final outcome from this paper is in the favor of author proposed technique, hence it
prove here that author proposed technique was superior to the ones mentioned and compared in
this paper. And this method will also prove to be successful in applying data security in a cloud
computing environment thus maintaining the Confidentiality principle. (RAMANUJAM, 2014)

A collaborating encryption technique framework is proposed in this paper to meet the futures’
faster encryption requirements. The method described in this research is about the parallel and
distributed encryption system which gets the benefits the homomorphic encryption technique. The
collaboration encryption technique is a framework where different clouds can work in parallel with
the distributed processing. The security mechanism is improved by the homomorphic encryption
algorithm. In this paper, the parallel and distributed encryption technique introduced that helps to reduce
the confidential data security requirement. It helps to encrypt the parts of data at different locations and
merge at a single location. (N. D. Jambhekar, 2017)

To protect the data in cloud database server, cryptography is one of the important techniques. This
paper presents the symmetric cryptographic algorithm named as AES. It is based on several
substitutions, permutation and transformation. Security goals of data cover three points namely:
Availability, Confidentiality, and Integrity. Cryptography, in modern days is considered grouping
of three types of algorithms. They are
1) Symmetric-key algorithms
2) Asymmetric-key algorithms
3) Hash
4) AES
The main algorithm used in this paper is AES. It uses the 128, 192 or 256-bit key. Data can also protect
against future attacks such as smash attacks. AES encryption algorithm has minimal storage space and
comparatively high performance without any weaknesses and limitations while other symmetric algorithms
have some weaknesses and differences in performance and storage space. (Vishal R.pancholi, 2016)

This paper presents a Hybrid Encryption algorithm that is based on RSA Small-e and Efficient
RSA for improving the reliability in cloud computing environments. The main aim of this program
is to use the cryptography techniques in cloud computing communications. In addition, this paper
also gives the comparison between HE-RSA .Here, the effects of using HE-RSA on cloud
computing environments have been reviewed in more depth and details. In this paper, a hybrid
asymmetric-key encryption algorithm has been suggested based on RSA Small-e and Efficient
RSA according to the security issues in cloud computing environments. (moghadamm, 2016)

This paper provides a platform for high performance and throughput oriented computing, and
massive data storage. This paper proposes a symmetric block algorithm (CHiS-256) to encrypt

Cloud data in an efficient manner. The (CHiS-256) cipher is implemented as part of the Cloud data
storage service to offer a secure, high-performance and throughput Cloud storage system.
The results of author proposed algorithm are promising and show the methods to be advantageous
in Cloud massive data storage and access applications. (Yaser Jararweh, 2017)

Data security has consistently been a major issue in the field of computer science. This study is to
review about different security techniques and challenges from both software and hardware aspects
for protecting data in the cloud and aims at enhancing the data security and privacy protection for
the trustworthy cloud environment. This paper presents a comparative research analysis of the
existing research work regarding the techniques used in the cloud computing through data security
aspects including data integrity, confidentiality, and availability. This paper surveyed different
techniques about data security and privacy, focusing on the data storage and use in the cloud, for
data protection in the cloud computing environments to build trust between cloud service providers
and consumers. (Yunchuan Sun, 2017)

Cloud computing is a term related to a network that offers processing power, a wide array of
storage space and unbelievable speed of computation. The proposed methodology suggests the
encryption of the files to be uploaded on the cloud. The integrity and confidentiality of the data
uploaded by the user is ensured doubly by not only encrypting it but also providing access to the
data only on successful authentication. This paper proposes a framework which involves securing
of files through file encryption algorithm. The file present on the device will be encrypted using
password based AES algorithm. In this paper, authors proposed a framework which encrypts a file
before it is uploaded on to the cloud. AES is one of the most secure encryption algorithms. This
algorithm solves the problem of most, of the threats that data stored in the cloud faces. This
proposed framework also designed the use of login id and password to ensure authentic and
authorized access to a user’s data. (Debajyoti Mukhopadhyay, 2014)

Problem statement:
“One essential issue in cloud computing is data security,.
(Parsi Kalpana ; Sudha Singaraju,2012; Mandeep Kaur ; Manish Mahajan,2013; Debajyoti
Mukhopadhyay ; Gitesh Sonawane ; Parth Sarthi Gupta ; Sagar Bhavsar ; Vibha Mittal,2014;
Ch. Chakradhara Rao ; A.V.Ramana,2016; Vishal R.pancholi ; Dr.Bhardresh P.Petal,2016).
According to Ervin Kusuma Dewi, Muhammad Farid Wajdi security issued by cloud providers.
And, security issues faced by their customers. They put data in the cloud and entrust the provider.
That is why data security on cloud computing is needed. Data security becomes a major challenge
in cloud computing to reduce the risk.
According to Parsi Kalpana ; Sudha Singaraju, security has become the main obstacle which
is hampering the deployment of Cloud environments. Even though the Cloud Computing is
promising and efficient, there are many challenges for data security. Mandeep Kaur ; Manish

Mahajan concluded that the prevalent problem associated with cloud computing is data privacy,
security, anonymity and reliability etc. But the most important between them is security and how
cloud provider assures it. Ch. Chakradhara Rao ; A.V.Ramana concluded that Security in
Cloud computing is an important and serious aspect, and has many issues and problem related to
it. Vishal R.pancholi ; Dr.Bhardresh P.Petal, said that security of the data in the cloud database
server is the key area of concern in the acceptance of cloud. It requires a very high degree of
privacy and authentication.
Although a number of factors have been suggested as important elements in impacting the
security of data in cloud computing for example privacy, authenticity, authority, data
confidentiality, integrity and availability, the impact of authorization appear as a common thread.
Conclusion:
A lot of researches have been conducted to introduce new ways of securing the clouds and the data. Most
researches are not yet implemented, but, hopefully, in the next few years we will find these technologies
implemented, and used to its full potential. And as technology is evolving, more risks might threat the
business. However, many researches are working on improving these issues as it progress. Different
techniques are used in different papers for protection of data in cloud e.g AES (Advanced Encryption
Standard) is one of the most secure encryption algorithms and not many attacks are successful on data
which is encrypted using AES. In these papers different encryption algorithms are used like AES, DES,
RSA and Blowfish to ensure the security of data in cloud computing environment. If message is small then
RSA algorithm is used and for large message AES algorithm is better. AES encryption is the fastest method
that has the flexibility and scalability and it is easily implemented. There is another algorithm is used now
a day Homomorphic, But more work is required for this technique.

References:

1) Ch, C. ,. (2016). Data security in Cloud computing. google scholar.
2) Debajyoti Mukhopadhyay, G. S. (2014). Enhanced Security For Cloud Storage Using File
encryption.
3) Feng Zhao, C. L. (2014). A cloud computing security solution based on fully homomorphic
encryption. IEEE.
4) Jaber1, A. N. (2013). Use of Cryptography in Cloud Computing. IEEE.
5) Maha Teeba, S. A. (2103). Secure Cloud Computing through Homomorphic Encryption.
6) moghadamm, F. F. (2016). A Hybrid Encryption Algorithm Based on RSA Small-e and Efficient-
RSA for Cloud Computing Environments.
7) N. D. Jambhekar, S. M. (2017). Cloud Computing with collaborating system. ieee.
8) Nikhitha K. Nair, N. K. (2015). digital signature and advance ancryption. IEEE.

9) RAMANUJAM, V. K. (2014). Data security in cloud.
10) Santosh Kumar Singh, D. P. (2016). An approach towards data security in cloud computing using
AES. IJARCCE.
11) shakti Arora, S. D. (2016). Study of Integrity Based Algorithm in Decentralized Cloud Computing
Environment. science direct.
12) Singh, J. (2015). Review on Cloud Computing Security Issues and Encryption Techniques. IJDER.
13) Vishal R.pancholi, D. P. (2016). enhancement of cloud computing security with secure data
usage . ieee.
14) Yaser Jararweh, O. A.-S. (2017). Highg- Through put Encryption For Cloud Computing Storage
System.
15) Yunchuan Sun, J. Z. (2017). Data security and privacy in cloud computing.