KAAF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP ON CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN AN ORGANIZATION
GLADYS NAA KOSHIE CLELAND
DECLARATIONI hereby declare that this submission is my own work towards the award of the degree and to the best of my knowledge, contains no material previously published by another person in this university, except where due acknowledgement has been made to the text.
Name: Gladys Naa Koshie Cleland Index number: 11100914)
Signature: …………………….. Date:………………………………..
Supervisors Name: Mr.Frimpong Otchere
DEDICATIONThis project is dedicated first of all to the almighty God, who has made the sure power of his word effective in my life and to my parents and my lovely brother who have taken care of me till today.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTMy profound gratitude goes to the almighty God for the divine grace and strength he granted me during the entire course period and making this project work a success.
To my supervisor Mr.Frimpong Okyere, I say a big thank you for giving me the needed guidance, editorial assistance and valuable support with total patience throughout this study also say a big thank you to our business Dean Prof.Boateng and Mr.Laryea for their support.
My heartfelt gratitude also goes to the management and staffs of university of Education winneba for accommodating me in administering my questionnaire.
Finally my special thanks to my parents and Mrs. Phyllis Constance Puttick for their prayers and support and granting me the privilege to acquire this degree
ABSTRACTConflict is inevitable but also plays a major role in determination of an organizations productivity. Leadership also plays a vital role in conflict management. The style possessed and applied by leaders has a great effect on managing conflicts in an organization. It will determine if there was positive or negative effect after the conflict was managed and will therefore either lead to an increase or decrease in organizational productivity or may affect or may not affect the reputation of the organization. The study had the following objectives; to find out the attributes of leadership for effective conflict management, to assess the effectiveness of the attributes of leadership in conflict management and to evaluate the challenges faced by leadership in managing conflicts and its effects on organizational productivity. In conducting the research to attain these goals, a research sampling method was adopted to select the sample size from which data was obtained. Questionnaires and interviews were designed to gather data based on these objectives. The completed questionnaires were processed and analyzed. The findings of this study revealed that, the leaders that handled conflict possessed a democratic style of leadership and therefore handled conflict issues that occurred in the organization to produce a positive result. This was confirmed by the strong responses given by the staffs and students of the population sampled. It was also found out that the leaders used the accommodative style of leadership to handle conflicts and concerning the major issue at stake, their democratic style of handling conflicts yielded a positive results which didn’t affect the studies of students. The findings also clearly stated that the only challenges faced by leaders as pertaining to the recent conflict at hand was the presence of the government in the process of handling the conflicts. The study therefore concluded with a recommendation that efforts should be made as to the selection of a permanent board for handling conflict rather than a temporary board. Also, government should be proactive and not reactive likewise the leaders and they should keep up with their leadership style approach to conflict. The research made extensive use of primary and secondary data. The primary data was obtained by administering well-structured questionnaires, interviews were also conducted to access in depth of the research. Information was also gathered from citi FM online. The data revealed that a democratic style of leadership has positive effects on conflict management.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc516499698 h iiDEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc516499699 h iiiACKNOWLEDGMENT PAGEREF _Toc516499700 h ivABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc516499701 h vCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc516499702 h 1GENERAL INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc516499703 h 11.1Background of the Study PAGEREF _Toc516499704 h 11.2Statements of problem PAGEREF _Toc516499705 h 41.3Objective of the Study PAGEREF _Toc516499706 h 51.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc516499707 h 51.5 The Justification/ Significance of Study PAGEREF _Toc516499708 h 51.6 Scope of study PAGEREF _Toc516499709 h 61.7 Limitations of study PAGEREF _Toc516499710 h 61.8 Organization of study PAGEREF _Toc516499711 h 6CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc516499712 h 7LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc516499713 h 72.0Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516499714 h 72. 1Leadership style PAGEREF _Toc516499715 h 82.1.1Authoritarian PAGEREF _Toc516499716 h 92.1.2Paternalistic PAGEREF _Toc516499717 h 102.1.3Democratic PAGEREF _Toc516499718 h 102.1.4Laissez-faire PAGEREF _Toc516499719 h 112.1.5Transactional leadership PAGEREF _Toc516499720 h 122.1.6Transformational PAGEREF _Toc516499721 h 132.2Conflict management PAGEREF _Toc516499722 h 132.2.1 Positive outcomes of conflict are: PAGEREF _Toc516499723 h 172.2.2Negative outcomes of conflict include: PAGEREF _Toc516499724 h 172.3Types of conflicts PAGEREF _Toc516499725 h 172.3.1 Intra-individual/Intrapersonal Conflict PAGEREF _Toc516499726 h 182.3.2Inter-personal Conflict PAGEREF _Toc516499727 h 182.3.3Intra-group Conflict PAGEREF _Toc516499728 h 182.3.4Inter-group conflict PAGEREF _Toc516499729 h 182.4The five (5) conflict styles PAGEREF _Toc516499730 h 182.4.1Dual concern model PAGEREF _Toc516499731 h 182.4.2Political conflict resolution in practice PAGEREF _Toc516499732 h 202.5Leadership and Conflict management PAGEREF _Toc516499733 h 212.6Advantages ; Disadvantages of managing Conflict in work ;Life Strategy PAGEREF _Toc516499734 h 212.6.1Time PAGEREF _Toc516499735 h 222.6.2Productivity PAGEREF _Toc516499736 h 222.6.3Situations PAGEREF _Toc516499737 h 222.6.4Creativity PAGEREF _Toc516499738 h 222.7Conflict resolution PAGEREF _Toc516499739 h 222.7.1Counseling PAGEREF _Toc516499740 h 242.7.2Steps to conflict resolution in the classroom PAGEREF _Toc516499741 h 24CHAPTER 3 PAGEREF _Toc516499742 h 27METHODOLOGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE PAGEREF _Toc516499743 h 273.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516499744 h 273.1 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc516499745 h 273.2 Population PAGEREF _Toc516499746 h 283.3 The Sample Size PAGEREF _Toc516499747 h 283.4The Research Instruments PAGEREF _Toc516499748 h 283.5. Mode of data collection PAGEREF _Toc516499749 h 283.6 Data processing and analysis PAGEREF _Toc516499750 h 283.7 Limitations of the methodology PAGEREF _Toc516499751 h 293.8 Organizational profile –University of Education Winneba PAGEREF _Toc516499752 h 29CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc516499753 h 39DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS PAGEREF _Toc516499754 h 394.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516499755 h 394.1Presentation of Findings PAGEREF _Toc516499756 h 394.1.1Demography of Respondents PAGEREF _Toc516499757 h 394.1.2Attributes for effective conflict management. PAGEREF _Toc516499758 h 424.1.3Effectiveness of Leadership Attributes for Conflict Management PAGEREF _Toc516499759 h 454.1.4 Challenges faced by leaders in managing the currently occurring conflict issues PAGEREF _Toc516499760 h 534.2Analysis of Findings PAGEREF _Toc516499761 h 534.2.3 Conclusion on analysis PAGEREF _Toc516499762 h 56CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc516499763 h 57SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc516499764 h 575.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516499765 h 575.1 Summary PAGEREF _Toc516499766 h 575.2Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc516499767 h 585.3Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc516499768 h 59REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc516499769 h 60APPENDIX PAGEREF _Toc516499770 h 67
LIST OF FIGURES
TOC h z c “Figure 4.” Figure 4. 1 Age Distribution of respondents PAGEREF _Toc516501393 h 39Figure 4. 2 Gender of Respondents PAGEREF _Toc516501394 h 40Figure 4. 3 Respondents Educational Background PAGEREF _Toc516501395 h 41Figure 4. 4 Code of conduct that defines acceptable behaviors PAGEREF _Toc516501396 h 42Figure 4. 5 Availability of a process in place for managing disruptive and inappropriate behaviors PAGEREF _Toc516501397 h 43Figure 4. 6 Existence of clearly designed approaches to resolving conflicts in the organization PAGEREF _Toc516501398 h 44Figure 4. 7 Staffs opinion on its leader’s competency in dealing with conflict PAGEREF _Toc516501399 h 45Figure 4. 8 Level of confidence of staffs pertaining to quality of service not threatened by unprofessional behaviors PAGEREF _Toc516501400 h 46Figure 4. 9 Leaders deal appropriately with conflict PAGEREF _Toc516501401 h 47Figure 4. 10 Observation of behavioral problems between others at workplace PAGEREF _Toc516501402 h 48Figure 4. 11 Increase in organizations productivity or improvement in organizational performance as a result of conflict PAGEREF _Toc516501403 h 49Figure 4. 12 Decrease in organizations productivity or improvement in organizational performance as a result of conflict PAGEREF _Toc516501404 h 50Figure 4. 13 Poor image or bad reputation in the organization due to conflict PAGEREF _Toc516501405 h 51Figure 4. 14 Leadership style possessed by leaders for conflict management PAGEREF _Toc516501406 h 52Figure 4. 15 Conflict style used by leaders who manage conflict at UEW PAGEREF _Toc516501407 h 53
CHAPTER ONEGENERAL INTRODUCTIONBackground of the Study
Over the last few years, several studies have examined how the transformational, transactional and Laissez-faire leadership styles influence a wide range of variables, including satisfaction, commitment, employees intent to quit and employee performance (Dumdum et al,2002;judge and Piccolo,2004;Rafferty and Griffin,2004). However the relationship between leadership styles and conflict has been overlooked. This is surprising because some researchers stress that conflict management represents an important part of the role leaders play (Bass and Riggio, 2006).
In concrete terms, a leader may be involved in organizational conflicts in three different ways. First a leader may be directly involved in a conflict. His/her conflict management style (e.g. Avoidance, confrontation, collaboration) would then have an impact on the outcome. Second, a leader must sometimes intervene in conflict involving subordinates. In this case, His/her role is to get past the impasse between the employees (e.g. informal mediator or arbitrator).Third, a leader can also have an impact on conflicts through His/her leadership style, which then has a structuring Impact on a context that is not propitious to the development of conflicts. It is this last angle that will interest us the most here.
This study is therefore intended as an exploratory endeavor to the extent that it constitutes first step in understanding the role of manager’s leadership with respect to conflicts in the workplace. More precisely, the purpose of this study is to empirically asses the link between dimensions associated with transformational, transactional and Laissez-faire leadership styles and conflict management or workplace conflict.
Conflict management is the practice of being able to identify and handle conflicts sensibly, fairly, and efficiently. Since conflicts in a business are a natural part of the workplace, it is important that there are people who understand conflicts and know how to resolve them. This is important in today’s market more than ever. Everyone is striving to show how valuable they are to the company they work for and at times, this can lead to disputes with other members of the team.
Conflict happens on the job, between groups in our society, within families, and right in the middle of our most personal relationships. Conflict is ever present and both fascinating and maddening. The challenges of dealing with differences have rarely been greater.
When a person arises in the morning at home and greets family or roommates, conflict potential abounds. In educational contexts, differences occur about goals, procedures, or activities. As customers, our hopes and desires sometimes diverge from the stated policies of the stores we visit. As employees, daily work with clients, customers, co-workers, or bosses can be a struggle.
While scholars study conflict management in a variety of contexts (intimacy, work, education, romance, mixed and same sex friendship, intercultural, organizational, war and peace), the basic elements or variables of conflict remain stable across contexts.
Some qualifiers and limitations:
Conflict is a fact of organizational life. On the job, “conflict is a stubborn fact of organizational life” (Kolb and Putnam 1992, 311). Rather than seeing conflict as abnormal, Pondy (1992) suggests we view organizations as “arenas for staging conflicts, and managers as both fight promoters who organize bouts and as referees who regulate them” (259). Furthermore, Pondy asserts that in the company, agency, or small business, conflict may be the very essence of what the organization is about, and if “conflict isn’t happening then the organization has no reason for being.” One study surveyed workers and found that almost 85 percent reported conflicts at work (Volkema and Bergmann 1989). And with an increasing awareness of cultural diversity and gender equity issues, it is imperative that we become familiar with issues surrounding promotions and harassment. In fact, one can see training in organizations as a form of preventive conflict management (Hathaway 1995). The recognition of the prevalence of conflict at work has led to books on mediating conflict in the workplace (Yarbrough and Wilmot 1995), showing how managers can learn conflict management skills to intervene in disputes in their organization.
Ongoing, unresolved workplace conflict also has negative impacts that reach far beyond the principal parties. In an electronics plant, for example, if the director of engineering and the director of production are unable to reach agreement about quality controls, the staffs of both engineering and production actively complain about one another, subverting both groups’ goals. The continual avoidance of the problem seeps throughout the organization, affecting everyone who has direct contact with the directors. If the executive director of a nonprofit agency and her board cannot get along, employees tend to take sides, fear for their jobs, and, like those above them, wage a campaign discrediting the other group. Ignoring workplace conflict sets destructive forces in motion that decrease productivity, spread the conflict to others, and lead to lessened morale and productivity. In one organization, it was recently told, the president and CEO was on the verge of reorganizing the structure, affecting 600 people so that two vice presidents would not have to talk to one another!
If you’ve recruited effectively, your workplace is full of diverse employees with differing strengths and weaknesses. They also have unique ideas and communication styles, so it only makes sense that they’ll butt heads from time to time. In fact, 60-80 percent of all difficulties in organizations come from strained relationships among employees.
Zeynep Ilgaz, (2014) suggest that while on the surface it seems undesirable, correctly managed conflict can provide a source of growth and creativity within your organization. What matters is not whether conflict does or does not exist — it does — but whether your team is ready to handle it. The team that understands how to strategically approach conflict will build long-term cohesiveness, and the team that doesn’t will need leadership to step in.
Diagnosing Conflict and Moving Forward
Because conflict can negatively affect job performance, morale and eventually sales and company performance, leaders need to first educate themselves and then help their team learn how to handle conflict effectively. Here are three steps employers should take when dealing with conflict:
Diagnose the conflict.
From verbal disagreement and individual differences to physical violence and verbal harassment, there are different levels of conflict. The first step is to identify whether it’s a conflict in opinion, personality, leadership and management style or values.
Identify a goal.
Next, identify the goal that your team would like to achieve. Do you want employees to reach a mutual state of agreement? Do you want one decision to be reached? Focus on the solution and what steps each party needs to take to achieve results as a team.
Focus on opportunity.
Although conflict can cause stress at the time, the effects of it can be incredibly valuable. Take this conflict as an opportunity to learn and improve. What is the explicit positive that will come out of this situation? Focus on it, and encourage your team to do so, too.
When conflict comes up in your organization, it’s important to take a step back, think about the situation, and see how this conflict can have a positive impact on the team.
Deciding When to Intervene
Sometimes, conflicts can be settled among employees without a manager intervening. But other times, they hinder performance and need to be taken care of immediately. For instance, workers who take time off because of stress, anxiety, or a work conflict will be off the job for about 21 days. And the typical manager spends, 25-40 percent of her time dealing with workplace conflicts. Just think about how much productivity is being wasted!
These statistics prove that leaders aren’t stepping in or staying out of it when they should. While some level of conflict is healthy in the workplace, leadership needs to intervene if it becomes serious or goes on for too long. If you observe any of these warning signs, you need to intervene now:
A sudden change in employee behavior
A sudden change in employee body language or verbal tone
A noticeable reduction in productivity
Increased palpable stress levels
Allowing your employees to work out mild conflicts is a great way to build team morale and save precious management time. But if any of your employees begin exhibiting these behaviors, it’s time to step in and mediate.
When companies stand by policies of open communication and input, there’s no guarantee that everyone will like everything they hear. But if managed correctly, conflict can lead to great decisions, improvements in processes, new ideas, and better relationships.
The University of Education, Winneba (UEW) was established in September, 1992 as a University College under PNDC Law 322. On 14th May, 2004 the University of Education Act, Act 672 was enacted to upgrade the status of the University College of Education of Winneba to the status of a full University. The vision of UEW is to be an internationally reputable institution for teacher education and research. The mission is to train competent professional teachers for all levels of education as well as conduct research, disseminate knowledge and contribute to educational policy and development. As one of its practices in relation to this topic, University of Winneba Ghana has a “Centre for conflict human rights and peace studies (CHRAPS) Department which seeks to be Ghana’s premier Centre that conducts independent research on, and provides in-depth analysis of conventional and non-conventional issues related to the intersections between conflicts, peace and human rights processes in West Africa and beyond. One of the main vision of this department is to support staff to be absolutely dedicated to the creation and sustenance of an organizational culture, conducive environment etc.
Conflict is everywhere .It exist inside and around us. It is natural and inevitable element of all human relationships. It occurs at all levels of society –intrapsychic, interpersonal, intragroup, intergroup, intranational (Sandole &Startoste, 1987).It Ubiquitous (Present, Appearing or found everywhere) at all levels and so must be well managed and if well managed, it can benefit companies and individuals. Leadership effect on conflict management is important and can help University of Winneba to implement strategies to limit the negative aspects of any conflict that arises and to increase the positive aspects to impact the prosperity of an organization.
1.2Statements of problemDespite the benefits derived from effective conflict management, most companies try to do without it resulting in employee turnover and other problems.
In the light of the above statement, assessing conflict management as an important tool for organizational performance, using University of Education Winneba as a case is therefore a significant undertaking.
In recent times the University of Winneba has been involved in some conflict situation. This was reported in the Article published by Citi97.3fm online dubbed “University of Education lecturers ‘Clash’ over lawsuit”. Dated Thursdays October 26, 2017.The latest action relates to a writ filed in May 2017, where one supi Kofi Kwayera, adduced that the University Councils mandate had expired in November 2013, but the Education Ministry failed to constitute a new governing Council for the university. The plaintiffs, in their lawsuits, said Dr.Samuel Ofori Bekoes decision came as “a surprise and shock, since no meeting was ever convened on the Kumasi campus, Mampong campus or Winneba campus to take a decision to meddle in the court case. “The problem therefore has brought about an attack on academic freedom as described by the court of law.
This research effort will be geared toward assessing how the leadership of University of Education Winneba is coping with the conflict and finding solutions or measures to manage the conflict, though it is doing many things to maintain its reputation and organizational performance.
1.3Objective of the StudyThe main objective of this thesis is to assess the effects of leadership on conflict management as an important tool for organizational productivity with University of Education Winneba as a case study. This the study specifically seeks to:
1.) To find out the attributes of leadership for effective conflict management in UEW.
2.) To assess the effectiveness of the attributes of leadership in conflict management.
3.) To evaluate the challenges faced by leadership in managing conflict and its effects on organizational productivity.
1.4 Research Questions1. What are the attributes expressed by the leadership for effective conflict management in the UEW?
2. How effective are the attributes of leadership in conflict management?
3. What are the challenges faced by the leadership in managing conflicts and its effects on organizational productivity?
1.5 The Justification/ Significance of StudyConflict management is important because it’s always wise to adjust to some extent and try to find a solution to the problem rather than cribbing and fighting. Tussles and fights spoil relationships and only increase our list of enemies. Conflict can only be managed through leaders. The style possessed by leadership is a strong factor which can determine how conflict can be managed to yield to a positive or negative results. Conflict management prevents fall out between family members, friends, relatives and makes life peaceful and stress free. It is important to the University because it is always wise to manage conflict for positive results in the first place rather than facing its negative consequences. It also helps prevent the feeling of not wanting to go to work because your fellow worker is constantly fighting with you. Employees are expected to give their hundred percent at work to ensure the maximum productivity. Nothing productive will ever come out if the employees are constantly engaged in fighting and criticizing others. “Speak when you are angry and you will make the best speech you will ever regret.”- Ambrose Bierce. The significance of the study therefore is to present findings on the effects leadership has on conflict management.
1.6 Scope of studyThis study is conducted at University of Education Winneba to assess the effects leadership has on conflict management in the organization. The study will be limited to the University of Education. The research investigated leadership, types of leadership styles, leadership and conflict, advantages and disadvantages of conflict, the sources of conflicts, the types of conflict, and steps to managing conflict and how to manage conflict in a workplace.
1.7 Limitations of study
Disclosure of relevant issues will be a bottleneck as a student because some information needed to carry out the research might not be released. Also time was another hindrance, and employee’s willingness to participate in the research can be a hindrance.
1.8 Organization of studyThe thesis will be organized in five chapters and the breakdown is as follows;
Chapter one covers the introduction, background of study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, justification of the study, limitation of the research and organization of the study. Chapter two will be fully devoted to literature review .This chapter critically looks at what other people have said about the issues under discussion as well as review of previous studies on Conflict management on organizational performance. Chapter three will deal with research methodology which covers sampling method techniques, administration of questionnaire. The chapter talks about the study area. Chapter four handles responses to interview and questionnaire, including data analysis, interpretations and presentation of findings. Finally chapter five consists of the summary, findings, conclusion and recommendations of the study.
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.0IntroductionLeadership & Conflict Management: A Review of the Literature As business organizations move further into the twenty-first century, there appears to be steady advancement in technology, expansion, and innovation. More than ever, leaders are being developed to handle change, growth and transformation. With rapid growth, leaders are also encountering interpersonal and group-to-group conflict. By reviewing the current literature on leadership and conflict management, leaders can be equipped to understand how the conflict is, how it can be managed and the impact of leadership on conflict situations. This research paper proposes to review the literature related to the effects of leadership on conflict management in organizations. The research question presented in this research paper above address leadership in conflict management.
Merriam-Webster (conflict, 2014) defines conflict as a difference in ideas or viewpoints that may result in a struggle for power or position. Conflict management, therefore, can be defined as an affirmative and effective approach to managing differences or disagreements (Asawo, 2011). Conflict can occur in any setting and as leaders in organizations guide and transform their teams, they are also challenged with managing conflicts that arise both interpersonally and within groups. Doucet, Poitras, & Chênevert (2009) share that the nature of conflict is typically connected to an interest or task. A conflict that is interest-related refers to a interpersonal or group divergence in goals or objectives while a task conflict indicates a conflict related to the methods, ways, or processes involved in accomplishing the objective. Other researchers (Raeve, et. al., 2008, Montes, Rodríguez, & Serrano, 2012) agree with this assessment revealing that when defining conflict, the disagreement which sets the conflict in motion is usually perceived due to an interference with the achievement of a goal. The current literature also revealed that teams, a group of individuals usually working under the direction of a leader, are natural settings for possible conflict because of the diversity of characteristics involved in groups (Shetach, 2012). Teams are not only cross-functional, but can be virtual, autonomous and even action-learning. The ability to manage conflict appears to be vital to successful relationships, effective teams and influential leadership. Shetach (2012) theorizes that conflict handling has been a fundamental component of human society and the successful management of conflict situations has determined the outcomes in human existence that is seen today. While the body of literature gave various motives behind the management of conflict, researchers differed in their perspectives of why management was essential. Giacomantonio, Pierro, & Kruglanski (2011) communicated that some individuals attempt to manage conflict because they have a need for cognitive closure, while other researchers shared generally that the attempt to manage conflict comes simply from the importance of maintaining human relationships (Montes, Rodríguez, & Serrano, 2012, Shetach, 2012). Conflicts are influenced by a variety of factors. From every aspect, conflict can be possible: attitude, age, nations, sex, religion, education, opinions, upbringing, looks, race, feelings, experience or cultures (Shetach, 2012). Conflicts may also come from differences in values, affiliations, roles, positions, status, high levels of interdependence or the level of hierarchy (Giacomantonio, Pierro, & Kruglanski, 2011, Shetach, 2012). Researchers disclose that additional risk factors for conflict may be hectically paced or monotonous work, white collar status, neuroticism or hostility (Raeve, et. al., 2008). With the vast array of possible triggers for conflict, management of conflict has been challenging for leaders, thus an examination of the role of leadership in conflict situations is necessary.
Doucet, Poitras, & Chênevert (2009) share that a leader can play a role in organization conflict in three specific ways: directly, through intervention or through leadership style. In a direct role, the conflict may be interpersonal or group-to-group and the leader may exhibit a conflict management style to achieve a desired outcome. If intervening in a conflict, the leader may act as arbitrator or mediator. Lastly, if the leader’s management style causes conflict, then the methods or techniques used by the leader promotes conflict interpersonally or group-to-group within his organization (Curseu, 2011). Giacomantonio, Pierro, ; Kruglanski (2011) share a similar view offering that leaders often have conflict management handling styles that they employ to deal with differences, whether interpersonally or within their groups.
2. 1Leadership styleA leadership style is a leader’s style of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Various authors have proposed identifying many different leadership styles as exhibited by leaders in the political, business or other fields. Studies on leadership style are conducted in the military field, expressing an approach that stresses a holistic view of leadership, including how a leader’s physical presence determines how others perceive that leader. The factors of physical presence in this context include military bearing, physical fitness, confidence, and resilience. The leader’s intellectual capacity helps to conceptualize solutions and to acquire knowledge to do the job. A leader’s conceptual abilities apply agility, judgment, innovation, interpersonal tact, and domain knowledge. Domain knowledge encompasses tactical and technical knowledge as well as cultural and geopolitical awareness. Daniel Goleman (2000) in his article “Leadership that Gets Results” talks about six styles of leadership.
The authoritarian leadership style keeps main emphasis on the distinction of the authoritarian leader and their followers. These types of leaders make sure to only create a distinct professional relationship. Direct supervision is what they believe to be key in maintaining a successful environment and follower ship. Authoritarian leadership styles often follow the vision of those that are in control, and may not necessarily be compatible with those that are being led. Authoritarian leaders have a focus on efficiency, as other styles, such as a democratic style, may be seen as a hindrance on progress.
Examples of authoritarian leadership: a police officer directing traffic, a teacher ordering a student to do his or her assignment, and a supervisor instructing a subordinate to clean a workstation. All of these positions require a distinct set of characteristics that give the leader the position to get things in order or get a point across. Authoritarian Traits: sets goals individually, engages primarily in one-way and downward communication, controls discussion with followers, and dominate interaction.
Several studies have confirmed a relationship between bullying, on the one hand, and an autocratic leadership and an authoritarian way of settling conflicts or dealing with disagreements, on the other. An authoritarian style of leadership may create a climate of fear, where there is little or no room for dialogue and where complaining may be considered futile.
2.1.2PaternalisticThe way a paternalistic leader works is by acting as a parental figure by taking care of their subordinates as a parent would. In this style of leadership the leader supplies complete concern for his followers or workers. In return he receives the complete trust and loyalty of his people. Workers under this style of leader are expected to become totally committed to what the leader believes and will not strive off and work independently. The relationship between these co-workers and leader are extremely solid. The workers are expected to stay with a company for a longer period of time because of the loyalty and trust. Not only do they treat each other like family inside the work force, but outside too. These workers are able to go to each other with any problems they have regarding something because they believe in what they say is going to truly help them.
According to B. M. Bass who wrote Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations, workers who follow paternalistic leadership also have better organization skills. The leader encourages organization because they allow the workers to complete tasks so that they can stay on top of their work. The workers complete tasks this boosts self-confidence and it makes them work harder to reach a goal and exceed the goal to prove to their boss they are working hard. Having this style of leadership can also help implement a reward system. This system will allow their workers to work even better because there is something for them at the end of the tunnel. While doing this they will also be able to accomplish more work in a set time frame.
The democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities with group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by practicing social equality.
The boundaries of democratic participation tend to be circumscribed by the organization or the group needs and the instrumental value of people’s attributes (skills, attitudes, etc.). The democratic style encompasses the notion that everyone, by virtue of their human status, should play a part in the group’s decisions. However, the democratic style of leadership still requires guidance and control by a specific leader. The democratic style demands the leader to make decisions on who
Should be called upon within the group and who is given the right to participate in, make and vote on decisions.
Research has found that this leadership style is one of the most effective and creates higher productivity, better contributions from group members and increased group morale. Democratic leadership can lead to better ideas and more creative solutions to problems because group members are encouraged to share their thoughts and ideas. While democratic leadership is one of the most effective leadership styles, it does have some potential downsides. In situations where roles are unclear or time is of the essence, democratic leadership can lead to communication failures and uncompleted projects. Democratic leadership works best in situations where group members are skilled and eager to share their knowledge. It is also important to have plenty of time to allow people to contribute, develop a plan and then vote on the best course of action.
The laissez-faire leadership style is where all the rights and power to make decisions is fully given to the worker. This was first described by Lewin, Lippitt, and White in 1939, along with the autocratic leadership and the democratic leadership styles.
Laissez-faire leaders allow followers to have complete freedom to make decisions concerning the completion of their work. It allows followers a self-rule, while at the same time offering guidance and support when requested. The laissez-faire leader using guided freedom provides the followers with all materials necessary to accomplish their goals, but does not directly participate in decision making unless the followers request their assistance.
This is an effective style to use when:
Followers are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.
Followers have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own.
Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used.
Followers are trustworthy and experienced.
This style should not be used when:
The leader cannot or will not provide regular feedback to their followers.
2.1.5Transactional leadershipTransactional leaders focus their leadership on motivating followers through a system of rewards and punishments. There are two factors which form the basis for this system, Contingent Reward and management-by-exception.
Contingent reward provides rewards, materialistic or psychological, for effort and recognizes good performance.
Management-by-exception allows the leader to maintain the status quo. The leader intervenes when subordinates do not meet acceptable performance levels and initiates corrective action to improve performance. Management by exception helps reduce the workload of managers being that they are only called-in when workers deviate from course.
This type of leader identifies the needs of their followers and gives rewards to satisfy those needs in exchange of certain level of performance.
Transactional leaders focus on increasing the efficiency of established routines and procedures. They are more concerned with following existing rules than with making changes to the organization.
A transactional leader establishes and standardizes practices that will help the organization reach:
C.Efficiency of operation
Effect on work teams
Survey done by Jun Liu, Xiaoyu Liu and Xianju Zeng on the correlation of transactional leadership and how innovations can be affected by team emotions. The research was composed of 90 work teams, with a total of 460 members and 90 team leaders. The study found that there is a relationship between emotions, labor behavior and transactional leadership that affect for the team. Depending on the level of emotions of the team; this can affect the transactional leader in a positive or negative way. Transactional leaders work better in teams where there is a lower level of emotions going into the project. This is because individuals are able to
Think freely when setting their emotions aside from their work.
Have all of their focus on the given task.
A transactional leader is:
1. Negatively affected when the emotional level is high.
2. Positively affected when the emotional level is low.
Transactional leadership presents a form of strategic leadership that is important for the organizations development. Transactional leadership is essential for team innovativeness.
2.1.6TransformationalA transformational leader is a type of person in which the leader is not limited by his or her followers’ perception. The main objective is to work to change or transform his or her followers’ needs and redirect their thinking. Leaders that follow the transformation style of leading, challenge and inspire their followers with a sense of purpose and excitement. Transformational leaders also create a vision of what they aspire to be, and communicate this idea to others (their followers). Schultz and Schultz identify three characteristics of a transformational leader:
Charismatic leadership has a broad field of knowledge, has a self-promoting personality, high/great energy level, and willing to take risk and use irregular strategies in order to stimulate their followers to think independently.
2.2Conflict managementMany theories have been proposed to explain conflict management as an effective tool for effective performance management. In an organization, there are many causes of conflicts: However conflict within an individual usually arise when a person is uncertain about what task is expected to do, if not clearly defined by the supervisor or the person in charge (Henry, 2009).According to the literature, there are innumerable origins of organizational dispute and each produces its own variety of effects. Generally there are six major sources (i) the problems resulting from role conflict, a condition that occurs when there is a clash over ones role in the organizations;(ii) the interpersonal disagreements that arise when one person is experiencing individual stress; (iii) The power struggles that pitch persons and groups against one another to achieve their own selfish objectives; (iv) The misunderstandings and disagreements from very different orientations; (v) The interdependence requirements for collaboration which, if not extensive and balanced between the parties, cause communication and interaction breakdowns which, in turn if critical, lead to more intensive conflicts; (vi) The external pressures from forces outside the enterprise that breed internal pressures as the system seeks to adapt but not to disrupt its internal order. Jung (2003) declares that conflict is clearly associated with power and can emerge when goal achievement of an organization is avoided. It is also believed that people are aware of the factors that generate conflicts such as scarcity, obstruction and incompatible interests or goals (Robbins, 1983).Conflict can also be broken out when one party avoids the goal achievement of the order one. However ,(pondy,1966) opined that it is probable that causes for conflicts are not highly correlated with goal and objective achievement in situations of routine behavior where procedures are well defined and environment is stable. In these circumstances, conflict variables are probably more related to personality, autonomy reasons, functional interdependence and status. Some of the reasons that justify conflict escalation according tolkeda et al;(2005) are;(i) as departments grow, people lose contact with other departments, or yet, members of a department start to think differently from other areas,(ii) the increase of emphasis in the financial measures as a tool for motivation for managers and the establishment of different profit centers inside an integrated business system end up creating many conflicts;(iii)the increasing rise of emphasis in functional specialization, politics of promotion and recruiting reinforce the isolation of departments, generating conflicts;(iv)today there is more room for workers to show criticism among each other ,while this freedom of speech can be beneficial for society as a whole, in organizational context can be transformed into conflicts and (v) consumers demand lower prices, better quality in products and services, creating pressures so that departments work more effectively which can result in conflicts among departments. Another reason pointed by (Kumar et al; 1995) for the occurrence of conflicts is the asymmetric degree of interdependence that affects the level of trust and commitment of the groups. Asymmetric interdependence occurs when parties have different levels of dependence among each other. That is, in one same group some individuals can depend on people that, independence in relation to them. In total interdependence, on the other hand, individuals are totally dependent on one another. Kumar et al (1995) states those relationships with total interdependence have less conflict than the ones with asymmetric interdependence. For (Jung, 2003), conflict is smaller in highly dependent relationships because, in general, the dependent part conforms itself that it cannot alter the situation and accepts the leader’s power.
Conflict can be managed in different ways, some focusing on interpersonal relationships and others on structural changes. Robinson et al (1974) advocates that managing conflict toward constructive action is the best approach in resolving conflict in an organization. When conflict arises, we need to be able to manage them properly, so that it becomes a positive force, rather than a negative force, which would threaten the individual or group. Parker (1974) argued that if conflicts arise and are not managed properly, it will lead to delays of work, disinterest and lack of action and in extreme cases it might lead to complete breakdown of the group.
Unmanaged conflict may result in withdrawal of individuals and unwillingness on their part to participate in other groups or assist with various group action programs in the organization.
Avoidance of the situation that cause the conflict is an example of an interpersonal approach (Robert& Jane, 1969).Another way of coping with conflict is through smoothing, emphasizing the areas of agreement and common goals and de-emphasizing disagreements. A third way according to Robert & Jane (1969) in forcing, pushing one’s own view on others; this, of course, will cause overt or covert resistance.
A traditional way of coping with conflict is to compromise, agreeing in part with the other persons view or demand. The biggest problem in developing the institutions of conflict control in organization is to develop an action of plan to identify conflicts at its initial stage. Conflict situations are frequently allowed to develop almost unmanageable proportions before anything is done about them, by this time it is often too late to resolve the conflict by peaceable and procedural means.
Knippen and Green (1999) argued that the best way to handle conflicts objectively is to follow six process that involves describing the conflict situation to other person, asking the other person how sees the conflict situation, responding the way the other person sees the situation, jointly deciding how to resolve the conflict, making commitment to resolve the conflicts, and promising to be committed in future to continue resolving conflicts, which might arise. Another way of coping with organizational conflicts is to make structural changes. This means modifying and integrating the objectives of groups of different viewpoints. Moreover, the organization structure may have to be changed and authority-responsibility relationships clarified. New ways of coordinating activities may have to be found. Tasks work locations can also be arranged.
Derr (1975) opined that contingency Theory is one of the conceptual tools useful for managing organizational conflicts. He stated that that are three major conflict management approaches from which an intervener can draw to formulate an approach appropriate for resolving a dispute: Collaboration, bargaining and power play. The appropriate use of these methods depends on the individual and organizational state. Collaboration involves people surfacing their differences (get them out in the open) and then work on the problems until they have attained mutually satisfactory solutions. This approach assumes that people will be motivated to expend the time and energy for such problem-solving activity. Bargaining on the hand assumes that neither party will emerge satisfied from confrontation but that both, through negotiation, can get something they do not have at the start, or more of something they need, usually by giving up something of lesser importance. One party generally wins more than the other; by the skillful use of tactical trades, he can get the maximum possible from the other side. Third approach is power play, which differs from the order two approach because its emphasis is on self-interest .Whereas ,in collaboration and bargaining the two sides come together to try to resolve their problems, when power is the dominant mode, the actions are unilateral or in coalitions acting unilaterally.
A good conflict improve decision outcomes especially on task-related conflict and group productivity by increasing the quality through a constructive criticism and individual playing a devil advocate role since most task related conflict allows the exchange of ideas and assist better performance among workforce.
Various conflict management theories opined that a healthy conflict management system should integrate the internal sub-system with the higher level of the organizational hierarchy while Ford (2007) provides four-way process which include assessment and inquiry, addresses the design, implementation and evaluation aimed at reaching a valid and objective conflict management decision. Ekong (2000) reported a positive correlation between democratic management styles and organizational stability. He noted that democratic strategies would promote inclusion in decision and by consequence workers identification with decision and by consequence workers identification with decisions and commitment to the organization. This research is based on this theory of democratic conflict management strategy.
Korbank, Baril and Watson (1993) and wall Galenes (1986) commented on the integrating style of handling conflict which shows that this style results in high joint benefits for the parties. Vigil-King (200) also found out that the use of more integrative styles while it was noted that a supportive leader engenders respect, job satisfaction and higher productivity from his staff while an authoritarian leader represents the opposite, even if productivity is higher in the short-run, it is bound to fall in the long run. Rahim (2004) suggested that the nature of leadership power in an organization mediates the needs of conflict management strategies. Thus, organizational stability may be maintained even when the leader is low in conflict management because workers sometimes exhibit acceptance behavior over the superior’s attitude thus reflecting apathy and subjugation with little manifestation of aggression (Gbadamosi and Adebakin, 1996)
2.2.1 Positive outcomes of conflict are: Better ideas are produced, people were forced to search for new approvals, long standing problems surfaced were dealt with, people were forced to clarify their view, the tension stimulated interest and creativity, and that people had a chance to test their capacities.
2.2.2Negative outcomes of conflict include:
Some people felt defeated, distance between people increased, a climate of suspicion and distrust developed, people and departments that needed to corporate looked after only their own narrow interests, persistence –active or passive developed were team work was needed, and that some people left because of the turmoil.
2.3Types of conflictsThe most common thought about conflict is that idea is a perception of individual persons. If no one is aware of a conflict, then it’s usually no conflict exists. Also needed to begin the conflict processes are opposition or incompatibility and some form of interaction.
Organizational conflict can be classified in several ways. These conflicts can occur because of task, relationship or process related issues.
2.3.1 Intra-individual/Intrapersonal ConflictConflict can be intra-personal, where an individual’s objective and vision differs from his/her company’s overall vision.
2.3.2Inter-personal ConflictThe most basic type of conflict is inter-personal. It is between two colleagues-arising from a host of reasons ranging from differences in personality, work-style, and personal background.
When an individual is a pitted against a group and is either unwilling, or unable to conform to group dynamics, he or she invariably leaves the team due to intra-group conflict.
When the conflict is inter-group, two teams are involved in a deadlock, endangering the successful completion of a project due to differences in group dynamics.
2.4The five (5) conflict stylesConflict management is the practice of being able to identify and handle conflicts sensibly, fairly, and efficiently as stated earlier. An instructor Paul McKinney who has a master’s degree and is earning his PhD in community college leadership highlighted on the conflict management styles. He made it clear that how employees responds and resolves conflict will limit or enable that employee’s success. He explained the five conflict styles that a manager will follow according to Kenneth Thomas and Ralph H.Kilmann:
Before I talk about the conflict styles I would love to first begin with Leadership and conflict management and theories and models.
2.4.1Dual concern modelThe dual concern model of conflict resolution is a conceptual perspective that assumes individuals’ preferred method of dealing with conflict is based on two underlying themes or dimensions: concern for self (assertiveness) and concern for others (empathy).
According to the model, group members balance their concern for satisfying personal needs and interests with their concern for satisfying the needs and interests of others in different ways. The intersection of these two dimensions ultimately leads individuals towards exhibiting different styles of conflict resolution. The dual model identifies five conflict resolution styles/strategies that individuals may use depending on their dispositions toward pro-self or pro-social goals.
Avoidance conflict style
Characterized by joking, changing or avoiding the topic, or even denying that a problem exists, the conflict avoidance style is used when an individual has withdrawn in dealing with the other party, when one is uncomfortable with conflict, or due to cultural contexts. During conflict, these avoiders adopt a “wait and see” attitude, often allowing conflict to phase out on its own without any personal involvement. By neglecting to address high-conflict situations, avoiders risk allowing problems to fester or spin out of control.
Yielding conflict style
In contrast, yielding, “accommodating”, smoothing or suppression conflict styles are characterized by a high level of concern for others and a low level of concern for oneself. This passive pro-social approach emerges when individuals derive personal satisfaction from meeting the needs of others and have a general concern for maintaining stable, positive social relationships. When faced with conflict, individuals with a yielding conflict style tend to harmonize into others’ demands out of respect for the social relationship.
Competitive conflict style
The competitive, “fighting” or forcing conflict style maximizes individual assertiveness (i.e., concern for self) and minimizes empathy (i.e., concern for others). Groups consisting of competitive members generally enjoy seeking domination over others, and typically see conflict as a “win or lose” predicament. Fighters tend to force others to accept their personal views by employing competitive power tactics (arguments, insults, accusations or even violence) that foster intimidation.
Conciliation conflict style
The conciliation, “compromising”, bargaining or negotiation conflict style is typical of individuals who possess an intermediate level of concern for both personal and others’ outcomes. Compromisers value fairness and, in doing so, anticipate mutual give-and-take interactions. By accepting some demands put forth by others, compromisers believe this agreeableness will encourage others to meet them halfway, thus promoting conflict resolution. This conflict style can be considered an extension of both “yielding” and “cooperative” strategies.
Cooperation conflict style
Characterized by an active concern for both pro-social and pro-self-behavior, the cooperation, integration, confrontation or problem-solving conflict style is typically used when an individual has elevated interests in their own outcomes as well as in the outcomes of others. During conflict, cooperators collaborate with others in an effort to find an amicable solution that satisfies all parties involved in the conflict. Individuals using this type of conflict style tend to be both highly assertive and highly empathetic. By seeing conflict as a creative opportunity, collaborators willingly invest time and resources into finding a “win-win” solution. According to the literature on conflict resolution, a cooperative conflict resolution style is recommended above all others. This resolution may be achieved by lowering the aggressor’s guard while raising the ego.
2.4.2Political conflict resolution in practiceMoshe Dayan and Abdullah el Tell reach a ceasefire agreement during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War in Jerusalem on 30 November 1948
Wars may occur between parties who contest an incompatibility. The nature of an incompatibility can be territorial or governmental, but a warring party must be a “government of a state or any opposition organization or alliance of organizations that uses armed force to promote its position in the incompatibility in an intrastate or an interstate armed conflict”. Wars can conclude with a peace agreement, which is a “formal agreement… which addresses the disputed incompatibility, either by settling all or part of it, or by clearly outlining a process for how… to regulate the incompatibility. A ceasefire is another form of agreement made by warring parties; unlike a peace agreement, it only “regulates the conflict behavior of warring parties”, and does not resolve the issue that brought the parties to war in the first place.
Peacekeeping measures may be deployed to avoid violence in solving such incompatibilities. Beginning in the last century, political theorists have been developing the theory of a global peace system that relies upon broad social and political measures to avoid war in the interest of achieving world peace. The Blue Peace approach developed by Strategic Foresight Group facilitates cooperation between countries over shared water resources, thus reducing the risk of war and enabling sustainable development.
2.5Leadership and Conflict management Leadership involves defining and communicating an organizations long –term vision and mission while conflict resolution typically deals with the situation at hand. By articulating what you want to accomplish, providing support for talented subordinates, overcoming obstacles, exploiting opportunities, demanding excellence, behaving ethically, you set a good example for your organization. An effective leader builds teams that work well together. As a leader, you facilitate the resolution of conflicts that distract the team members, decrease productivity, and destroy motivation and lead frustration and anger. Leaders also should recognize that some conflict is natural and necessary to produce innovative solution to problems, encourage meaningful communication between team members and leads to clarification and cooperation’s.
Leader is someone who uses his or her influence to improve his organization managing conflict and change. Leaders are found in homes, hospitals, schools, colleges and churches to name a few. Tutschs was convinced that part of our responsibility as followers of Christ is to use our influence to lead others to come to Jesus.
To attain established goals, organizations bring leaders as well as workers of different background and personalities into contact with each other.Azamosa observed that conflicts involve the total range of behaviors and attitudes that is in opposition between managers and workers. To have a viable institution and organization conflict management, there must be cooperation among leaders. Because of the difference existing among people (leaders, and subordinates) conflict is inevitable.
Leadership is one of the key factors in determining future changes and developing very clear and specific vision of the organization. The future is not some place we are going to but the place we are creating. The paths are not found, but made, and the activity of making them changes both the maker and destinations. Leaders are human beings with feelings, beliefs, and values. The conflict exists until the difference is resolved.
2.6Advantages & Disadvantages of managing Conflict in work &Life StrategyHaving a strategy in place to manage conflict both at work and in your personal life can help you to proactively avoid stress. Conflict is a stressor that can take over your life if you let it.
2.6.1TimeOne major disadvantage to developing a conflict management strategy is that it can take significant time to do so. Being proactive requires planning and practice, both of which can take away from your ability to be productive in other areas of your life. For instance, developing a strategy to deal with conflict at work will take away from getting other task done in the work place, especially if you are implementing a strategy that all employees will be expected to learn.
2.6.2ProductivityEven though the time spent developing a strategy can initially subtract from your productivity, in the long run it can actually add to your productivity. Whether it be at home or at work, the ability to resolve or mitigate a conflict quickly will allow you to get on with other more important tasks. An effective conflict management strategy allows you to get to the heart of the matter quickly and diffuse what could be a potential escalation of conflict Doing so allows you to refocus and move on, leaving the conflict behind.
2.6.3SituationsNot all conflicts looks the same. There are no cookie-cutter versions of conflict in the home or the workplace that you can specifically single out and say, “That is what conflicts looks like.” instead, conflict comes in all shapes and sizes because every potential situation involving conflict has different circumstances. A strategy for dealing with conflict can be a disadvantage if you try to make that strategy conform to every situation you face. On the other hand, having a strategy that you can adapt to various situations allows you avoid having to develop a new strategy with each situation that you face.
Conflict management that is used to channel functional conflict can lead to greater levels of productivity and creativity in the long run. Developing a strategy that allows you, your family, your co-workers and your employees to learn from each conflict that arises will allow you to deal with conflict more expeditiously and creatively in the future. Furthermore, channeling that energy in a positive direction. Will get the creative juices flowing.
2.7Conflict resolutionConflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution. Committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of the group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs) and by engaging in collective negotiation. Dimensions of resolution typically parallel the dimensions of conflict in the way the conflict is processed. Cognitive resolution is the way disputants understand and view the conflict, with beliefs, perspectives, understandings and attitudes. Emotional resolution is in the way disputants feel about a conflict, the emotional energy. Behavioral resolution is reflective of how the disputants act, their behavior. Ultimately a wide range of methods and procedures for addressing conflict exist, including negotiation, mediation, mediation-arbitration, diplomacy, and creative peacebuilding.
The term conflict resolution may also be used interchangeably with dispute resolution, where arbitration and litigation processes are critically involved. The concept of conflict resolution can be thought to encompass the use of nonviolent resistance measures by conflicted parties in an attempt to promote effective resolution. Conflict resolution as an academic field is relatively new. George Mason University in Fairfax, VA, was the first university to offer a PhD program.
Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts. It is the label for the variety of ways by which people handle grievances—standing up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be wrong. Those ways include such diverse phenomena as gossip, ridicule, lynching, terrorism, warfare, feuding, genocide, law, mediation, and avoidance.citation needed Which forms of conflict management will be used in any given situation can be somewhat predicted and explained by the social structure—or social geometry—of the case.
Conflict management is often considered to be distinct from conflict resolution. In order for actual conflict to occur, there should be an expression of exclusive patterns which explain why and how the conflict was expressed the way it was. Conflict is often connected to a previous issue. Resolution refers to resolving a dispute to the approval of one or both parties, whereas management is concerned with an ongoing process that may never have a resolution. Neither is considered the same as conflict transformation, which seeks to reframe the positions of the conflict parties.
The role of culture is not always fully appreciated and must be taken into account. In a piece on “the ocean model of civilization”, Prof Nayef Al-Rodhan argues that greater transcultural understanding is critical for global security because it diminishes ‘hierarchies’ and alienation, and avoids dehumanization of the ‘other’.
2.7.1CounselingWhen personal conflict leads to frustration and loss of efficiency, counseling may prove helpful. Although few organizations can afford to have professional counselors on staff, given some training, managers may be able to perform this function. Nondirective counseling, or “listening with understanding”, is little more than being a good listener—something every manager should be.
Sometimes simply being able to express one’s feelings to a concerned and understanding listener is enough to relieve frustration and make it possible for an individual to advance to a problem-solving frame of mind. The nondirective approach is one effective way for managers to deal with frustrated subordinates and coworkers.
There are other, more direct and more diagnostic, methods that could be used in appropriate circumstances. However, the great strength of the nondirective approach lies in its simplicity, its effectiveness, and that it deliberately avoids the manager-counselor’s diagnosing and interpreting emotional problems, which would call for special psychological training. Listening to staff with sympathy and understanding is unlikely to escalate the problem, and is a widely-used approach for helping people cope with problems that interfere with their effectiveness in the workplace.
Conflict resolution is an expanding field of professional practice, both in the U.S. and around the world. The escalating costs of conflict have increased use of third parties who may serve as a conflict specialists to resolve conflicts. In fact, relief and development organizations have added peace-building specialists to their teams. Many major international non-governmental organizations have seen a growing need to hire practitioners trained in conflict analysis and resolution. Furthermore, this expansion has resulted in the need for conflict resolution practitioners to work in a variety of settings such as in businesses, court systems, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and educational institutions throughout the world.
2.7.2Steps to conflict resolution in the classroomStep 1: Clarifying and focusing: problem ownership
Negative feelings such as annoyance, anger and discomfort can interfere with understanding exactly what is wrong in situations of confrontation and how to set things right again. Gaining a bit of distance from negative feelings is exactly what such moments call for, especially on the part of the person with (presumably) the greatest maturity. Problem ownership is defined as deciding who should take ownership of the behavior or conflict in the issue (Gordon, 2003). The main person who is bothered by the root problem is also the “owner” of the problem, and thus the owner of a problem needs to be the one who takes primary responsibility for solving the issue. Identifying ownership makes a difference in how behavior is dealt with, as well as how the problem is effectively solved. It is important to ask clarifying questions to really understand the root causes of the conflict.
Step 2: Active listening
Several strategies help with distinguishing who has a problem with a behavior and who takes ownership. One of those strategies is active listening. Active listening is attending carefully to all aspects of what a student says and attempting to understand or empathize as much as one can (Seifert & Sutton). Active listening consists of continually asking questions in order to test your understanding. It also requires giving encouragement to the student by letting them tell their story, and paraphrasing what the student says so you can form an unbiased conclusion. It is key not to move too quickly at solving the problem by just giving advice, instructions, or scolding. Responding too soon with solutions can shut down the student’s communication and leave you with inaccurate impressions of the source or nature of the problem (Seifert & Sutton).
Step 3: Assertive discipline and I-messages
Once you, as the teacher, have taken in the student’s point of view, form your comments around how the student’s behavior affects your role. Your comments should be assertive, emphasize I-messages, and encourage the student to think about the effects of his or her behavior. They should not be passive, apologetic, hostile or aggressive, but matter-of-fact, such as, “Charlie, you are talking while I am talking.” The comments should emphasize I-messages that focus on how the behavior is affecting the teacher’s teaching and the other students’ learning (Seifert & Sutton). An example of this would be, “You are making it hard for me to focus on teaching this math lesson.” Lastly, you should ask the student more open-ended questions that make him or her think about the consequences of his or her behavior, such as, “How do the other kids feel when you yell in the middle of class?” (Seifert & Sutton).
The comments should encourage the student to think about the effects of his or her actions on others—-a strategy that in effect encourages the student to consider the ethical implications of the actions (Gibbs, 2003). Instead of simply saying, “When you cut in line ahead of the other kids that was not fair to them”, you can try asking, “How do you think the other kids feel when you cut in line ahead of them?”
Step 4: Negotiation
Seifert and Sutton state that the first three steps describe desirable ways of handling situations that are specific and last for only a short time. These steps by themselves could potentially not be enough when conflicts persist over extended periods of time. Often it is better to negotiate a solution in these situations. Negotiating is defined as methodically deliberating various options and deciding on one if possible (Seifert & Sutton). Even though negotiation demands time and energy, it often demands less time or effort ultimately than continuing to cope with the problem. The results of negotiation can be valuable to everyone involved in the situation. Various experts on conflict resolution have suggested different ways to negotiate with students about problems that are continual (Seifert & Sutton). The theories differ in specifics, but typically are generally similar to the steps we previously discussed:
Determine what the problem is—involves active listening
Discuss and share possible solutions, consider their efficacy
Attempt to reach a consensus: Total agreement on the subject will not always be possible, but should be set as your end goal
Assess the success of the decision: Renegotiation might be necessary.
Conflict Management plays a very important role at workplaces as it prevents unnecessary fights and makes offices a better place to work.
METHODOLOGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE3.0 IntroductionThis chapter deals with and describes the techniques and procedures (Research methodology) used to obtain the necessary data for the study. It explains the research design and approach adopted, the population, sample and sampling techniques, instrument used, data collection procedure, data analysis and profile of university of winneba.
3.1 Research DesignA research design is defined as a plan or blueprint of how the researcher intends to conduct the research .It is the logical sequence that connects the empirical data to the study’s initial research questions, and ultimately, to its conclusions (Yin, 1987).Conventionally, the research design is made up of four key components: research questions, what data to collect, data collection methods, and data analysis.
To achieve the objectives of the study, survey research design was adopted and the focus of this study was cross-sectional. The survey approach was used, because it has its own advantages of identifying attributes of a large population from a small group of individuals, the economy of the design and the rapid approach in data collection. In addition it greatly increases our knowledge about what happens in the study context and it’s a strategy perceived as authoritative by people in general and is both comparatively easy to explain and to understand (Saunders et al, 2007).Data was collected from sampled employees of the organization selected for the study in order to determine the relationship between conflict management (dependent variable) and leadership (independent
Variable).The study examined University of Education Winneba, where their staff constitutes the study population. Simple random sampling method was used in selecting respondents. This method gave every employee of the organization equal chance of being selected as part of the sample elements. The judgment that an instrument is measuring what it is supposed to is primarily based upon the logical link between the questions and the objectives of the study. The survey method attempts to describe some aspects of population or an existing phenomenon by selecting unbiased sample of individuals to complete questionnaire and take part in interview. According to (Doyle,2004),a descriptive survey also offers a researcher accurate descriptions of what people in the target population do, think and perhaps allows the researcher to represent them with frequencies. Quantitative and qualitative techniques would be adopted for the study, which would involve questionnaires and interview survey of the University of Winneba. A questionnaire and interview was used for this study because it reduced the cost and time associated with the census and was capable of generating quantitative data.
The population sample of this study consisted of the administration and a few students in the school located at the central region. The staff is made up junior and senior (the Rector /principal, vice chancellor etc.).
3.3 The Sample Size The sample size for study was 52 employees which comprises of both junior and senior staffs, two (2) leaders of the conflict department and 50 students. The samples were carried out using random probability. In total a sample of 102 respondents.
3.4The Research InstrumentsQuestionnaire consisting of mainly structured or close-ended questions were used to collect the primary data for the study. Close-ended questions are known to provide control over the participants range of responses by providing specific response alternatives (Borden and Abbot; 2002).This makes it easier to summarize and analyze the responses.
3.5. Mode of data collectionFirst the researcher collected an introductory letter from KAAF University College to University of Winneba. This helped crave the indulgence of the institution and the staff for the data collection. In effect the consent of the institution and subjects were sought before the data collection. By use of simple random sampling method the researcher personally gave out the questionnaires to UEW staffs to fill. The researcher personally collected all completed questionnaires from the staff at the point where the questionnaires were administered to them. After the questionnaires had been filled out the researcher ensured that the respondents answered all relevant questions. Also an interview was conducted and the researcher recorded the information.
3.6 Data processing and analysisThe data collected from the field were processed. The data was first edited to ensure completeness, accuracy and uniformity. Some’s instruments that had problems such as inconsistent and/or incomplete responses were returned to the respondents and the necessary corrections made. All instruments were assigned serial numbers to facilitate identification and data entry into the computer. The data was coded after editing and entered into the computer for analysis. The analysis was done using descriptive statistics showing frequencies and percentages some of which were transformed into pie charts and bar graphs. The statistical package employed for data analysis was Microsoft Excel that described the variables presented clear information, for easy interpretation of results.
3.7 Limitations of the methodologyOne of the limitation of this study was that some of the respondents were reluctant to take the questionnaires to answer.
Secondly, some of them were unfriendly at their first approach.
Thirdly, the university at that period of time in that day had seminar for staffs which happened to be compulsory for all staffs and it served as a limitation and we had to beseech them to make time for us.
3.8 Organizational profile –University of Education WinnebaHistory
The University of Education, Winneba (UEW) was established in September, 1992 as a University College under PNDC Law 322. On 14th May, 2004 the University of Education Act, Act 672 was enacted to upgrade the status of the University College of Education of Winneba to the status of a full University.
The University College of Education of Winneba brought together seven diploma awarding colleges located in different towns under one umbrella institution. These Colleges were the Advanced Teacher Training College, the Specialist Training College and the National Academy of Music, all at Winneba; the School of Ghana Languages, Ajumako; the College of Special Education, Akwapim-Mampong; the Advanced Technical Training College, Kumasi; and the St. Andrews Agricultural Training College, Mampong-Ashanti.
The three sites in Winneba now referred to as the Winneba campus is the seat of the Vice-Chancellor with satellite campuses at Kumasi, Mampong and Ajumako.
Their mission is to train competent professional teachers for all levels of education as well as conduct research, disseminate knowledge and contribute to educational policy and development.
The University Library being an integral part of the University has a vision that is fundamental to that of the University.
The University of Education, Winneba Libraries include Osagyefo Library (the main campus library), College of Technology Education Library-Kumasi Campus (Which stock mainly materials on technical and vocational education), College of Agriculture Education Library – Mampong Campus (stocks materials on agric and environmental studies education), College of Languages Education Library – Ajumako Campus (stocks materials on language education), and 5 specialized branch and department libraries. Our Collections include Books, Journals, Compact Disks etc. in Electronic and Hard Copy Forms.
The first choice for information and research in the University
This is in consonance with the vision of the University which is to be an internationally reputable institution for teacher education and research.
To facilitate access to all forms of information by continuous improvement of resources and expertise to meet customers’ needs, promote information literacy skills within the University, foster cooperation through local, national, international networking and also to support teaching, learning, research, administration and other University activities.
Professional Leadership: The University Library seeks to provide leadership in library service to the University Community ensuring that the University has access to information needed for it to attain the highest academic standards of teaching, learning and research.
Partnership: An effective partnership with all stakeholders is a prerequisite to an effective and efficient service delivery. The University Library therefore works with faculty, students, and external bodies to provide a service that is easy to use independently on and off campus.
Quality Assurance: The University Library shares a commitment to quality in whatever is done. The staff is empowered to reach their full potential.
Flexibility: The Library has a variety of welcoming and flexible learning spaces which inspire learning and scholarship.
THE AIMS OF UEW
To provide higher education and foster a systematic advancement of the science and the art of teacher education:
To train tutors for the colleges of education and other tertiary institutions:
To provide teachers with professional competence for teaching in pre-tertiary institutions such as preschool, basic, senior secondary school and non-formal education institutions: and
To foster links between the schools and the community in order to ensure the holistic training of teachers.
Administration and Services
We guard to mandate of the University which is to produce professional educators to spearhead a new national vision of education aimed at redirecting Ghana’s efforts along the path of rapid economic and social development.
The University of Education, Winneba operates from four (4) campuses:- the Colleges of Technical Education located at Kumasi, the College of Agriculture Education, Located at Mampong, the College of Languages Education, Located at Ajumako and the Winneba Campus where the main administration is also located.
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FACULTIES AND DEPARTMENTS
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Faculty of Ghanaian Languages Education
Faculty of Business Education
Accounting Studies Education
Management Studies Education
Faculty of Social Sciences Education
Centre for African Studies
African and Liberal Studies
Social Studies Education
Centre for Competency-Based Training and Research
Department of Interdisciplinary Studies
Centre for Teacher Development and Action Research
Faculty of Education and Communication Sciences
English and Communication Studies Unit
Faculty of Agriculture Education
Agricultural Economics and Extension
Animal Science Education
Crop and Soil Science Education
Mechanical and Agricultural Engineering Education
Faculty of Vocational Education
Fashion Design and Textiles Education
Hospitality and Tourism Education
Faculty of Technical Education
Automotive and Electrical Technology Education
Construction and Wood Technology Education
Information Technology Education
Mechanical Technology Education Faculty of Science and Environment Education
Environmental Health and Sanitation Education
Science Education, Mampong
Faculty of Educational Studies
Centre for Hearing and Speech
Early Childhood Care and Development
Educational Administration and Management
Psychology Education Special Education
Institute for Educational Research and Innovation Studies (IERIS)
Centre for Educational Policy Studies
Faculty of Science Education
Health Administration and Education Home Economics Education
HPERS Education Information and Communication Technology Education
Integrated Science Education
Department of Social Studies Education
Centre for Conflict, Human Rights and Peace Studies (CHRAPS)
Office of the Vice-Chancellor
Centre for International Programmes
Faculty of Foreign Languages, Linguistics and Communication Studies
Communication and Media Studies (includes the Communication Skills Unit)
French Education (includes the German Unit)
School of Creative Arts
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NON ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS
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Institute for Educational Research and Innovation Studies (IERIS)
Centre for School and Community Science and Technology Studies
National Centre for Research into Basic Education
Chaplaincy Board, UEW
Office of the Vice-Chancellor
Office of the Vice-Chancellor
Quality Assurance Directorate
Division of Academic Affairs
Office of the Registrar
Amalgamated Sport Clubs
Alumni Relations Office
Directorate of IT Services
Division of Publications and Communication
Division of Academic Affairs
Division of Facilities Management
Division of Human Resources
Division of Operations
Gender Mainstreaming Directorate
Office for Institutional Advancement
Office of the Dean of Student Affairs
Office of the Finance Officer
Budgets and Payments
Financial Reporting and Compliance
Halls and Commercial Services
Schools and Faculties Financial Management Secretariat Treasury and Endowment Management
Works and Physical Development
Office of Works and Physical Development
CHAPTER FOURDATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS4.0 IntroductionThis chapter thoroughly examined and analyzed the data gathered on the sampled respondents (staffs of UEW) on the effects of leadership on conflict management using tables, charts and percentages. The data was analyzed giving thought to the main research objectives: the effect of leadership on conflict management in UEW. Each assessment was looked at individually and descriptive statistics were computed for each. Tables, charts and descriptive tools were employed to illustrate data collected from the field to make the research findings more meaningful.
4.1Presentation of Findings4.1.1Demography of RespondentsFigure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 1 Age Distribution of respondentslefttopSource: Field work, 2018
From Figure 4.1, six(6) out of fifty (50) respondents representing 12% were aged 18-25, followed by 26-35 with 30% , 36-45 with 42% ,46-55 with 12% ,56-59 with 4%.It can be observed that most of the respondents are between 36 and 45 years. This shows that in the university most of the staffs working presently fall in the range of 36-45 with the highest percentage of 42%.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 2 Gender of Respondentslefttop00
Source: Field work, 2018
The Figure 4.2 above depicts that 16% of the respondents where males whilst 84% where female. It can be concluded that there was no bias.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 3 Respondents Educational Background
Source: Field work, 2018
From the Figure 4.3, 36% of the employees had first degree, 16% had HND, 40% had Masters, and 8% had PHD.
This concludes that the majority of the staffs had certificates that qualified them to work and also contributed to the quality of service of the organization and high educational background.
4.1.2Attributes for effective conflict management.Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 4 Code of conduct that defines acceptable behaviors
Source: Field Work, 2018
From Figure 4.4, indicates that 50% strongly agreed that there is always a code of conduct that defines acceptable behaviors whilst 40% agreed, 10% disagreed and 0% strongly disagreed.
This settles on the fact that there is indeed a code conduct that defines acceptable behaviors and the leaders have made their staffs aware.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 5 Availability of a process in place for managing disruptive and inappropriate behaviors
Source: Field work, 2018
From Figure 4.5, 50% strongly agreed there is a process available for managing disruptive or inappropriate behaviors, 44% agreed, 6% disagreed and none strongly disagreed.
From the diagram above we can deduce that there is a process in place for managing disruptive and inappropriate behaviors and in a normal organizational certain there would also be staffs that are ignorant of relayed information because some refuse to pay rapt attention.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 6 Existence of clearly designed approaches to resolving conflicts in the organizationlefttopSource: Field work, 2018
The Figure above 4.6, depicts 46% strongly agreed they are aware of the presence of clearly designed approaches, 40% agreed, 14% disagreed and none strongly disagreed.
It can be deduced that there are clearly designed approaches to resolving conflict and the staffs are greatly aware.
4.1.3Effectiveness of Leadership Attributes for Conflict ManagementFigure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 7 Staffs opinion on its leader’s competency in dealing with conflictlefttop
Source: Field work, 2018
The Figure 4.7 above represents staffs opinion or conclusion on their leader’s competency in dealing with conflict. At the end of the survey, 20 respondents answered that leaders were competent in dealing with conflict always with a percentage of 40%, 30% answered often, another 30% answered sometimes, none answered hardly with 0% and 0% answered never .
From the diagram, we can deduce that leaders at UEW are competent when dealing with conflict management.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 8 Level of confidence of staffs pertaining to quality of service not threatened by unprofessional behaviors
Source: Field work, 2018
Figure 4.8, above depicts the results on the level of confidence of staffs pertaining to quality of service not threatened by unprofessional or disruptive behaviors within the organization. From the results, 50% rated level 5,42% rated ,6% rated level 3 and 2% rated level two whilst 0% rated level 1.
This clearly depicts that the level of confidence of staffs pertaining to quality of service not threatened by disruptive behaviors is very high.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 9 Leaders deal appropriately with conflict
Source: Field work, 2018
From figure 4.9, 48% Strongly Agreed that their leaders appropriately dealt with conflict, 38% agreed, 14% Disagreed and 0%strongly disagreed.
This informs us that the leaders of UEW deal appropriately with conflict management.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 10 Observation of behavioral problems between others at workplace
Source: Field work, 2018
From Figure 4.3, 0% respondents answered that behavioral problems between others at workplace is observed daily , another 0% answered weekly , 0% also answered monthly 0%, 8% answered several times a year, 44% answered Once a year and 40% answered less than once a year.
This creates the awareness that the leaders strategically look out for conflicts and have devised ways to reduce the rate at which conflicts occurs by creating a beautiful working environment which breeds more love, understanding and tolerance and less conflict issues in the organization.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 11 Increase in organizations productivity or improvement in organizational performance as a result of conflict
Source: Field work, 2018
From Figure 4.11, 38% of the respondents strongly agreed that there have been an increase in organizations productivity or improvement in organizational performance as a result of conflict, another 38% agreed, 24% disagreed and 0%strongly disagreed.
This concludes that conflict has brought an increase in their productivity which means that conflict has been well managed and has positively affected the organization.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 12 Decrease in organizations productivity or improvement in organizational performance as a result of conflictlefttop
Source: Field work, 2018
From Figure 4.12, 46% of the respondents strongly disagreed that there has been a decrease in the organizations productivity or improvement in organizational performance as result of conflict, 40% disagreed, 14% agreed and 0% strongly agreed.
This concludes that the presence of conflict has not lead to a decrease in productivity.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 13 Poor image or bad reputation in the organization due to conflict
Source: Field work, 2018
From Figure 4.13, indicates 0% of the respondents strongly agreed that conflict has bought a poor image or bad reputation in the organization, 10% agreed, 50% strongly disagreed with 50% and 40% disagreed. This concludes that conflict in their organization has not resulted to a poor image or bad reputation.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 14 Leadership style possessed by leaders for conflict managementlefttopSource: Field work, 2018
From Figure 4.14, depicts that 30% of the respondents rectified that their leaders where autocratic when dealing with conflicts, 50% rectified autocratic and 20% specified their leaders were Laissez-Faire.
It can be deduced that the leaders that were in charge of conflict management were democratic, though some believed they were autocratic and others laissez-faire.
4.1.4 Challenges faced by leaders in managing the currently occurring conflict issuesFigure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 15 Conflict style used by leaders who manage conflict at UEWlefttop
Source: Field work, 2018
From figure 4.14, two (2) leaders responded to the survey that they used accommodating style to manage conflict effectively.
4.2Analysis of FindingsThe main purpose of the research was to assess the effects leadership has on conflict management. The objectives of the research was to find out the attributes of leadership for effective conflict management, how effective these attributes are and the challenges faced by leadership when handling conflict. In relation to the findings on the research objectives I realized that a democratic leadership style has a positive impact on conflict management. The sampled population ranged from senior staffs to junior (students) and faculty, which makes the information gathered solid because it can represent the whole population of the school.
My findings were not biased because the respondents included both males and female. Considering the educational background of the sampled population, the findings were also based on educational certificates that cut-across and every category of age was included.
I deduced that most of the staffs were aware that leaders in charge of conflicts had established a code of conduct pertaining to acceptable behaviors and majority also attested that there was a process in place for managing inappropriate behaviors. Most staffs were also aware of clearly designed approaches to managing conflicts. This justifies the literature review such that it is of a truth that the leaders were democratic because they made the staffs aware that there is process for inappropriate behaviors and a code of conduct pertaining to acceptable behaviors and if anyone of them fails to comply with the codes, the leadership won’t be blamed when a disciplinary action is taking place because they know that there is a process and an approach.
Most staffs expressed a high level of confidence on their leader’s competency in dealing with conflicts and also a high level of confidence on the fact that quality of service wasn’t threatened by inappropriate behaviors. Due to leader’s competency, behavioral problems were observed once a year and less than once a year this is also another positive effect of conflict. Also, most staffs strongly agreed that conflict had brought about an increase in the organizations productivity instead of a decrease, majority strongly disagreed. Majority of the staffs totally disagreed that conflict in the organization had destroyed its reputation, it rather improved the company’s reputation.
In relation to the study I then used an interview method to enable me investigate into depth about the issue of conflict.
I first of all asked the leaders the type of conflict style they used in UEW. In accordance to the Figure 4.14 above, I deduced that the leaders used an accommodating style of conflict styles to manage conflicts which actually is one of the sacrifice, selflessness and low assertiveness approach to managing conflict. You are willing to give up just about everything in order to preserve the relationship with the other party. In my quest to figure out the challenges I first of all asked both of them if there is any policy and is it effective and in effective.
The two leaders in charge of conflict management at UEW as interviewed stated that there are policies that govern conflict management, but as of its effectiveness, it is only effective in the aspect of dealing with minor issues but when dealing with major issues its ineffective .The issue that is recently happening or is current is a major issue and therefore renders their policy ineffective.
Secondly I asked them what has been done about the present conflict which is currently ongoing at the high court, and in addition the measures that are taken to manage other conflict issues.
The leaders also stated in their response to this interview that in relation to the conflict presently at hand, a board or committee was set to handle the issue. In addition they stated that these boards are only set when an issue of conflict occurs not excluding minor issues (junior and senior staffs). This meant that the committees are not permanent but temporal. With the selection of a new vice chancellor after the old has completed its term of office, the right procedure must be adhered to. The company has an Act established by parliament that established the university which states that the new council must choose and induct new vice chancellor and since the old council choose a vice-chancellor which is against the Acts, the action needed to be taken is to suspended by the court until further notice. They both relayed the fact that they democratically handled conflict issues and this confirms the survey previously conducted.
As per the issues at stake, the two leaders stated again that with the issue at court, the government is handling part whilst the council is also handling another part. This then throws a big challenge to the organization because they will have to wait for the views of the government and not only the council before they proceed on going through the right process. The leaders also stressed on the fact though the committee failure to handle major issues mostly does not render them incapable of handling minor ones that comes their way, but with this current conflict issue, it’s a difficult task because it consist of the government and the council.
Lastly, I sought their recommendations as pertaining to this conflict at hand and the leaders recommended that government should be pro-active in a sense of getting people who will draw his attention when the term of office a particular group of people who were vetted into power is over. They believe that if government was pro-active there would have been a free and fair appointment and this conflict wouldn’t have taken place. They also mentioned the fact that this issue didn’t go a long way to affect the studies of the students. Though the organizations reputation was destroyed, where comments by people described the university as a loose one with staffs that are unsatisfied with incentives given to them, the university recorded the best admission intake so far. They concluded that these comments were not the truth on ground.
I ended my interview successful by asking 50 students the effects of the conflict on their studies and it came to my notice based on their responses that 70% said the conflict issues taking place didn’t have any effect on their studies and they believe this came as a result of the strong leadership team the school has. I then followed up with another question asking them what their recommendations were and students recommended that the issue should come to end quickly. They added that though it doesn’t affect them, they believe it should be dealt with quickly to relief the stress and burden on leaders of the school.
4.2.3 Conclusion on analysisIn conclusion, the leader’s democratic approach to handling conflict yielded to a positive results in the organizations productivity. Although there is a current issue of conflict at hand in the high court which is quite challenging, it has no effect on the studies of the students.
CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.0 IntroductionThis chapter gives a summary of the study with conclusions based upon results of the study and recommendations offered for the way forward.
5.1 SummaryThis research examined the effect of leadership on conflict management, a case of UEW.The research had the objective to find out what are the effect of leadership for conflict management.
It was found that the leaders in charge of conflict management possessed the attribute of a democratic leader. A democratic leadership style consist of the leaders sharing decision-making abilities with group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by practicing social equality. The staff respondents attested to a fact that leaders made them aware of the code of conduct that defined acceptable behaviors, the process in place for managing disruptive and inappropriate behaviors and clearly designed approaches to resolving conflicts in the organization. Although it could be deduced from my analysis that a few saw the leaders to be autocratic the majority carried the vote by strongly viewing their leaders to be democratic. There are always barriers that hinders communication and relationships. And I believe either as a result of envy, ignorance and lack of active listening skills some may definitely disagree and may judge by their own perception from afar which has the tendency of being wrong. This could be affirmed by the perceptions individuals carry from previous or past experiences or cultural background.
The research revealed that, Staffs of UEW rendered their leaders competent in dealing with conflict and also strongly attested to the fact that leaders dealt appropriately with conflict. They had a high level of confidence that conflict issues well handled by their leaders prevented threatening of quality of service by unprofessional behaviors. Due to this they also attested to the fact that the rate of conflict issues in their organization was very low such that conflicts only happened once a year and less than once a year. This creates the awareness that the leaders strategically look out for conflicts and have devised ways to reduce the rate at which conflicts occurs by creating a beautiful working environment which breeds more love, understanding and tolerance and less conflict issues in the organization. The staffs strongly agreed that instead of a decrease in organizations productivity as a result of conflict, there was rather an increase in organizations productivity or improvement in organizational performance. This was because leader’s attributes they possessed had a great and positive influence on the organization by gaining an expansion in their admissions whilst it was supposed to be the other way round. The staffs also strongly disagreed that conflict brought a poor image or bad reputation in the organization and the previous statement made before this attest to this fact. They clearly stated that their leaders used the democratic style of leadership and it’s actually no surprise that conflict has brought about appositive impact in their organization.
In summary, the leadership attributes (which is democratic) used by leaders of UEW for managing conflict was effective although adjustments needs to be made to establish a permanent board or committee for handling conflicts.
5.2ConclusionThe study used a representative sample that took into account gender, age and educational balances. This was adhering to guarantee data reliability that is free from biasness and of course collection of well-informed data.
Conflict management is a very vital aspect of an organization. The study indicated that the leaders used a strong leadership style approach which is a democratic leadership style to manage their conflicts believe this granted them favor before their staffs and lead their staffs to appreciate them more. This is because a democratic leader takes into consideration the views and interest of their subordinates when taking decisions and may sometimes involve them even in decision making. Therefore their staffs gladly attested to their genuine fruits exhibited whiles handling conflicts.
The major leaders in charge of conflicts when interviewed created the awareness that there is indeed a policy for conflict management and it’s mostly effective with minor conflict issues but with major issues it is rendered ineffective. It was also stated that a board or committee of temporal effectiveness is always set to handle major issues.
However, the board is facing a challenge in managing the current conflict at the high court because it involves the government and they will have to wait for the final consent not just of the board but of the government. This has made the handling of this conflict stagnant if not it would have been something simple to resolve within a twinkle of an eye. They also stated that this has not affected their reputation and it happens that they recorded the best admission intake so far.
With the challenge stated above, it was recommended that government should be pro-active in a sense of getting people who will draw his attention when the term of office a particular group of people who were vetted into power is over. They believe that if government was pro-active there would have been a free and fair appointment and this conflict wouldn’t have taken place.
Finally this didn’t affect the studies of students and students recommended that leaders keep up with the good work.
5.3Recommendations5.3.1Training and development
Management should organize training in leadership for all staff. This will help staffs both presently when they are promoted and also in future when ordained as leaders and also to give them the ability to strategically make systematic plans or projections for any conflict that arises; this recommendations is based on the backdrop of the findings that says that the leadership only set a committee or board to handle conflicts when the need arises.
5.3.2 Established Acts should be respected
The established acts of the organization should be critically considered when a new council is to be chosen to elect a new vice chancellor for the school. This will help them to prevent another conflict of such kind and encourage a peaceful appointment of a vice chancellor; this recommendation is based on the backdrop of the findings that says that the council that approved the new vice chancellors term of office was over and the government gave them the go ahead to continue which was against the Acts established by the parliament.
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-21469353562350APPENDIXGIVE US YOUR OPINION
The data collected is meant for academic purposes and will be confidential. This will take 15mins of your time. Thank you!
This questionnaire has been designed to solicit information for purely academic purposes. This is to enable a final year students of KAAF university College, complete their thesis on the topic; “EFFECTS OF LEADERSHIP ON CONFLICT MANAGEMENT” (A case study on The UNIVERSITY OF WINNEBA), in pursuance of a degree of a degree in Business Administration Human Resource Management Option. All information given would be treated with utmost confidentiality and I will like to share results with you.Be assured that this exercise will not take more than 15minutes of your precious time to complete.
Thank you for participating in this study.
Questionnaire for Staffs
INSTRUCTION: Please read the questions carefully and then indicate (By ticking) your response(s) in the brackets that consist with your choice and fill the one not in the box.
BASIC DEMOGRAPHIC DATA (PLEASE TICK WHERE APPROPRIATE)
How old are you? (Years)
3. Educational Background
0-63500 Senior High School
0-63500 Ordinary Level
02857500 Advance level
0000 Higher National Diploma
0000 First Degree
0-63500 Master’s Degree
0-63500 Other (please Specify) ………………….
0-63500 Position …………………………………………….
SECTION A (Organizationational assessment for conflict management)
1. My organization is from the following sector
0000 Not for profit
0-63500 Corporate /Private
2. Does your Organization have a code of conduct that defines acceptable behaviors?
0000 Don’t know
3. Does your organization have a process in place for managing disruptive and inappropriate behaviors?
0000 Don’t Know
4. Does your organization have clearly designed approaches to resolving conflicts?
03810000 Don’t Know
5. In your opinion is your organization-its leaders and staff-competent in dealing with conflict?
0000 No Other
6. Are you confident that quality of service is not threatened by unprofessional or disruptive behaviors within your organization?
0000 Don’t Know
7. I find my work very stressful and very demanding which makes it very difficult to cope.
0-63500 Almost Always (At least every day)
0-63500 Frequently (At least once week)
0000 Sometimes (A least once month)
0000 Rarely (A couple of times a year)
8. In my organization, conflict management is dealt with appropriately by managers.
0-63500 Strongly Agree
0000 Strongly Disagree
9. Among the staff, of my organization, communication is effective.
04699000 Strongly Disagree
10. My organization has a policy/procedure on:
02794000 Don’t Know
02794000 Don’t Know
02794000 Don’t Know
02794000 Don’t Know
Respect Dignity at work (Appropriate Behaviors/Personal Conduct
02794000 Don’t Know
Conflict/Dispute Resolution procedures
02794000 Don’t Know
11. Generally speaking, how often do you observe behavioral problems between others at work?
0-63500 Several Times a Year
0-63500 Once a year
0000 Less than Once a year
12. I would recommend my organization as a good employer
0-63500 Strongly Agree
0000 Strongly disagree
13. Conflict in my organization has increased productivity or improved organizational performance.
0-63500 Strongly Agree
0000 Strongly disagree
14. Conflict in my organization has decreased productivity or brought about a reduction in organizational performance.
0-63500 Strongly Agree
0000 Strongly disagree
15. Conflict in my organization has brought about a poor image or bad reputation.
0-63500 Strongly Agree
0000 Strongly disagree
16. Leadership style possessed by leaders who manage conflict
PLEASE FILL IN THE SPACE PROVIDED WITH 1, 2, 3, 4.THIS WILL TAKEJUST 10MINUTES OF YOUR TIME.
1=Rarely 2=Sometimes 3=Others 4=Always
I explore issues with others to find solutions that meet everyone’s needs…………….
When there is a disagreement gather as much information as I can keep the lines of communication open…………………
I try to see conflicts from both sides. What do I need? What does the other person need? What are the issues involved?…………………….
1. I generally argue my case and insist on the merits of my point of view…………..
2. I find conflicts from both sides. What do I need? What does the other person need? What are the issues involved………………
3. I can figure out what needs to be done and I am usually right……………
1. When I find myself in argument usually say very little and try to leave as soon as possible……
2. Being at odds with other people makes me feel uncomfortable and anxious……….
3. I avoid hard feelings by keeping my disagreements with others to myself…………
1. I try to meet the expectation of others ……………..
2. I try to accommodate the wishes of my friends and family…………
3. I may not get what I want, but it is a small price to pay for keeping the peace…………
1. I try to negotiate and adopt a give-and-take approach to problem situations……………
2. I prefer to compromise when solving problems and just move on……………
3. To break deadlocks would meet people halfway……………
1. Do you have any policy that governs conflict management and is it effective or ineffective?
2. What have been done so far about the conflict issues that is currently occurring in UEW?
3. What makes the policy effective or ineffective or what has been the bottle neck in trying to handle this issue of conflict at UEW?
1. How has the studies been since the conflict?
2. What do you think should be done about the conflict?