Introduction to Human Resource Management:
Human resource consists of all people who perform its activities. HRM is concerned with the policies and managerial practices and systems that influence the work force. In broader terms, all decisions that affect the workforce of the organization concern the HRM functions.
The activities involved in HRM function are pervasive throughout the organization. Line managers: typically spend more than 50 present of their time for human resources management specialists in the HRM department help organizations with all activities related to staffing and maintain an effective workforce. Major HRM responsibilities include work design and job analysis, training and development, recruiting, compensation team building, performance management and appraisal, worker health and safety issues, as well as identifying or developing valid methods for selecting staff. HRM department provides the tools, data and processes that are used by line managers in their Human Resources Management components of their job.
Human Resources Management function concerned with hiring, motivating and main training people in an organization. It focuses on people in organizations. It is the art of procuring, developing and maintaining component workforce to achieve the goals of an organization in an effective and efficient manner.
Personnel management as the field of management which has to do with planning, organizing, directing and controlling the functions of procuring developing maintain and utilizing a labor forces such that the
Objective for which the company is established are attained economically and effectively,
Objective of all levels of personnel are served to the highest possible degree.
EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF HRM
The history of developed of personnel management in India is comparatively of recent origin. But kautilay had dealt with some of the important aspects of human resource management in his “Arthasatra” written in 400 B.C Government in those days adopted the techniques of HRM as suggested by kautilay. Its modern sense, it had developed only since independence through the importance of labour officers was recognized as 1929, the appointment of officers to clove labour and welfare problems gained momentum only after the enactment of the factories Act of 1948.
Evaluation of HRM in India
Period Development status Outlook Emphasis Status
1920s Beginning Pragmatism of Statutory, welfare Clerical
1930s Capitalists Paternalism 1940s Struggling for Technical Introduction of Administrive
1960s Recognition Legalistic Techniques 1970s Achieving Professional Regulatory conforming imposition of Managerial
1980s Sophistication promising Legalistic impersonal Standards on other function 1990s Philosophical Human values productivity through people Meaning of Human Resources Management
Human Resources Management may be defined as the art of procuring, developing and maintaining competent work force to achieve organization goals efficiently.
According to Flippo, “Human Resource Management is the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of the human resources to the end that individual, organization and social objectives are accomplished.
According to Michael jucius defines personnel management as the field of management which as to do with planning, organizing and controlling the procuring developing maintain and utilizing a labour force such that the..
Objective for which the company is established are attained economically and effectively,
Objectives of all levels of personnel are served to the highest possible degree, and
Objectives of society are duly considered and served.
Nature of Human Resource Management:
Human Resource Management is pervasive in nature. It is in all enterprises. It permeates all levels of management in organizing. HRM focuses attention on action, rather than on record keeping written procedures or rules.
It encourages them to give their best to the organization it motivates employees through a systematic process of recruitment, selection, training and development coupled with wage policies.
HRM is all about people at work, both as individual and groups. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results.
Effective HRM helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well-motivated employees.
Objective of human Resource Management:-
To help the organization reach its goals:-
Organization objectives make sure that HRM is not a stand-alone department but rather a mean to assist the organization with its primary objective.
To employ the skills and abilities of the workforce efficiency:-
The primary purpose of HRM is to make peoples strengths productive and to benefit to the customers, stock holders and employees.
To provide organization with well trained and well-motivated employees:-
HRM requires that employees be motivated to exert their maximum efforts.
To increase to the fullest the employees job satisfaction and self- actualization:-
It tries to come and stimulate every employee to realize his potential.
To develop and maintain quality of work life:-
It makes employment in the organization desirable, personal and social situation.
Importance of HRM:
Human Resource Management helps an organization and its people to realize their respective goals.
At Enterprise level:-
Good Human Resource practices can help in attracting and retaining the best people in the organization.
It helps in training people for challenging rules, promoting team sprit among employees and commitment though appropriate reward scheme.
At Individual level:-
It offers excellent growth opportunities to people who have potential to rise.
It allows people to work with diligence and commitment.
At Society level:-
Employment opportunities multiply.
Scare talents are put to best use.
Limitations of Human Resources Management
HRM is recent origin. So it lacks universally approved academic base. Different people try to define the term differently some thinkers considers it as a new name to personnel management. Some organization has named their traditional personnel management department as human resources management department.
Lack of Top management support:
HRM must have the support of top level management. The change in attitude at the top can bring good results while implementing HRM. Because of passive attitude at the top, this work is handled by personnel management people. Unless otherwise there is a change in approach and attitude nothing spectacular is going to happen.
Human Resources Management should be implemented by assessing the training & development needs of employees. The needs and aspiration of people should be taken into account while framing human resources policies. HRM is implemented half-heartedly. The organization of some training programmes is considered as the implementation of HRM. Management’s productivity and profitability approach remains undisturbed in many organization.
INTRODUCTION TO STRESS MANAGEMENT:
Most of us are aware that employees stress us an increasing problem in organization. We hear about workers killing co-workers and supervisors and then we learn job selected tension were a major cause. Friends tell us they are stressed out from greater workloads and having to work longer hours because of downsizing their company. We also read about the surveys in which employers complain about the stress created in tying to balance of work and family responsibilities. Down in this next section we will look at the causes and consequences of stress and then consider what individual and organization do to reduce it.
“Stress has been called “the invisible”. It is a disease that may affect you, your organization, and any of the people in it, so you cannot afford to ignore it”.
EVOLUTION OF STRESS:
The Garden of Eden began as a tranquil stress environment. However when Adam was given the tantalizing chance to eat the forbidden fruit, he was trust into mankind’s first stressful situation. Adam was offered a choice and, as we know, decision-making is the breeding ground for conflict, frustration and distress.
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF STRESS:
Stress in individual is defined as any interference that disturbs a person’s healthy mental and physical wellbeing. It occurs when the body is required to beyond its normal range of capabilities.
Stress is the way that you react physically, mentally and emotionally to various condition, changes and demands in your life. High levels of stress can affect your physical and mental wellbeing and performance.
The results of stress are harmful to individuals, families, society and organizations, which can suffer from “organization stress”. Ivancevich and Matteson define stress as individual with the environment.
Behr and Newman define job stresses “a condition arising from the interaction of people and their jobs and characterized by changed within people that force them to deviate from their normal functioning”.
Stress is a dynamic condition, which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraints and demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Stress is associated with constraints and demands. The former prevent you from doing what you desire, the latter refers to the loss of something desire.
Stress is highest for those individuals who perceive that they are uncertain as to whether they will win or lose and lowest for those individuals who think that winning or losing is certainly.
DEFINING STRESS AT WORK:
Change in working practice, such as the introduction of new technology or the alternation of new technology or the alternative of targets, my cause stress, or stress may be built into an organization’ structure. Organizational stress can bed measures by absenteeism and quality or work.
Stress affect as well as the individual within them. An organization with a high level of absenteeism, rapid staff turnover, deteriorating industrial and customer relations, a worsening safety record, or poor quality control is suffering from organizational stress.
POTENTIAL SOURCES OF STRESS:
There are 3 categories of potential stressors:
Just as environment uncertainty influences the design of an organization. Changes in business cycle create economic uncertainties.
If the political system in a country is implemented in an orderly manner, there would not be any time of stress.
New innovations can make an employee’s skills and experiences obsolete in a very short period of time. Technological uncertainty therefore are a third type of environment factor that can cause stress. Computer, robotics, automation and other forms of technological innovations are threat to many people and cause them stress.
There are no storage of factors within the organizations that can cause stress pressures to avoid error or complete tasks in limited time period, work overload are few examples.
Tasks demand are factors related to a person’s job. They include the design of the individual’s job working conditions, and the physical work layout.
Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function of the particular role he or she plays in the organization. Role overhead is experienced when the employees is expected to do more than time permits.
Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood and employee is not sure what he/she is to do.
Interpersonal demands are pressures created by others employees. Lack of social support from colleagues and poor.
Interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especially among employed with a high social need.
Organizational structure defines the level of differentiation in the organization, the degree of rules and regulations and where decisions are made. Excessive rules and lack of participation in decision that affect an employee of structural variables that might be potentials sources of stress.
Organizational leadership represents the managerial style of the organizations senior executed. Some executive officers create a culture characterized by tension, fear, and anxiety. They establish unrealistic pressures to perform in the short-run impose excessively tight controls and routinely fire employees who don’t measure up. This creates a fear in their hearts, which lead to stress.
Organization go through a cycle. They are established; they grow, become mature and eventually decline. An organizations life stage i.e where it is in four stage cycle-creates different problems and pressures for employees. The establishment and decline stage are particularly stressful.
The typical individual only works about 40 hrs, a week. The experience and problems that people encounter in those other 128 non-works can spell over to the job.
National surveys consistently show that people hold family and discipline, troubles with children are examples of relationship problems that create stress for employees and that aren’t at the front door when they arrive at work.
Economic problems created by individuals overextending their financial resources are another set of personal troubles that can stress for employees and distract their attention from their work.
Types of job Related cause of stress
accountant, stock-marketing. Traders, bank tellers, mortgage consultants In companies where money is the major products, a high level of stress is a permanent feature. The larger the sum involved, the greater the stress on the staff.
sales and marketing managers and consultants advertising executive. These jobs pressurize worker by continually demanding that they reach targets within certain budgets and deadlines.
Computer programmer ; technicians, statisticians. Information- technology specialists have to keep abreast of the fastest changing industry ever. Technicians have fix hardware and explain complex problems to the unanimated.
Newspaper, magazine or television, journalist producers. Periods of clam are interspersed with frantic bursts of activity as media worker hunt for new subject material and then required to be creative to a tight deadline.
Nurses, doctors, enesthestists, pharmacists, physical therapists. When people health and even lives are stake, there can be enormous pressure to make the right decision quickly. There is great stress in dealing with human distress.
Personal manger, social worker, counselors, any managers with team of staff working under them. These jobs require skills such as tack and discretion that can be necessary to implement redundancies, disciplinary procedures and other decision that cause people distress.
What is stress?
A comprehensive framework for studying work stress was developed by kahn Byosiere (1992). Their model presents several important factors in the stress process. Including
Work stressors-task and role stressors
Moderators of the stress process individual differences, social support, and
Consequences of stress- burnout, heart disease.
Two of the first ” stresses pioneers” were Walter Cannon and Hans Selye. Cannon was aphysiologist who studied animal and human reactions to dangerous situations. He noted that animals and humans had an adaptive response to stressful situations in which they choose to either fight or attempt to escape.
Often reffered to as tha Father of Stress, university of montreal physician and endocrinologist Hans Selye(1956) defined stress at “the non-specific response of the human body to any demand made on it”‘. He was the first to distinguish between good stresses (Eustress) and bad stress ( Distress). Selye noted that eustress provides challenges that motivate individuals to work hard and meet their goals. Alternative distress results from stressful situation that persist over time produces negative health outcomes.
Stress is an individual’s response to a disturbing factor in the environment and consequences of such reaction. Stress obviously in involves interaction. “stress is an adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical, psychological and behavior deviations for organization participants”. The physical or psychological demands from the environment that cause stress are call STRESSEORS.
Stress can manifest itself in both a positive and negative way. Stress is said to positive when the situation offers an opportunity for one to gain something “EUSTRESS” IS THE TERM USED TO describe positive stress. Eustress is often viewed as a motivator since in its absence the individual lacks that “edge” is necessary for peak performance. It is negative when stress is associated with heart disease, alcoholism, drug abuse, marital breakdown, absenteeism and a host of other social, physical, organization ; emotional problems. Stress is associated with constraints and demands constraints are the forces that prevent an individual from doing what he or she desire. Demands refers to the loss of something desired. Constraints and demands can lead to potential stress. When they are coupled with uncertainty of the outcome and importance regarding the outcome. Potential stress becomes actual stress.
What is not stress?
To make the meaning of stress more clear it is useful to state what does not constitute stress. Each of the following does not amount to stress.
Stress is not dimply anxiety or nervous tension.
Stress need not always be damaging
Stress is not always due to over work
Stress cannot be avoided.
The stress experience:
Not all individuals experience stress with the same intensity. Some people over react to stressors and get highly stressed. Others have stamina endurance to cope
with any stressors. How an individual experience stress depends on the following.
The persons perception of the situation
The persons past experience
The presence or absence of social support
Individual differences with regard to stress reaction
Sources of stress
There are two main Classification in stress there are,
Task demands Role demands
Change Role conflict
Lack of control Inter-role
Career progress Intra-role
New technologies Person-role
Work overloaded Role ambiguity
Interpersonal demands Physical demands
Abrasive personalities Extreme environment
Sexual harassment Strenuous activities
Leadership styles Hazardous substances
Non work demands
Family demands Personal demands
Marital expectations Religious activities
Child-rearing/ day care arrangement Self-improvement
Parental care Traumatic events
Change and lack of control are two of the most stressful demands people face at work. Change leads to uncertainty, a lack of predictability in a person’s daily task and activities and may be caused by job insecurity related to difficult economic times. During the 1980’s U.S steel had led to extensive merger, acquisition and downsizing during the 1980’s; this resulted in significant uncertainty for thousands of employees. Technology and technologic innovation also create change and uncertainty for many employees, requiring adjustment in training education and skills development.
Lack of control is a second major cause of stress, especially in work environment that are difficult and psychologically demanding. The lack of control may be caused by inability to influence the timing of tasks and activities, to select tools or methods for accomplishing the work, to make decisions that influence work outcomes, or to exercise direct action to affect the work outcomes. One study found heart attacts for male workers to be more common in occupations with low job autonomy ( lack of control) and high job demands(heavy work loads) the enemy by workers who must ultimately learn to use them. This creates a real dilemma for management.
The social-psychological demands of the work environment may be every bit as stressful as task demands at work. People encounter two categories of role stress at work; role conflict and role ambiguity. Role conflict results from inconsistent or incompatiable expectations communication to a person. The conflict may be an inter-role, intra-role or person-role conflict.
Inter-role conflict is caused by conflicting expectation related to two separate roles, such employee and parent. For example, the employee with a major sales presentation on Monday and a sick child at home Sunday night is likely to experience inter-role conflict.
Intra-role conflict is caused by conflicting expectations related to a single role, such as employee, for example, the manager who presses employees for bit very fast work and high quality work may be viewed. At some point as creating a conflict for employees.
Abrasive personalities, sexual harassment and the leadership style in the organization are interpersonal demands for people at work. The abrasive person may be an able and talented employees, but one who creates emotional waves that others at work must accommodate, abrasive personalities stand out at work and some organization culture tolerated them. Organizations are increasingly less tolerant of sexual harassment, a gender-related interpersonal demand. The vast majority of sexual harassment is directed at women in the workplace, as well as for other.
Leadership style in organization, whether authoritarian or participative, create stress for different personality types. Employee who fell secure with firm, directive leadership may be anxious with an open, participative style. Trust is an important characteristic of the leader-follower interpersonal relationship and threat to reputation with one’s supervisor may be especially stressful.
Extreme environment, strenuous activities, hazardous substance, and global travel create physical demands for people at work. Work environment that are very hot or very cold place differing physical demands on people and create unique risks. One cross- culture study that examined the effects of national culture and ambient temperature role stress concluded that ambient temperature does effect human wellbeing, leading to the term sweat shop for inhumane work conditions. Dehydration is one problem of extremely hot climates, whereas frostbite is one problem of extremely cold climates. The strenuous jobs of a steel workers and the hazards associated with bomb disposal work are physical demands of work are often occupation specific, such as risks of gravitationally induced loss of consciousness for military pilots flying high performance fighters or jet lag and loss of sleep for globe-trotting ect.
Office work as its physical hazards as well. Noise crowed officers, such as those of some stock brokerages, can prove stressful to work in. working with a computer terminal can also be stressful, especially if the ergonomic fit between the person and machine is not correct. Eyestrain, neck, stiffness and arm and wrist problems can Occure. Office designs that use partition rather than full walls can create stress.
Non work demands:
Non work demands creates stress for people, which may carry over into the work environment or vive versa. Not all workers are subject to family demands related to marriage, child rearing and parental care. For those, these demands may create role conflicts or overload that are difficult to manage. For example, the loss of good day care for children may be especially stressful for a dual- career and a single parent families. The tension between work and family may lead to a real struggle to achieve balancing life.
In addition to a family demands, people have personal demands related to non work organizational commitments, such as in churches, synagogues and public service organizations. These demands become more or less stressful depending on their competiability with the person’s work and family life and their capacity provide alternative satisfaction for the person.
Stress and job performance:
There has been significant amount of research investigation the stress performance relationship. Stress is negatively related to performance. In other words higher the stress lowers the performance. Earlier, it was believed that moderate levels of stress would energize employees and enhance their performance this belief is hot held to be true now. The assumption valid now is that performance will be disrupted even by relatively low level of stress. These are the valid reasons in support of this assumption. First even relatively mind stress any have harmful effects on health and this may interfere with effective performance. Finally, research indicates that as arousal increases task performance may at first rise, bust as some point beings to fall.
These are exceptions to the general rule that stress interferes with performance. Some individuals, for example are at their best in times of stress. They rise to the occasion and turn in tasks being performed.
Thus, whether stress can disrupt or enhanced performance depends on several different factors complexity of the task being performed, personal characteristic of the individuals involved and their previous experience with the task.
Preventive stress management:
Stress reduction strategies may be categorized as
Organizational stress prevention
Individual stress prevention
Organizational stress prevention:
Several of the factors that cause stress particularly task and roll commands and organizational structures are controlled by management. As such they can be modified of changed strategies that management might want to consider include improved personal selection and job placement, use of realistic goal setting, redesigning of jobs, increased employee involvement, improved organizational communication and establishment of corporate well dressed program.
Redesigning of jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, increased feedback can produce stress. Because these factors give the employee greater control over work activities and lesser dependence on others.
Increasing formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertainty by sensing role ambiguity and role conflict. Given the important that perceptions play moderating the stress response relationship management can also use effective communication as a means to shape employee perception the final suggestion is to offer organizationally supported wellness programs, these programs focusing on the employees total physical and mental condition for example, they typically provide workshop to help people quit smoking control alcoholic use, lose weight the better and develop the regular program. The assumption underlying mist wellness programs is that employees need to take personal responsibility for their physical and mental health. The organization is merely vehicle to facilitate this end.
Individual stress prevention:
An employee can take personal responsibility for reducing his or her stress level. Individual strategies that have proven effective include implementing time management techniques, increasing physical exercises, relaxation, training and expanding the social; support network. Many people manage their time poorly. The things they have to accomplish in any given day or week are not necessarily beyond completion if they manage their time properly. Now executive physical exercise such as aerobics, working, jogging, swimming and riding bicycle have long been recommended by physicians as day-to-day left excessive stress level. These forms of physical exercise increases heart capacity, lower at rest heart rate provide a mental diversion from work pressures.
A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. It specifies the objectives of the study, the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objective.
Types of research according to intent:
In this research report the researcher has undertaken the descriptive research design ideal, enthuse studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or a group.
The descriptive research design is focusing on
Formulating the objective of the study
Designing the method of data collection
Selecting the sample
Collection of data
Processing and analizing data
Reporting the findings
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
Stress is the biggest problem faced by every individual most serious occupational
Occupational health hazards. It as result in substance cause to individuals employee globally and also has direct impact on productivity.
The present study is undertaken to measure the effectiveness of stress and its influence over a person’s life and how he/she manages.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
Stress is believed to cause depression, irritation, anxiety, fatigue and thus lower self esteem and reduce productivity.
-Indian journal of industrial relations,vo144,no.1,july 2008
Work a study on stressor-strain approach to examine occupational stress. This stressor-strain approach views stress as occurring when characteristics contribute to poor psychological or physical health.
We have evaluated stress-strain approach and described four basic assumptions which characteristics this approach. First, occupational stress is associated with unpleasant emotional states that people experience as consequences of their work. Second positive and negative relations are inversely related. Third, stress can be measured by a single variable: fourth, stress is primarily by adverse work experience.
-hart and copper, 2001
In the masters thesis at colton university, has examined the influence of 27 separate actions emanating from external organization factors, work environment and attitude towards correctional work on self reported work stress among 1358 correctional offers.
Many employees feel that on the job stress is difficult to control, but at least when they go home they can relax. However as the nature of the work changes time is no longer the sanyury it once was. With advanced information and technology customer demands foe 24 hour service and increasing number of employees are on cal at all times or working the graveyard shift that exit only for factory workers.
-organizational behavior tenth edition
Fred luthans and me graw hill international edition.
Expectations occupation of a organization in response to his/her role expectation stress is caused by internal or external demands that upset the balance of an individual and affect his/her physical and psychological wellbeing. Stress can arise from an opportunity, demand constrain, theatre or challenge when the outcome of the event is both important and uncertain. Stress is a result of a mismatch between a person and his/her environment and the perceived inability to cope with the constrain with demand encountered. Organizational role position in an organization defined by the expectation of the significant people therein. Role occupant performs in the organization in response to his/her. Occupation of an organization role has an inbuilt potential for stress
-indian jpurnal of industrial relation coping with stress in organization roles AVINISH KUMAR SRIVASTAV
Of late, stress has become a corporate buzzword. Organizational and employee are experience the effects of stress. There is a common belief that stress is a negative consequence of modern living. But this assumption is not always true. The effects of stress may be positive and negative. Research evidence shows that stress is both helpful and harmful to task performance. Thus, stress is both a friend and a foe. This paper attempts to highlight the historical background of stress.
-prabandha indan journal of management
DR H ramanandha singh and sonit dutta
OBJETIVES OF THE STUDY:
To identify and analyse the factors causing stress among the employees.
To identify and understand the impact of stress on employees productivity in KSDL.
To make critical evaluation of various stress management technique and strategies adopted by KSDL.
To study the perception of employees towards the stress management strategies and techniques.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The scope of the study is to analyse and evaluate “employee’s opinion towards stress management” adopted in ” Karnataka soaps and detergents limited” to find out how the employees manage stress and to give suggestion for management for further improvement.
NEED OF THE STUDY:
Stress is not something that need to be dismissed as being just a part of a job, or a price you pay for being successful in your career. Stress has shown to impact directly or indirectly for the mental or physical health of the employees and aspects of the organization, so the work place stress needs to be managed effectively, hence the need for the study.
An organization is a systematic management of people to accomplish some specific and distinct purpose.
Any strain or influence that disturbs the functioning of an individual I defined as stress. It can be both positive and negative.
It is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, directing and controlling performance o determine and accomplish the objective by use of people resources.
Stress is physical, mental reasons to circumstances that frighten, confuse, endanger or irritate an individual reducing efficiency, productivity and profitability. The technique adopted to overcome such stress is known as stress management.
The physical or psychological demands from the environment that cause stress are called Stressors.
Eustress or the positive stress means good things. Eustress denotes the presence of optimum level of stress in an individual which contributes positively to his performance.
It is negative when stress is associated with heart disease, alcoholism, drug, abuse, marital breakdown, absenteeism and a host of other social, physical, organizational and emotional problems.
The target of the population for the study is employees( executive and non executive) who are working in Karnataka Soaps and Detergents Limited. Employees are randomly selected.
The sample size refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute as a sample. In this research work the researcher collected data from 100 samples by using random sampling method.
SOURCES OF DATA
The data and information presented here have been collected mainly from two kinds of sources:-
Primary data’s are those which are collected freshly and thus happened to be original in character. In this study the researcher used the instrument called questionnaire to collect the needed information from the concerned population directly.
Secondary data are those have already bee collected by some one else in this study the research used the below mentioned sources of secondary data.
Journal and magazine
Research report on same topic
TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION
The data has been collected from hundred employees. The employees are selected on the basis of random sampling. Statistical techniques like tabulation, simple percentage, analysis method, bar graphs, area chart, column graph and chi-square are used in the study and conclusion are dawned, based on the analysis.
PLAN OF ANALYSIS
The data collected is raw and it is complied, classified, tabulated and then analyzed using financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to highlight the statistics. Based on these data and analysis, inferences were drawn.
This chapter explains provide information to human resources and introduction to employees stress and stress management.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter defines the design of the study which includes problems, objectives, data sources, limitation of the study and researchers review.
PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION AND RESPONDENTS
It makes an attempt to give an overview of “Karnataka Soaps and Detergents Limited”
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
It includes findings of the study and also some suggestion towards the topic and concluded the study.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION AND RESPONDENTS
Soap is one of the commodities, which have become an indispensable part of the life of modern world. Since it is non-durable consumer goods, there is a lrge market for it. The life of industry is experiencing changes due to innumerable reasons such as government relations environment and energy problems increase in cost raw material etc.
Following Swadeshi movement in 1905, few factories were set up and they were:
Mysore Government Soap Factory at Bangalore
Godrej Soap at Bombay
The changing technology and even existing desire by the individuals and the organization to produce a better product at a mere economical rate has also manufactures are typing to capture a commanding market share by introducing and maintaining acceptable products. The soap industry in India faces a cutthroat competition while multinational companies dominate the market.
THE INDIAN SOAP INDUSTRY SCENARIO:
The Indian Soap industry has been dominated by handful of companies such as
Hindustan Level Limited.
Tata Oil Mils (taken over by HLL)
Godrej soap private limited.
Recent entrant’s include- Colgate Palmolive Ltd.,
Proctor ; Gamble Ltd.,
Nirma Soap Works.,
The Indian soaps industry continued to flourish very well until 1967-68, but began to stagnate. Soon is started to recover and experienced a short upswing in 1974. This increase in demand can be attributed to:
Growth of population
Income and Consumption increase
Increase in Urbanization
Growth in degree of personal hygiene.
Soap manufactures are classified as, Organized and unorganized sector. KSDL is under Organized sector.
HISTORY OF THE SOAP:
Traditionally, soap has been manufactured from Alkali(lye) and animal fats (tallow), although vegetable products such as palm oil and coconut oil can be substituted for tallow. American colonists had both major ingredients of soap in abundance and soap making began in American during the earliest colonial days. Tallow came as a by-product of slaughtering animals for meat, or from whaling. Farmers produced Alkali as a by-product of clearing their land; until the nineteenth century wood ashes served as the major source of Lye. The soap manufacturing process was simple and most farmers could thus make their own soap at home.
The major uses for soap were in the household, for washing clothes and for toilet soap and textile manufacturing particularly for filling, cleansing and scouring woollen stuffs. Because colonial American was rural, soap making remained widely dispersed and no large producers emerged, by the over of the American Revolution however, the colonies had developed a minor export market; in 1770 they sent more than 86,000 pounds of soap worth $2,165 to the west Indies, the revolution interrupted this trade and it never recovered.
The growth of cities and the textile industry in the early nineteenth century increased soap usage and stimulates the rise of soap-making firms. By 1840, Cincinnati, then the largest meatpacking center in the united stated, has become the leading soap-making city as well. The city boasted at least seventeen soap factories, including procter and gamble (established 1837) which was destined to become the nation’s dominant firm. A major change in soap making occurred in the 1840 when manufactures began to replace lye made from wood ashes with soda ash, lye made through a chemical process. Almost all soap makers also produced tallow candles, which for many was their major business. The firms made soap in enormous slabs and these were sold to grocers, who sliced the product like cheese for individual consumers. There were no brands, no advertising was directed at consumers and most soap factories remained small before the Civil war.
GROWTH OF INDIAN SOAP INDUSTRY:
The period between the end of the civil war and 1900 brought major changes to the soap industry. The market for candles diminished sharply and soap makes discontinued that business. At the same time, competition rose. Many soap makers began to brand their products and to introduce new varieties of toilet soap made with such exotic ingredients as palm oil and coconut oil. Advertising, at first modest but constantly increasing, became the major innovation. In 1893 procter an Gamble spent $125,000 to promote Ivory soap, and by 1905 the sales budget for that product alone exceeds $400,000. Advertising proved amazingly effective. In 1900 soap makers concentrated their advertising in newspapers but also advertised in streetcars and trains, quick to recognize the communications revolution, the soap industry pioneered in radio advertising, particularly by developing daytime serial dramas. Procter and Gamble originated Ma Perkins, one of the earliest, most successful, and most long-lived of the genre that came to be known as soap operas to advertise its Oxydol soap in 1933. By 1962, major soap forms spent approximately $250 million per year for advertising, of which 90 percent was television advertising. In 1966, three out of the five television advertisers were soap makers and procter and Gamble was television’s biggest sponsor, spending $161 million.
Advertising put large soap makers at a competitive advantage, and by the late 1920s three firms has come to dominate the industry.
Colgate-polmolive-peet, incorporated as such in 1928 in New York state, although originally by William Colgate in 1807
Lever brothers, an English Company that developed a full line of heavily advertised soaps in the nineteenth century and in 1897 and 1899 purchases factories in Boston and Philadelplia.
Procter and Gamble
A soap maker at the procter and Gamble company had no idea a new innovation was about to surface when he went to lunch one day in 1879. He forgot to turn off the soap mixer, and more than the usual amount of air was shipped into the batch of pure white soap that the company sold under the name the white soap. Fearing he would get in trouble, the soap maker kept the mistake a secret and packaged and shipped the air-filled soap to customers around the country. Soon customers were asking for more “soap that floats”. When company officials found out what happened. They turned it into one of the company’s most successful products, Ivory soap.
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTIVE OF SOAP INDUSTRY:
The changing technology and even exiting desire by the individuals and the organization to produce a better product at a mere economical rate has also acted as catalyst for the dynamic process of change. More and more soap manufacture are trying to capture a commanding market share by introducing and maintaining acceptable product. Soap industry faces some problem in case raw material. The major ingredients are soap ash, linear alkyl, benzene & sodium. Tripoli phosphate poses number of serious problem in terms of availability. The demand supply gap for vegetable oil is 1.5 to 2 lakhs tons & is met though imports. In recent times, caustic soda and soap ashes in the cheaper varieties of soaps are quite high.
India is the idea market for cleansing products. The countries per capita consumption of detergents powders and bar stands at 1.6 kg and soap at 543gms. Hindustan lever, which heralds over the cleansing business, sells in all over the cleansing business. The 7.4 lakhs tons per annum soap market in Indian crawling along at 4%. The hope lies in raising rupee worth, the potential for which is high because the Indian soap market is pseudo in nature & it is amazingly complex being segmented not only on the basis of price benefits, but even a range of emotion within that outlineing framework.
KSDL AT GLANCE;
Incorporated Name – karnataka Soaps and Detergents Limited
Address – Karnataka Soaps and Detergents Limited
Bangalore – Pune High Way
Post Box No. 5531
Rajajinagar, Bangalore- 560055
Email: Mysore Sandal @ vsnl.com
Website; www.mysoresandal.comYear of establishment -1918
Constitution – wholly owned by Govt. of Karnataka
Management – Govt. of Karnataka & financial institution,
Nomination board of director,
Chairman & MD with IAS cadre
Rename – 1980
Trademark – the trademark is SHARABHA. It is the body of lion with the head of an elephant means blending the majesty of lion with strength of an elephant.
Production range – toilet soaps, Bar soaps, detergents cakes, Agarbathies, Airfreshners, talcum powder, baby products, Glycerin ( industrial grade), and cosmetics.
Process know how – the facility is a pioneer in the manufactures of various soaps and technology imported from Italy
Capacity of the unit – licensed capacity is title 26,000 metric tons of soaps and 10,000 metric tons of detergents per annum.
Cost of the project – Rs. 22.94 cores
Working capital – 10.49 cores
Sources of finance – loans from IDBI, IFCI, ICICI, Corporation bank, Canara bank, SBM
Plants – At Bangalore
Fatty Acid Plant
Sandal wood oil
Sandal wood oils
India is a rich of forest; Ivory, silk, sandal; precious gems are magical charms of centuries, the most enchanting perfumes of the world got their exotic spell with a twist of sandal. The worlds richest sandalwood resources is form one isolated stretch of forest land south India that is Karnataka.
The origin of sandalwood and its oil in Karnataka, which is used in making of Mysore Sandal soap is well known as Fragrant Ambassador of Indian & Sandalwood oil is infect known as Liquid Gold”.
By the inspiration of his highness Maharaja of Mysore late Jayalachamarajendra Wodeyar, the trading of sandalwood logs started which was exported to Europe and new destination, but with commencement of First World War. India faced severe crisis on the business of sandalwood.
This situation gave rise to start industry, which produce value added products I,e., of sandalwood oil. His highness Maharaja of Mysore created this situation as on opportunity by sowing the seed of the Government sandalwood Oil factory, which is the present KS&DL. The project was shaped with the engineering skills and expertise of the top level. Late Sri M. Visvesvaraya, the great engineer who was the man behind the project.
Today’s famous Mysore Sandal credit goes to late Sri Sosale Garalapuri Shastri who incorporated the process of soap making using sandalwood oil. He was an eminent scientist in the field working at the Tata Institute, Bangalore. He was sent to England to master the fine aspects of soap msnufacturing.
The Maharaja of Mysore ; Diwan Sir M. visvesvaraya established the Govt. soap factory during the year 1918. The factory was started as a very small unit near K.R Circle, Bangalore with the capacity of 100 tons P.A, in November 1918th Mysore sandal soap was put into the market after sincere effort and experiments were undertaken to evolve a soap perfume blend using sandalwood oil as the main base to manufacture toilet soap. The factory shifted its operation to Rajajinagar industrial area, Bangalore in July 1957, where the present plant is located. The plant occupies an area of 39 acres (covering soaps, detergents ; fatty acid division), on the Bangalore Pune highway, easily accessible by transport service and communication. Another sandalwood oil division was established during the year 1944 at Shimoga, which stopped its operations in the year 2000 for want of natural sandalwood.
This factory started at moderate scale in year 1016. The first product was washing soap in addition to the toilet soap in the year 1918. The toilet soap of the company was made up of sandalwood oil.
In 1950 Government decide to expand the Factory in two stages. The first stage of expansion was done to increase the output to 700 tons per year and was completed in the year 1952 in the old premises. The next stage of expansion was implemented in 1954 to meet growing demand for Mysore Sandal soap and for this purpose Govt. of India sanctioned license to manufacture 1500 tons of soaps and 75 tons of glycerin per year. The expansion project worth of Rs.21 lakhs includes the shifting of the factory to a newly laid industrial suburban of Bangalore. The factory started functioning in this new premise. 1st July 1957. From this year onwards till date the factory had never looked back, it has achieved growth and development in production scales and profits.
The industry has 2 more divisions one at Shimoga and another at Mysore where sandalwood oil is extracted. The Mysore division started functioning from 1917 and only during 1984 manufacturing of perfumed and premiers quality Agarbathis at was started, right from the first log of sandalwood that roled into the boiler room 1916, the company has been single-minded pursuit of excellence. The project took shape with the engineering skills and expertise of top level team under the leadership of sir M. Visvesvaraya, prof. Watson and Dr. sudbrought. Like this soap factory was started as a small unit and now it has growth up to giant size.
THE BIRTH OF A LEGEND
The early year of the 20th century witnessed the birth of a magical formula, created from the finest and purest sandalwood oil, better known as “liquid gold” distilled exclusively at our divisions in Karnataka-Mysore sandal soap. A Fragrant gift to the world from the first Government soap factory of India. Nurtured by the Maharaja of Mysore. Enriched with all the goodness of natural sandalwood oil, this unique soap captured hearts and makers at home, as well as right across the globe creating a fragrant legacy for the state of Karnataka. Soap and Detergents Limited(KS;DL) is the true inheritor of this golden legacy of India. Continuing the tradition of excellence for over eight decades, using only the best East Indian producers of sandalwood oil and sandalwood soaps in the world.
On 1st October 1980 the Government soap factory renamed as “Karnataka Soaps and Detergents Limited” the company was registered as a public limited company. Today company produces varieties of products in the toilet soap detergents, Agarbathies, talcum powder and cosmetics.
BIRDS EYE VIEW OF KSDL
1918- Government Soap factory started by Maharaja of Mysore and the Mysore sandal soap was introduced into the market for the first time.
1950- The factory output Raised to find terms
Renovating the whole premises.
Installing new boiler soap building plant and drying chamber.
1954- Received license from Government to manufacture 1500 tons of soap and 75 tons of glycerin per year
1957- Factory shifted its operations to Rajajinagar industrial area.
1974- Mysore sale international limited was appointed as the sole selling agent.
1975- The Rs. 3 cores synthetic detergents plant was installed based on Ballestra SPA (Italy) technology.
1980- On 1st October 1980 the Government soap factory a public sector enterprise was renamed by “Karnataka Soap and Detergents Limited”.
1981- A) production capacity was increased to 6000 tons.
B) Rs. 5 cores fatty acid plant was installed with the technical collaboration from Europe.
1984- Manufacturing of perfume and premium quality at Mysore division.
1985- Production capacity was raised to 26,000 tons pa. A large variety of toilet soap at attractive shapes and colors introduced to meet the varieties of tastes of consume.
1992- The board of industries and financial reconstruction (BIFR), New Delhi in December for rehabilitation.
1996- The BIFR approved the rehabilitation scheme in September.
1999- ISO 9002 certificate for quality assurance in production, installation and servicing.
2000- ISO 14001 certificate pertaining to environmental management system.
2003- In May the BIFR, New Delhi declared the company to be out of the purview.
2004- The company launched care soap.
KARNATAKA SOAP AND DETERGENTS LILMITED (KSDL)
Karnataka Soap and Detergents Limited (KSDL) is one of leaders amongst manufactures and suppliers of qualities of toilet soaps, detergents, incense sticks and talcum powder. The company offers it products in a variety specifications, such as fragrances, characteristics and properties to satisfy its most demanding clients the world across. Driven by the belief that quality and innovation biggest leadership, the group is committed to provide superior quality products and excellent customers services to offer maximum satisfaction to clients.
“NATURAL PRODUCTS WITH EXOTIC FRAGANCES”
GLOBAL FAVORITIES FOR THEIR NATURAL GOODNESS
KSDL has a long tradition of maintain the highest quality standard, right from the selection raw materials to processing and packing of the end product. The reasons why its products are much in demand globally and are exported regularly to UAE, Brahmin, Saudi-Arabia, Kumait, Qatar, South America. The sandalwood oil of course, is must sought after by the leading perfume housing of the world. The entire toilet soaps of KSDL are made from oils and fats of vegetables origin and are totally free from animal fats.
TRADEMARK OF KSDL
THE ” SHARABHA”
Sharabha is a mythological creation from the pureness and embodies the combined virtues of wisdom, courage and strength. While is illustrated in its unusual from the body on with the head of an Elephant. It was adopted as an official emblem of KSDL to symbolize the philosophy of the company.
The Sharabha the symbolized power that removed imperfection and impurities. The Maharaja of Mysore has his official emblem adopted it. And soon took its pride of place as the symbol of the Government Soap factory of quality that reflect a standard of excellence of Karnataka Soap and Detergents Limited.
OBJECTIVES OF KS;DL COMPANY
To serve the national economy
To attain self-reliance
To promote uphold its images as symbol of traditional products
To promote purity and quality products and thus chance age old-charm sandal oil
To build upon the reputation of Mysore soap based on pure sandal oil
To maintain the brand loyalty of its customer
Keeping pace with globalization, global trends and state’s policy for using technology in every aspect of governance
Ensuring global presence of Mysore sandal products while leveraging its unique strengths to take advantage of the current technology scenario by intelligent and selective diversification
Secure all assistance and prime states from government of India all technology alliances.
Further, ensure karnataka’s pre-eminent status as a proponent and provider of technology services to the world, nation, other states public and private sectors.
Making available technology product and service at the most affordable price to the people at large, in keeping with the policy of a welfare state
Making all out efforts to achieve unimaginable profits
Most importantly to earn the invaluable foreign exchange, both to the country.
POLICY OF KS;DL
Seek purchase goods and service from environment responsible suppliers
Communicate its environment policy and best practice to all employee implication
Set targets and monitor progress though internal and external audits
Strive to design and develop products which have friendly environment impact during manufacturing
Reuse and recycle material wherever possible and minimize energy consumption and waste
Organization structure is a basic framework with in work the managers decision making behavior takes place. The structure gives an established pattern of relationship among the various components or parts of an organization. It is vital tool for providing information about organization relationship.
KS;DL HAS THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENTS
Finance and Account
Human resources development ; Administration
Research and Development
Quality and Assurance
Materials ; Stores
Production ; maintenance
Marketing ; business Group
Projects ; Management Information service
COMPETITORS OF KS;DL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
KS;DL is facing cut-chart competition in national and international market.
Its main competitor’s are-
M.S Hindustan Lever Ltd
M.S. Godrej soaps
M.S. Proctor & Gamble
M.S. Nirmala soaps
M.S. Jyothi Laboratories
PRODUCT MANUFACTURED BY KS&DL
NAME OF THE PRODUCT UNIT OF GRAMS
Mysore Sandal Classic soap 75,125
Mysore Sandal Gold Soap 75
Mysore Sandal Baby Soap 75,125
Mysore Special Sandal Soap 75
Mysore Rose Soap 75
Mysore Sandal Herbal Care Soap 100
Mysore Jasmine Soap 100,125
Wave Soap 100
Mysore Lavender Soap 100
Mysore Sandal Bath Tablet 150
Mysore Sandal Classic Bath Tablet 150
Mysore Jasmine Bath Tablet 150
Mysore Special Sandal Tablet 150
Mysore Sandal Rose Tablet 150
Mysore Sandal Guest Tablet 17
KS&DL IS THE TRUE INHERITOR OF GOLDEN LEGACY OF INDIA. Continuing the tradition of excellence for over eight decades. A using only the best East Indian Grade sandalwood oil & sandalwood soaps in the world. The products produced at KS&DL are the soaps, detergents, agarbathies and sandalwood oil.
PRODUCT RANGE FROM THE HOUSE OF MYSORE SANDAL SOAP
AN ISO 9002 COMPANY
KS&DL with a tradition of excellence of over eight decades is committed customers delight, though total quality managements and continuis improvement though the involvement of all employees KS&DL has got ISO 9002 certificate.
To improve the quality management system and to facilitate TQM in the process of soap and detergents. To management took decision to obtain ISO 9002 by the end of March 1999. Accordingly action play has drowned up to contribution, the committees for the purpose during October 1998 with a mission statement.
According to the company constitution of officers go for the formation in all the area of the company’s operation. Particularly production, procurement, quality assurance, store maintenance. The company gives initial training inclosing conducting employees awareness program document quality dual and quality system procurement of presumes approach of ISO 9002.
In this direction company obtained the guidance form gualgi consultancies, Bangalore and bureau of Indian standards, Bangalore. Accordingly company standards, obtained the certificate by the end of March 1999 itself.
This is to project in the national and international market and also to improve quality of products offered to the consumers with the assurance of quality in the message.
The company is being in the facts of moving goods, company being located in the heart of the Bangalore city. The top management of the company took the decision to get the ISO 1and become model to other public sector for the techniques used and also to other government units to spread the message of maintenance.
The clean and green objectives 1400, the constitution core committee of officers of 6 months study the impact of various process during manufacturing covering in Bangalore complex for soap detergents in this direction. Company gave program of the awareness of 14001.
As per the time schedule can be able to register by the end of February to meet the entire objectives and target by completing all the stages recommended for certification. On March, 2000 ISO 14001 with tandem complied with ISO 9002 will facilitate to improve the corporate brands in the global market it will help the company to improve the profits. Year after year long-term basis. The environment management system adopted in the company though this motive as follows:
Conversation of energy
Conversation of surrounding
Conversation of resources
Equipped with latest technology and backed by full-fledged control and R;D support, KS;DL is marching confidentially a head in the new millennium.
SWOT ANALYSIS OF KS;DL
Only soap in India that contains pure sandal and almond oil.
Certified by ISO
World’s largest production of sandalwood oil
Brand name from decades by soap market
It has very good dealership network in South which ensures that the products reach every minute
Distribution network is weak in north and east
Neglecting freshness aspect
High oriented cost due to excessive labor force
Low turnover resulting in low profits
Traditional benefits that sandal is good for skin.
Skin care is just gaining importance among consumers
Government supports for large production capacity
Advantage of being in the industry for a long time
Existence of vast market and huge demand
Other competitors such as Rexona, Moti, Santoor ect
There is a need for renovation of plant and machinery
Government interference may reduce growth potential
Other sandal soap in the market
There is no proper R&D
Traditional method of manufacture
PRESENT STATUS OF THE ORGANIZATION
It is said that the popular has drastically bolt in quality and value terms in spite of the fact that the Market for the popular segment is growing. Though this appears to be very peculiar phenomenon. The above strategy proved rude from the company because trade push methods gives certain guarantee has consumed off take though the working capital requirement.
The company is heavily dependent on southern market founded by Bombay and Calcutta branches. The product availability in retail outlets particularly far Mysore sandal soap is almost comparable to other similar products in the premium segment in south, where as in other branches in penetration of one product is relatively poor, which depends on the company’s distribution structure stockiest and filed personnel strength.
With increase trust on distribution, the company does not for see any problems to achieve the projected sales through in the redistribution package.
Furtherer, the policy of Indian Government also sees the public sector enterprises enter the industry in a large way there by making the products available to the consumes at a price. Being located in the centre of Southern part of Indian government soap factory claims preferential treatment for expansion program natural availability of sandalwood oils extra oil ect.
VISION OF KS;DL
Keeping pace with globalization. Global trends ; the state’s policy for using technology in every aspect of governance
Making available technology product and services at the most affordable price to the people at large, in keeping with the policy of a welfare state.
Making all out efforts to achieve unimaginable profits
Most importantly to earn the valuable foreign exchange, both to the state and to the country
MISSION OF KS&DL
To serve the National economy
To promote purity & quality products
To maintain the Brand loyalty of its customers
To build upon the reputation of Mysore sandal soap based on pure sandal oil
Group Bangalore Sandalwood oil division(Mysore) Marketing branches Duty paid warehouse(Shivmoga) Total
Executives 78 08 53 02 141
Supervisors 49 08 15 – 72
Workers 523 28 36 14 601
Total 650 44 104 16 814