Being pregnant and having a child can be the best moment in a person’s life and exciting for a family. It brings happiness in every aspect with the flowering of a child. Even though anxiety too ascends when completing all the responsibilities, it fades off and joy is what remains. However, at this stage for some mothers, happiness is replaced with a disorder termed as the postpartum depression. This state is also known to be as the “baby blues”, where pregnant women about 40 to 80 percent undergoes a complex mix of emotional, physical and behavioural changes after the birth of a child. This condition could take place just after a few days of delivery and would last long for about two or four weeks. The toughest forecasters of postpartum depression were history of psychopathology and psychological disturbance during pregnancy, poor marital relationship and stressful life events, and low social support (O’hara & Swain 2009, pg.37). Furthermore, O’hara and Swain indicated that low social status displayed minimal but momentous predictive relation to postpartum depression. Most of the time researches have viewed this as a complication of giving birth, as it occurs after the birth of the child.
I’m very much interested about this topic because, this is to the field of health and I my self has experienced it with my first child
Abbasi et al., (2013) specifies depression during postpartum period has serious consequences on both the mother and the child’s health. Apart from feelings like annoyance, touchiness, anxiety, and guilt occurring from Postpartum Depression, somatic indications as headache, fatigue, and insomnia arises leading to superior health care utilization, yet Postpartum Depression remains untreated. Factors such as “younger age, socioeconomic status and lower educational attainment, worrying life events, low levels of social support. Etc, paves the way for postpartum.
The article starts with, Abbasi et al., (2013) giving information on Postpartum Depression. The reasons for the depression and several categories which are shown by women with the disorder. They further have paid their attention on analysing the connections between postpartum depression and first baby study laterally.
According to a study that was conducted using Maryland Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Systems (PRAMS), data was found that women with unintended Pregnancy(UP) are more likely on PPD than on Intended Pregnant women(IP). Moreover, women between the ages of 18-35, from Pennsylvania were interviewed using standard measurements of PRAMS on the first child bearing. women were topped on questionnaires as to have a baby sooner or later. Here women considered to have IP, expecting a baby sooner and UP on postpone pregnancy or the unlikely of being pregnant. However according to the data gained from a multivariable analysis, it was found that unintended pregnancy was no longer independently associated with postpartum depression in the first baby study. however, Abbasi and others says that,
“Although unintended pregnancy was not independently associated with Postpartum depression, it is important to note that postpartum depression was more possible among women with unplanned pregnancies.”
So, it brings out proof that although postpartum depression is not an independent factor on unintended pregnancy at the time of first child birth, it becomes effective just after childbirth, bringing symptoms as stated
postpartum depression brings out long- term risks for mothers’ future mental health and brings significant negative effects on cognitive, social and physical development of their children. Numerous researches have demonstrated that, if there is longer breastfeeding duration, lower the occurrence of postpartum depression while some research says the opposite. Though, according to further surveys done it was not clear that mental health is not actually affected by the duration of breastfeeding. To go on with the hypothesis, studies were carried. Borra et al., (2015) emphasizes that,
“The association between breastfeeding and maternal mental health might be determined by biological factors, such as variances in hormone levels between breast- and formula- feeding mothers, if maternal mental health is also affected by mothers’ feelings of success if failure in relation to their original plans and aspirations”
The authors give a summary on how postpartum depression can bring out effects on both the mother’s and child’s certain environments. They recommend that there is a relationship between the process and duration of breastfeed from the mother to the infant. Furthermore, studies too were carried on, to comprehend certain situations.
In relation to the study that was carried out in England, gained data collected from raising questionnaires among both parents during pregnancy and at several stages following birth. The most common and valid reliable tool for measuring postpartum and antenatal, known as the Edinburgh Postnatal
Depression Scale (EPDS) was used. The results obtained, estimated lengths of breastfeed was found that,
80% – Initial breastfeed
74% – 1 week or more
56% – 4 weeks only
43% – exclusively
Furthermore, Borra et al., (2017) highlights in the study that both the maternal mental health during pregnancy and mother’s intendancy to breastfeed fluctuated from the consequence of breastfeeding on maternal mood. Also, it showed that breastfeeding reduced the risk of postpartum depression and the mothers should breastfeed as planned before or otherwise making intendants and not being able to breastfeed as expected can also have an effect on increasing postpartum depression.
Mothers, who are expecting a baby it gives them an understanding of extreme pleasure where they feel delighted or high, as it is said by Juliet and Gabriel, (2017). However, this mood of happiness, emotions and behaviour could also be changed into the state of “baby blues”, where mothers tend to arise with unpleasant feelings. In this state postpartum depression is different, where it can arise either prior to delivery or else it is undetected. Yet, can be identified if postpartum lasts for about 4 weeks arising negative symptoms after childbirth and the hard effects on relationships. According to the analyses done, Nigerian women who become new mothers are observed to have postpartum depression depending on various factors, as in their culture protecting a newborn is a great responsibility.
The paper gives a clear understanding of the the characteristics brought by women with postpartum depression, and the precautions carried out in prior for the general well-being of women in replace of postpartum depression.