INFLUENCE OF POACHING ON TOURISM BUSINESS

INFLUENCE OF POACHING ON TOURISM BUSINESS; CASE STUDY OF OLPEJETA CONSERVANCY, LAIKIPIA COUNTY, KENYA
BY
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A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE BACHELORS DEGREE OF SCIENCE IN TOURISM MANAGEMENT OF KARATINA UNIVERSITY
JUNE 2018
DECLARATIONI confirm that this research project is my original work and has not been presented in any other university/institution for certification. This project has been complemented by referenced works duly acknowledged. Where text, data (including spoken words), graphics, pictures or tables have been borrowed from other sources, including the internet, these are specifically accredited and references cited using current APA system and in accordance with anti-plagiarism regulations.

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Lecturers’ declaration
I confirm that this project work was carried out by the candidate under my supervision as University Lecturer.

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DR. XXXXXX
Lecturer,
Department of Tourism Management
Kenyatta UniversityDEDICATIONI dedicate this project to my mother XXXXX and my father XXXXX for the tireless support they have given me both financial and emotional which has made me achieve this great work of research. I appreciate my friends and classmates for their support and advice they gave to me to make this dream true. Most importantly I dedicate this research project to the people of Laikipia County for their cooperation and working hand in hand with me.AcknowledgmentI would like to show my deep gratitude to God for giving me good health during the time of research. I thank my family for giving me the opportunity to gain access to higher education and for their full financial support during my study.
My sincerely acknowledge goes to my lecturer Dr. XXXXX for her constructive criticism, resourcefulness and methodological input in this project. What I have acquired from her will enable me in future as an individual to come up with nice reports or proposals which will create a better impression in the institutions I will be working for.

I sincerely appreciate the support from Karatina University Lecturers and Library Staff who have been a constant aid giving shape to this project. I thank the Laikipia County Officials in the tourism department for their support they accorded me during the field study. I also appreciate my colleague students in Tourism management department whom will study with for their valuable advice and support they showed me during a hard time of research. May God Bless you abundantly.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc516571836 h iiDEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc516571837 h iiiAcknowledgment PAGEREF _Toc516571839 h ivABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS PAGEREF _Toc516571840 h viiABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc516571841 h viiiCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc516571842 h 1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc516571843 h 11.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516571844 h 11.1 Background to the Study PAGEREF _Toc516571845 h 11.2 Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc516571846 h 51.3 General objective PAGEREF _Toc516571847 h 61.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc516571848 h 61.5 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc516571849 h 71.6 Limitation and Delimitation of the Study PAGEREF _Toc516571850 h 7The following are the limitations and delimitation of the study. PAGEREF _Toc516571851 h 71.7 Assumptions of the study PAGEREF _Toc516571852 h 81.8 The conceptual framework. PAGEREF _Toc516571853 h 8CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc516571854 h 11LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc516571855 h 112.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516571856 h 112.1 The Concept of Tourism Businesses PAGEREF _Toc516571857 h 112.2 Extent of Poaching and Endangered Wildlife Species PAGEREF _Toc516571858 h 132.3 Poaching and Tourism Businesses PAGEREF _Toc516571859 h 152.4 Marketing and Tourism businesses PAGEREF _Toc516571860 h 182.5 Theoretical framework PAGEREF _Toc516571861 h 202.6 Research Gaps PAGEREF _Toc516571862 h 21CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc516571863 h 22RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc516571864 h 223.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516571865 h 223.1 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc516571866 h 223.2 Study area PAGEREF _Toc516571867 h 233.3 Target Population PAGEREF _Toc516571868 h 233.4 sample size and sampling techniques PAGEREF _Toc516571869 h 243.5 Research Instruments PAGEREF _Toc516571870 h 243.6 Pre-testing. PAGEREF _Toc516571872 h 243.7 Data Collection Procedures PAGEREF _Toc516571873 h 263.8 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc516571874 h 263.9 Ethical Considerations PAGEREF _Toc516571875 h 26CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc516571876 h 27STUDY FINDINGS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc516571877 h 274.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516571878 h 274.1 Response Rate PAGEREF _Toc516571879 h 274.2 Demographic Information PAGEREF _Toc516571880 h 284.3 Influence of poaching on tourism PAGEREF _Toc516571881 h 324.4 Most Poached Mammal PAGEREF _Toc516571882 h 334.5 The extent to which poaching-related factors influence tourism in OPC PAGEREF _Toc516571883 h 344.6 Reasons for Poaching Behaviors PAGEREF _Toc516571884 h 364.7 Marketing of Tourism in Olpejeta Conservancy PAGEREF _Toc516571885 h 38CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc516571886 h 39SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc516571887 h 395.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516571888 h 395.1 Summary of the Findings PAGEREF _Toc516571889 h 395.2 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc516571890 h 415.3 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc516571891 h 425.4 Recommendation for Further Study PAGEREF _Toc516571892 h 43REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc516571893 h 43APPENDIXES PAGEREF _Toc516571894 h 46APPENDIX I: RESEARCH QUESTIOBNNARE PAGEREF _Toc516571895 h 46APPENDIX II: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE PAGEREF _Toc516571896 h 50APPENDIX III WORK PLAN PAGEREF _Toc516571897 h 51APPENDIX IV BUDGET PAGEREF _Toc516571898 h 52
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSCNP- Certified Network Professional
GRs-Game Reserves
HECWG-Human-Elephant Conflict Working Group
IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
KBS -Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
KBS -National Bureau of Statistics
KTB- Kenya Tourist Board
KWS -Kenya wildlife service
OPC-Ol Pejeta Conservancy
SPSS-Statistical Package for Social Sciences
UAV- Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UNWTO- United Nations World Tourism Organization
WTO-World tourism organization
WWF- World Wildlife Fund
ABSTRACTThe research was undertaken on the influence of poaching on tourism business, a case study of Ol Pejeta conservancy Laikipia County, Kenya. This study was guided by the following objectives; to find out the extent to which poaching has influenced tourism ventures in Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Laikipia County to determine effects of poaching on wildlife species and its influence in security in Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Laikipia County and to find out the influence of poaching on the arrival of tourist in the Kenyan destination. The study employed descriptive survey design, the target population comprised the management staff of Ol Pejeta Conservancy in all the six tourism ventures, a total of 100 staff who completed and returned the questionnaires making a response rate of 100%. Census was used since all the management staff was the respondents. Purposive sampling was used to interview game rangers and KWS official. The main instruments for data collection were self-administered questionnaire and a structured interview schedules. There were ethical issues related to the study and they were addressed by maintaining high level confidentiality of the information volunteered by the respondents. Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected. The quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics by employing Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and presented using tables and graphs . Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. It was expected that the results of the study was to be used to make recommendations on how to boost tourism within the conservancy. The findings of the study were that poaching affects tourism in OPC to a great extent and have a negative impact to tourism activities in the conservancy. Finally regarding the influence of marketing to tourism in Ol Pejeta Conservancy the study revealed that the marketing strategies employed by OPC are not sufficient to help the Conservancy achieve its target of maximum holding capacity of 95, 000. The study recommendations were; since poaching is both a local and global problem the county government should work closely with central government and other stakeholders like KWS, private sector and the community to fight poaching. The county government in collaboration with Ol Pejeta Conservancy should work hand in hand to improve road network within the county and especially road serving the conservancy which is in the poor state. In terms of marketing the conservancy needs to improve and intensify its marketing strategy. The channel currently in use are not sufficient to reach majority of the target group, other channels of marketing that can be employed are participation in tourism forums at both county and country level.
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONIntroduction
This chapter outlines the background to the study, statement of a problem, the purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, and significance of the study, limitations, and delimitations of the study, Assumptions of the study and the conceptual framework.

1.1 Background to the Study
Subedi (2010) stated that Africa and some parts of Asia are the most important tourists’ destination in CNP at present, and further mentioned that the number of tourist-related lodges operating outside the park was more than 62 in 2007. This number has reached nearly 200 in 2012, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, the main entrance of the park. Across the world like any other business tourism businesses are affected by various factors however this research will look at how poaching and marketing affect the tourism business in Kenya especially Laikipia County.

The problem of poaching and its impact on wildlife appears to be more exacerbated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Poachers and non-state actors rebel movements such as The Lord’s Resistance Army have introduced a more lethal and destructive dimension to the plunder of wildlife (UNWTO, 2016). The brutal actor’s target elephants and rhinos with more sophisticated weaponry and technology to fund domestic insurgencies and never-ending civil wars. Incidents of poaching committed by terrorist groups occur in several “hotspots” in the sub-region. In Cameroon for instance, during a single week, at least 86 elephants (among them 33 pregnant females and their calves) were slaughtered and over the first three months of 2012 more than 100 elephants were slain at BoubaNdjida National Park; the Janjaweed militia of Western Sudan aided by neighboring Chadians were the alleged perpetrators (Quarterman, 2013).

African elephant (Loxodonta Africana) populations dropped by 64% between 1979 and 1987 from an estimated 1.3 million to 472,000 (CNP, 2012). This is largely attributed to ivory poaching. The poaching threat to elephants has evolved from a handful of poachers downing elephants in the mid-1950s with poison arrows (Shauer, 2015) to mass slayings of elephants by militarized gangs equipped with night vision goggles, rocket launchers and helicopters (Walker, 2013). To avoid being discovered by law enforcement, some poachers are abandoning noisy firearms and resorting to tactics such as poisoning water holes, often resulting in the death of entire herds of elephants as well as other animals (Eller, 2014; Thornycroft and Laing, 2013).

The African Wildlife Foundation’s evaluations of the number of inhabitants in five African jeopardized big mammal species show that the black rhino (Diceros bicornis) populace has dropped by 97.6% since 1960 while less than 900 mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) and just 2,000 Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi) remain (AWF, 2015). Lion (Panthera leo) is considered to have lost 85% of its noteworthy range because of land transformation, for the most part for farming and settlements (AWF, 2015). In the course of the most recent century, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populace has declined from 3-5 million in the 1940s to 1.3 million in the 1970s and to under 500,000 today (IUCN, 2015). Late reports show that more than 30,000 African elephants are presently being slaughtered per annum (Skinner, 2014).

Poverty is directly and indirectly linked to poaching and trafficking of ivory and rhino horn from Sub-Saharan Africa. This concept is squarely discussed under Millennium Development Goal 7, Ensure Environmental Sustainability. The UN states that MDG7 can be achieved via a series of targets, one of which is target 7b: reduce biodiversity loss, achieving by 2010, and a significant reduction in the rate of loss1 (Roe et al. 2011; Roe and Elliot (eds) 2010).
In order to respond effectively to the links between poverty, trafficking, and poaching in Sub-Saharan Africa, we need to understand how it developed. There is no easy link between poverty and trafficking. Thornycroft and Laing (2013) distinguished four key arguments in the conservation-poverty debate: Conservation and poverty are separate policy realms, conservation should not compromise poverty reduction, poverty impedes conservation because poaching and environmental degradation are often pursued by the poor in short-sighted ways. When people become richer they are more amenable to accepting conservation policies (AWF, 2015). Addressing poverty is, therefore, a means of directly and indirectly promoting conservation and poverty reduction depends on sustainable resource use. Where livelihoods depend on living resources their sustainable use will promote both the resource and the livelihood associated with it hence the focus of this study.
In southern Africa, meanwhile, rhinoceros populations are being hunted to near extinction, pursued relentlessly by poachers for their horn, which is used in traditional medicine and for decorative purposes in much of Asia (IUCN, 2015). While its medicinal properties have been soundly refuted, demand continues to soar: rhino horn was estimated in 2013 to be worth up to $65,000/kg on the illicit market, compared to $3,000/kg for elephant ivory. South Africa, which is home to the vast majority of Africa’s white rhinoceros and a significant portion of its black rhinoceros, is at the epicenter of the crisis. Despite significant resources devoted to anti-poaching efforts, the number of confirmed kills rose from 83 in 2008 to more than 1,200 in 2014, according to the South African Ministry of Environmental Affairs.

Poorer communities in conflict areas lose the value of wildlife to organized militia and rebel groups who use ivory and rhino horn to fund their operations. Furthermore, it prevents the development of tourism because tourists are put off by the risks associated with a combination of conflict zones and poaching. Tourism is difficult to develop in areas of on-going conflict because of the risks to international tourists and the lack of facilities. This is a major challenge for communities aiming to capture tourist value of wildlife in CAR, Sudan, DRC and the Rwanda-Uganda-DRC border areas (Lombard, 2012). The rise in poaching in the Central African Republic and its relationships to regional security issues (Chad, Cameroon, CAR and Gabon) was detailed in a report by UN Secretary-General, Ban Ki-Moon (UN, 2013). Zakouma National Park in Chad has also suffered poaching by rebel groups to fund cross-border wars; Garamba National Park (DRC) was used as a base by the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) in 2012 and it used ivory poaching to underpin and finance operations; leader of the LRA, Joseph Kony, was based there in 2012 (UN, 2013).

Kenya tourist board has embarked on marketing Kenya as a tourist destination of choice. Marketing is a core component of any business. In tourism, business marketing helps tourist to make choices of the destination they will spend their money in and derive maximum utility from it. Kenya is rebranding itself a tourist destination in Kenya via the social media and showcasing. Ol pejeta conservancy seems to have taken a cue from the Kenya tourist board with over 15000 likes on Facebook. Other marketing tools they use are twitter account with almost 6000 followers the newsletter and referrals however in terms of marketing there seem to me shortage of public awareness, despite all these channels it seems there is lack of awareness across the world if compared to other major conservancies in the world like The Nature Conservancy, Arlington Virginia with 468,741 Facebook likes according to their official Facebook page.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the legacies of colonialism was that legitimate rights to hunt were expelled from Africans with a specific end goal to ensure don hunting and the safari business for European colonizers (Adams 2004; Jacoby, 2003; Neumann, 2004). This procedure of enclosure in the area evacuated rights to subsistence hunting and additionally devastated African people group. This additionally incompletely clarifies why a few groups in Sub-Saharan Africa proceed to oppose and overlook enactment securing untamed life since they trust they have a privilege to get to and utilize natural life as they have accomplished for eras (Duffy, 2010, Fischer et al. 2013).

The current poaching crisis is massive and yet impossible to quantify with precision. Given the vast tracts of remote land over which elephants and rhinoceros range and the scant resources invested in monitoring, many illegal kills are discovered only months or years after they occur, if ever. Estimates are made by extrapolating from the amount of ivory seized by law enforcement, which is believed to represent only a sliver of the overall illicit trade.

Today wildlife crime has become a serious threat to the sovereignty and stability of some of our countries. More and more of the profits are used to finance civil conflicts and terrorist-related activities. Furthermore, illicit wildlife trafficking is often linked to other forms of illegal trafficking and to money laundering. Over and over again, all across Africa, we have seen poachers move into peaceful regions blessed with rich natural assets, initiating a spiral of criminality and suffering that ends in civil war.
Considerable effort has been made to investigate links between the illicit ivory trade and terrorism in Africa, including the question of whether Al-Shabaab may have funded its 2013 massacre at the Westgate Mall in Nairobi, Kenya with ivory proceeds. Despite circumstantial evidence, however, there is not yet conclusive proof that al-Shabaab has funded its activities by trafficking ivory.
Due to these illegal activities the number of arrivals is still below half of the holding capacity of OLPejeta conservancy hence this research sought to assess the influence of poaching and human-wildlife conflict on the success of tourism ventures a case of Ol Pejeta Conservancy, the research specifically looked at poaching, human-wildlife conflict, and marketing as factors influencing the success of tourism venture.
1.3 General objectiveThis study is set to find out the influence of poaching and human-wildlife conflict to tourism business in Olpejeta Conservancy, Laikipia County, Kenya.

1.3.1 Specific Objectives
To find out the extent to which poaching has influenced tourism ventures in Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Laikipia County.

To determine poaching behaviors and its influence in wildlife species in Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Laikipia County.
To find out the influence of poaching on the arrival of tourist in the Kenyan destination.
1.4 Research Questions
To what extent poaching has influenced tourism ventures in Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Laikipia County?
To what are effects of poaching behaviors influence wildlife species in Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Laikipia County?
What is the influence of poaching and human-wildlife conflicts on the arrival of tourist in the Kenyan destination?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The following is the suggested implication of the study the specific beneficiaries aimed by this study: The Ol Pejeta management may use the findings as the bases upon which to make an informed decision in regards to poaching and human-wildlife conflict to come up with ways of curbing the high cases of poaching and resolve the human-wildlife.

The county government may use the findings and recommendations to attract more tourists in the country and consequent boosting the number of tourist arrivals in other tourism businesses in the county through holding tourism forums, improved road network and giving incentives to the tourism ventures.

To the local residents living around the conservancy, the study may create awareness among them on the benefits of the conservancy to them and their role in improving tourism business.

Limitation and Delimitation of the StudyThe following are the limitations and delimitation of the study.Limitations
The research was specifically based in Ol Pejeta conservancy hence it cannot be generalized to other counties within the country since they have different endowment and challenges. The researcher financed the project from his own pocket hence the challenges of finances when carrying out the research affected him.
Delimitations
This study was based in Ol Pejeta Conservancy, Laikipia County, which sits on a 900,000 acres property, located on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya, between the Aberdares Mountains and Mt. Kenya. Its main activity is the promotion of tourism through wildlife protection. The study sought to assess the influence of poaching and marketing on the success of tourism ventures, a case study of Ol Pejeta Conservancy. The study was carried out within Ol Pejeta Conservancy in the six tourist ventures
1.7 Assumptions of the studyThat people were willing to answer all questions. It also assumed that the respondents had vast information and provided reliable data to the study.
1.8 The conceptual framework.This comprises of the independent variables which are poaching and human-wildlife conflict which affects the tourism business, which is the dependent variable, and the intervening variables which facilitate the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

Independent variables
Poaching: Decline or extinction of wild animals and plants, increased insecurity within the conservancy, the high cost of animal protection within the Conservancy

Endangered species: elephants, rhinoceros, antelopes, lions, gorilla among other species
The success of tourism businesses: higher tourism capacity, increased living standards, increased foreign income, reduction of poaching among others.
Dependent variables

Tourist arrivals: decrease in the number
-Lack of information regarding the conservation
Poor marketing strategy

Government policy
Political environment
Cultural diversity
Natural endowment
Intervening variables
Figure 1.1 conceptual framework
The framework shows how various variables interact and how they influence the success of tourism businesses in OlPejeta Conservancy. For this study, three factors; poaching and wildlife species that are endangered and tourist arrivals as the targeted market for the tourism ventures are considered as the independent variables. The success of tourism business is the dependent variable that is affected by the independent variables as shown above. At the same time, some intervening variables such as government policy and political environment as well as natural endowment tend to affect the degree of influence.
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEWIntroductionThis chapter highlights the literature review that is guided by the study objectives which includes: understanding the concept of tourism ventures, poaching, human-wildlife conflict, and marketing strategies in tourism which contributes to the success o tourism-related businesses.
2.1 The Concept of Tourism Businesses
According to According to the UNWTO (2012), tourism is one of the largest global industries, with much of the growing market focused on pristine natural environments such as coastal and marine protected areas. MPs are increasingly attracting interest from foreign visitors, as well as local residents. Tourism can benefit local communities and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) through revenue generation and employment. However, tourism can also threaten MPA resources by destroying habitat, disturbing wildlife, impacting water quality, and threaten communities by over-development, crowding, and disruption of local culture (UN, 2010).

In addition, conventional tourism often does not benefit the local community when tourist revenue “leaks” to outside operators. As a result, tourism can destroy the very resources on which it depends. In contrast, sustainable tourism is deliberately planned to benefit local residents, respect local culture, conserve natural resources, direct more of the profits to the local community and MPA, and educate both tourists and local residents about the importance of conservation (UNWTO, 2015).
Kenya is one of the most developed tourism destinations in sub-Saharan Africa. Tourism is the second highest single source of foreign exchange after tea (Nganga, 2015). This position reflects the relative decline of tourism which was the leading foreign exchange earner for the country for a decade since 1987. In 2013, Kenya attracted 3.6 percent of the 21.593 million international tourist arrivals to Africa (UNWTO, 2014). This made Kenya one of the top destinations in Africa after South Africa, Tunisia, Morocco, and Zimbabwe. The country’s main attractions are resources in the national parks and reserves, beaches, and historical sites.

Tourism is an important form of trade across the world because it encompasses several areas of the economy, transportation, catering, accommodation, recreation, and services for tourists it is the world’s largest generator of employment (www.sandiego.org 2008). Tourism is one of the main tools for developing countries to achieve sustainable economic development. According to the UNWTO (2012), for instance, International tourist arrivals grew by 4.6% in 2011to a total of 983 million (43 million more than in 2010). The travel and tourism industry contributed 9% of global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounted for 255 million jobs in 2011(WTTC, 2012).

Tourism businesses target both household and worldwide travelers. Both vacationers and those on business excursions are considered sightseers, and they might visit either locally (inside their nation of origin) or universally. Business tourism is one of the main and most powerfully creating circles of the world economy, on the grounds that effective business is outlandish without contacts, trade of innovations and data, shows, congresses, and business trips.

In Kenya, the Kenya Tourist Development Corporation is attempting to adjust in order to achieve the Vision 2030 by taking part in tasks that will achieve the sought development in the tourism industry. There has been hearty showcasing of tourism in Kenya and outside in the push to urge more traveler to visit.

2.2 Extent of Poaching and Endangered Wildlife Species
Despite the combined efforts of governments and conservation NGOs to protect indigenous wildlife species globally, some animal populations continue to decline. These declines are attributable to a myriad of factors including habitat destruction, a byproduct of mining, logging and other human activities that remove natural resources, the introduction of non-native species to habitats, fluctuations in climate (drought, floods, etc.), and poaching (Musyoki et al., 2012). Of these factors, poaching is becoming more prevalent and destructive (Gao and Clark, 2014). Poaching is the illegal killing of wildlife against established laws (local, federal or international) and includes any unlicensed taking of animals, animals taken out of season, in excess of bag limits, by banned weapons or during trespassing (Lin, 2014).

Globally, the problem of wildlife poaching has reached epic proportions with estimates ranging from $5 billion to $20 billion annually (Lawson and Vines, 2 4. north America illegal hunting activities severely impact populations of grimly bears bighorn sheep moose and walruses as poachers sell wildlife products e.g. the paws, bladders, and meat of bears; walrus tusks as ivory; and animal antlers and pelts (Musgrave, Parker, and Wolok, 2011). In Asia, poaching has reached critical levels for animals such as tigers (Global Tiger Initiative Secretariat, 2012).

A particular wildlife item featuring prominently in the illegal activity of poaching and its associated global trade is elephant ivory. The ivory from one elephant (about 10 kg) has a market value of roughly $30,000 (Vira and Ewing, 2014). Despite sanctions on the illegal trade of ivory, the current number of transactions globally has more than doubled since 2007 and tripled the previous high reached in 1998; in Beijing for instance, ivory sells for up to $2,205 per kilogram and rhino horn for $66,139 per kilogram, a higher value than either gold or platinum sold on the Chinese black market (Lawson and Vines, 2014).

For instance, in neighboring Gabon’s Minkebe National Park, the forest elephant population has plunged from an estimated 21,000 to 11,100, nearly a 50 percent reduction in the last 10 years a result of poaching operations supported by the infrastructure of mining camps in the area (Agence Nationale des Parcs Nationaux, 2013). In Zimbabwe, poachers dispensed cyanide into water holes and on salt licks resulting in the death of more than 300 elephants and subsequently other animals like lions and hyenas that came to dine on the elephant carcasses there (Thornycroft and Laing, 2013).

In Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe, poachers tend to refrain from using firearms as killing tactics, preferring more silent methods (e.g. tranquilizers, crossbows, and poisons) to prevent game wardens from discovering their presence (Miliken, Emslie, and Talukder, 2009). In 2013 in Kenya, 117 elephants were slaughtered to feed the demand of consumers, their ivory and other parts going for astronomical prices on the black markets of Asia (Messenger, 2013).

To minimize the appeal of illegal hunting, the Kenyan Parliament enacted a law that substantially raised the fines levied against arrested poachers to $120,000 coupled with 15 years incarceration. Before the enactment of the law, a punishment meted out to offenders amounted to no more than a slap on the wrist. As a result of poaching, Kenya’s elephants declined from 160,000 in the 1960s to 16,000 in 1989 and currently, there are only about 3,850 elephants and 1,025 rhinos left in the country (Messenger, 2013). The population of the sable antelope, located in Kenya, has fallen to an estimated 70 animals over the last three decades (Musyoki et al., 2012). The costs of poaching on wildlife are many and varied and often include the inhibition of population growth, collapse of geographic ranges and ultimately extinction of species.
2.3 Poaching and Tourism Businesses
We have different types of poachers as researchers as indicating who are typically the subsistence poachers, commercial, emerging and hybrid forms of poachers. The subsistence poachers typically target small game (e.g. antelope) and hunt to meet food needs. Subsistence poaching is characterized by low technology (e.g. use of traps and snares) and tends to have a minimal impact on wildlife populations (Mackenzie, 1988; Adams, 2004; Fischer et al. 2013: 264; Adams et al. 2009). However, the use of non-selective hunting technologies can be detrimental to species that are both of conservation concern and critical to nature-based tourism including elephant, lion and wild dog (Becker et al. 2013).
Commercial poachers typically operate within organized groups that target commercially valuable species e.g. rhinos and elephants. Commercial poachers may use different, typically more advanced technologies including firearms, GPS, mobile phones etc. Commercial poaching can have a devastating impact on wildlife populations (e.g. elephant populations in Eastern Africa in the 1980s) (see Leakey 2001; Brockington, Duffy, and Igoe, 2008: 77-78; Duffy, 2010: 79-113).
Emerging and hybrid forms of poachers are the relations between commercial versus subsistence poachers are two blunt categories. However, the boundaries can be blurred at the margins. The rise in commercial hunting for bushmeat, for example, shows how traditional subsistence hunting has been transformed in response to the arrival of logging companies in remote forests, where a workforce has to be fed, or transport links give easier access to urban markets.

While poverty may encourage people to poach, poverty per se is not necessarily the driver or initiator of poaching. Individuals from poor communities would not engage in the poaching of commercially valuable species unless there was demand from wealthier communities (TRAFFIC 2008; IFAW, 2008; Duffy 2010: 155-187). The reasons for poaching tend not to be thoroughly investigated in NGO campaigns because, in the past, it was the fact that animals were being poached that was the key driving issue (Peluso 1993: 205-9).
A recent IUCN report on elephant meat trade in the Central African region concluded that demand from wealthier communities was a key stimulus for illegal hunting (Stiles, 2011). Wealthy industrial economies remain major legal and illegal importers of wildlife. In 2008 a report by TRAFFIC-ASIA examined the drivers of the illegal wildlife trade and concluded that the increase in illegal trading of wildlife was directly related to the rise in incomes in the region. The report detailed the complexity of the networks involved in the wildlife trade: it linked local-level rural harvesters, professional hunters, traders, wholesalers and retailers with the final consumers of wildlife, in locations distant from the source of the product. The illegal wildlife trade provides varying levels of economic support to different communities: a source of regular income, a safety net or as profitable business (TRAFFIC, 2008).

Tourists are occasionally involved in wildlife poaching and the illegal trade of wildlife parts, which is the worst form of tourism (Higginbottom, 2004; Liddle, 1997; Newsome, Dowling, & Moore, 2005). For instance, over 50 million butterflies are killed for tourist souvenirs each year in Brazil (Carvalho & Mielke, 1971). Generally, it is expected that tourists do not become involved in illegal activities. However, sometimes they can be charged for their involvement in or support of illegal activities. For instance, the Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation (2011) stated that 683 and 640 international tourists visiting Nepal were involved in various crimes such as robbery and fraud in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Wildlife poaching, including that of rhinoceros, is a serious threat in Nepal and it is possible that some wildlife tourists are involved. To curb this most of the parks and conservancies have adopted a strict regulation, for example, restricting tourist from interacting with the wildlife both plants and animals which to some tourist seem not to satisfy their ultimate goal of interacting with wild-animals/plants at their natural set up.

In Africa, especially, poaching is a major danger to wildlife conservation. Poachers ignore laws protecting animals, systematically butchering them for profit. In order to stop poaching, African governments have created huge national parks that serve as wildlife sanctuaries. The number of rhino’s lost to poaching in South Africa climbed from 300 in 2010 to 668 in 2012, 232 rhinos have already been killed in 2013 and these numbers only represent South Africa. Rhino poaching is on the rise in East Africa as well. (WWF, 2012) If poaching continues to increase annually as it has done since 2007, then eventually deaths will exceed births and rhino numbers in South Africa will start to fall.

Overall, the total number of rhinos killed per year in South Africa over the past five years has shown a continued escalation, even if there are fluctuations in the daily rate of poaching (Rademeyer, 2012). The most important global destinations for tourists to view wildlife, mainly rhinoceros (Subedi, 2010) is Chitwan National Park. Because of this, rhinoceros tourism is continuously growing in Nepal. Second, poaching is the most critical threat to rhinoceros survival (CNP, 2006, 2012; DNPWC, 2006). Subedi (2010) stated that the tourism industry in the Park is still under threat due to rhinoceros poaching hence the decline in the number of tourists visiting the park and indeed to most of the conservancies across the world.
According to Kenya wildlife service on its statement after the killing of the entire family of 11 elephants in January 2013 in Tsavo East National Park, it was the worst ever massive killing since 1989 and it was attributed to escalating prices of ivory in the black market. Poacher has watered down the government initiative to promote tourism in the country and consequently affecting the entire tourism sector. At Ol Pejeta conservancy poaching has led to the relocation of animals especially the poacher threatened animals to other conservancies and parks, this has lead to a low number of animals within the conservancy which is the main attraction.
2.4 Marketing and Tourism businesses
Tourism marketing in destinations should be able to understand that searching the behavior of tourists is imperative for effective campaign designs. Marketing destination involves communicating with potential visitors to influence decisions on destination preference, intention to travel and product choices (Lai and Vinh, 2012). According to Gartner (1993), information is capable of originating through induced information which are promotional materials such as brochures and posters, and tour operators’ and travel agents’ input. He explained that self-information through the mass media also plays a role. Also, organic information could be from friends, relatives, and personal experience. Marketing destination for awareness is a promise to the consumer that products will be delivered to them with all the features described and communicated, and a delivery of customer satisfaction of a product (Lai and Vinh, 2013).

In Kenya tourism is organized by the Kenya Tourist Board (KTB) which is entrusted with, Strategic Planning to align its programs towards the achievement of tourism goals and to coordinate tourist activities in the country. There are several tour companies in the country owned both by locals and foreigners which act as tourist agencies and help the Kenya Tourist Board in its local and foreign activities. One of the key advantages KTB have is that Kenya is a naturally gifted country especially in wildlife, coastal beaches, mountains and beautiful plain lands, this is recognized internationally. However this is not enough in the current international market due to competition, KTB must convince potential target customers they are offering something different from the competition, hence the need for marketing. This can be achieved by offering a different price, offering better service, or offering a different type of service to the customer.

The tourism market has been on an upward trend from 2003-2007 but slowed down due to chaos after the disputed election which led to some western countries declaring travel to Kenya unsafe however the damage that was experienced on the short term was minimal but experts have predicted that the chaos could have a longer-term impact. By now all the countries have canceled the travel advisory and the board hopes that the losses accrued over that period will be minimal in the long-term, enabling the market to continue with the steady growth (www.tourism.go.ke 2008).

Social media loosely refers to a wide spectrum of web-based and mobile applications that enable social interaction across geographical boundaries mainly through user-generated content. In recent years, particularly in the last couple of years, there has been an exponential growth not only in the number of social media networks but also in the socio-demographic attributes of their user base. To this end, most business ventures have resulted in social media to market their businesses.

According to eMarketer spending on advertisements via social networking sites has increased from $ 1.40 billion in 2009 to a projected $3 billion in 2011, a nearly 50% increase. A recent survey on social media usage in Fortune 500 companies conducted by the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Center for Marketing Research (2010) found that 60% of the Fortune 500 companies now have regularly updated Twitter accounts. As well, 56% of these companies have an active presence on Facebook. In Kenya most companies are on both Facebook and Twitter, Ol-pejeta conservancy has its presence on social media as well as the production of e-newsletters. Marketing helps to boost consumption of the products and services by the target market and this end proper marketing of Ol Pejeta Conservancy with help to boost the number of arrivals in the conservancy.
2.5 Theoretical framework
Academic scholars have put up several theories and approaches to explain why people decide to travel for vacations and holidays (Morrison, 2013). He, however, stated that Dann’s (1977) push and pull theory is the most accepted among the more specific explanations of tourist motivation. He stated that ‘push’ factors are within individuals whereby people attempt to take care of internal drives such as the need to escape from a certain environment. The ‘pull’ factors are the products of marketing the destination to invite people to visit. Visitors are motivated to travel by the ‘push’ factor, while specific tourism destinations are selected by visitors by the ‘pull’ factor. Klenosky (2002) explained that the ‘push’ factors are related to tourists’ needs and want which include the need to escape, rest, relax, go for adventure, health and fitness, prestige and social interaction. The ‘push’ factors are determinants of whether to go to a destination or not, while ‘pull’ factors determine which destination to go. They further stressed that ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors vary according to the origins of tourists; and this may be due to economic, socio-cultural and geographic differences.
Also, academic researchers have offered models that have made one understand why people pick their destinations. Morrison (2013) deduced the following factors from these models.

Socio-psychological: Um and Crompton (1990) explained that this factor includes the personal characteristics, motives, values, and attitudes of the tourist as they are linked closely with people’s motives for pleasure/leisure travel. In this study, if there would be a human-wildlife conflict it will attract to poaching that causes loss of the prestigious wild animals species like the elephants, rhinoceros, lions and small animals like antelopes and zebras which attracts travelers to visit our destination.

2.6 Research Gaps
According to UNWTO (2012) tourism is the world’s largest and fastest growing industry, and indeed the biggest provider of jobs. WTTC (2012), attributed the growth of domestic tourism in China to income per capita of Chinese citizens, the increase of leisure time, and the structural adjustment of China’s national economy. Isaac Sindiga (2011) carried out a study on Wildlife-based tourism in Kenya; Nganga, (2015) carried out a study wildlife conservation and tourism in Kenya. The reviewed literature demonstrates the influence of various factors on tourism in various parts of the world and specifically Kenya. Hence there was the need to conduct this study to assess the influence of poaching and human-wildlife conflict on the success of tourism businesses, a case of Ol Pejeta Conservancy, Laikipia county, Kenya.

CHAPTER THREERESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY3.0 IntroductionThis chapter defines the target population of the study. It also focuses on the sampling designs and procedures, data collection procedures and data analysis techniques to be used in the study.3.1 Research DesignThis study employed the descriptive survey research design, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The two methods are to complement each other. While qualitative method allows researchers to describe in rich detail a phenomenon as it is situated and embedded in local contexts based on individual case information, the quantitative approach provides precise, quantitative and numerical data that allows for generalizations to be made (Crotty, 1998).

A descriptive survey design is used to explore the existing status of two or more variables under scrutiny, by enabling the researcher to collect original data for the purpose of describing a population which is large to observe directly (Kombo and Tromp, 2006). The design was chosen because of its appropriateness to this study, which aims at gathering facts, knowledge, opinions, and judgments from the tourism-related business people and the general public of Laikipia County. Surveys will be conducted to get information from the respondents through the aid of questionnaires and interview schedules which are appropriate in descriptive survey design.

3.2 Study areaThis study was carried out in Laikipia County. It has a total population of 109,803 people and 48% of the population lives below poverty line (National Bureau of Statistics, 2009. Laikipia County is one of the 47 counties of Kenya, located on the Equator in the former Rift Valley Province of the country. The county has two major urban centers: Nanyuki to the southeast, and Nyahururu to the southwest. Its capital is Rumuruti. Economic activity in the county consists mainly of tourism and agriculture, chiefly grain crops, ranching and greenhouse horticulture.

Tourists can visit a number of parks and reserves around Nanyuki. The most popular is Mount Kenya National Park. Others are Ol Pejeta Conservancy, Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, Samburu National Reserve, Buffalo Hills National Reserve, and Shaba National Reserve hence the reason of this study at Ol Pejeta Conservancy to represent other attracts and explained how poaching and human-wildlife conflict has affected tourism activities in this area.
3.3 Target Population
The target population for this study was the management staff of all tourism ventures within Ol Pejeta Conservancy, KWS officials and game rangers. At OPC there are six tourism ventures/firms namely Sweetwaters tented camp, Pelican house, Kicheche Laikipia camp, Porini Rhino camp, Ol Pejeta bush camp and Ol Pejeta house. The target population is approximated to be 2500 people but due to financial constraints, only 100 respondents will be interviewed.
3.4 sample size and sampling techniques
The sampling techniques employed are simple random sampling in selecting the 100 respondents. Purposive sampling will be used to sample the tourism-related businesses including the game rangers at Ol Pejate Conservancy where the study was undertaken so as to represent a credible number of respondents.
3.5 Research InstrumentsThe study employed the following research instruments:
3.5.1 Interviews
Through the use of interview guides non- scheduled and scheduled structured approach is applicable. Oral interviews will be conducted by the researcher with assistance of field assistant. The interviewed all the stakeholders in tourism sector including the county government officials.
3.5.2 Questionnaires
Questionnaires were administered on hotel and tour transport companies’ owners and Game rangers in relation to poaching and human-wildlife conflict who will be present during the field study. The questionnaires contained a 5likert-pointing rating scale items as ended questions and open-ended items. A questionnaire is a set of structured items seeking to elicit data from many people at once about their opinion or what they do in general.
3.6 Pre-testing.Pre-testing was undertaken before the intended study in order to develop or test the efficacy of instruments and protocols. This was done by Lewa Wildlife Conservancy since it experiences similar conditions such as Ol Pejate Conservancy. This was done to ensure that the data collection tools measure what they are intended to measure. Validity was checked to test whether the instruments consistently measure the variables in the study (reliability). Tourism expert on marketing and game rangers were recruited as research assistants and also be trained on how to collect data for this study.

Validity
Validity is defined as the qualitative procedure of pre-testing or a prior attempt to ascertain that research instruments are accurate, correct, true, meaningful and right in eliciting the intended data for the study (Kasomo, 2006).To validate the instruments the researcher sought assistance from the supervisors and researcher expert in the same field to check whether there are ambiguous, confusing and poorly prepared items.
3.6.2 Reliability
To establish the reliability of instruments, a split-half method was used to pre-test the two questionnaires in Lewa Wildlife Conservancy to ensure pre-test reliability of the questionnaires. The pre-testing will be conducted on a random sample of 2 hotel owners, 2 KWS officials, 2 game rangers and two tour transport owners in four tourism business enterprises. The process of split-half involves administering the two instruments once and the answered items will be split into two sets of odd/even number items in both of the questionnaires. This will allow for correlations to be calculated for comparison. The two sets of scores from the split-half then correlated using Pearson’s Correlation coefficient method. The reliability of the data collection instruments will be established during the pre-test by checking the consistency of the response given by respondents.

Data Collection Procedures The researcher collected data through a self-administered questionnaire. This method is appropriate as it can reach a large number of subjects who are literate. The interview guide was administered on a face to face basis. The researcher also used observation method especially on the physical infrastructure and natural endowment. Collection of data from the field was done by research assistants.

Data AnalysisThe collected data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistical methods respectively. Quantitative data were analyzed using simple statistics involving means and percentages, as for qualitative data, it will be edited, coded and classified according to specific themes as per the study objectives in order to be able to visualize the general trend of the study findings. Findings will be presented using frequency tables, bar graphs, and pie charts. This will be done with the aid of SPSS computer package version 21.

3.9 Ethical ConsiderationsThe study collected sensitive information; therefore, the researcher had a moral obligation to treat the information with utmost modesty. The researcher ensured the respondent’s confidentiality of the information given to ensure that the respondents are not reluctant to give the information as sought by the study.

CHAPTER FOURSTUDY FINDINGS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION4.0 IntroductionThe chapter highlights the research findings from different respondents during field study. It also includes the critical interpretation of the finding through the guide of the research objectives. The research employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches respectively. The statistics method utilized in data analysis and presentation is descriptive analysis. The analyzed data main research instruments where data was obtained for analysis was the questionnaires and the interview schedules. The data was presented in descriptive table that contained frequency and percentages, pie charts and graphs. This study was to find out the influence of poaching on tourism business; case study of Olpejeta Conservancy, Laikipia County. Data was presented in three sub-sections. The first section was response rate, demographic information of the respondents and the other section was that guided by research objectives in order to provide rich information in the analysis hence increasing the accuracy of this study.

4.1 Response Rate
This information is based on the response rate of those who were targeted by this study. It includes those who responded and those who did not respond or return the research items. This is clearly illustrated in the table 4.1 below. Table 4.1 Return rate of data instruments
  Frequency Percentage
Response 100 97%
Non response 0 0
Total 100 100%
This research study had a sample size of 100 respondents who were management staff in various tourism ventures in OlPejeta Conservancy. Out of the total respondents 100 questionnaires were filled and returned to the researcher which represented 100% response rate, the higher response rate was attributed to specific group targeted by the research. The response rate was adequate for this analysis and conforms to Babbie (2012) stipulation that any response of 50% and above is adequate for analysis. The study also utilized interview guides which were filled and returned by Kenya wildlife official and game rangers.
4.2 Demographic InformationThe demographic information analyzed and presented in this study includes gender, age bracket, education level and period of time working in the Olpejeta Conservancy.
4.2.1 Gender of respondents
Figure 4.1 presents the gender of the respondents who contributed to the success of this study. This includes all the respondents who responded and returned the items for data analysis.

Figure 4.1 Gender of respondents

Figure 4.1 above shows the gender of the respondents, a majority of the respondents were male as indicated by 80% while 20 % were female. This, therefore, indicates that a majority of management staff in Ol Pejeta Conservancy are male.

4.2.2 Age of Respondents
Table 4.2 shows the age brackets of respondents who answered research items. This is presented in a combined frequency and percentile table.
Table 4.2 Age Bracket
  Frequency Percentage
Below 25 years 7 7%
26-35 years 52 52%
36-45 years 26 26%
45- 55 years and above 15 15%
Total 100 100%
Table 4.2 indicates that majority 52 % of the respondents were aged between 26-35 years, this was followed by 26 % who were aged between 36-45 years, 7% were aged below 25 years while 15 % were aged between 45-55 years and above. This shows that there was a good representation by respondents of all age categories. The age composition shows that most of the respondents were of the age bracket of 26 to 35 years and therefore had rich experiences, could also appreciate the importance of the study.

4.2.3 Level of education
The subjects of the study were asked to mention their level of education. This was analyzed and presented in figure 4.2 that shows the results of level of education among the respondents. This information was subjected to descriptive analysis and for consistency it was present in a pie chart.
Figure 4.2 Education level

The study sought to establish the level of education of the respondents. The level of education was important in the study because it showed whether the respondents have an adequate level of education to understand the concept and the language of the study. Figure 4.2 above shows the level of education of the respondents. From the findings, there were no respondents who had a primary level of education, 3% of the respondents had a secondary level as their highest level of education, 50% of the respondents had a diploma as the highest level of education, 37% of the respondents had a degree as the highest level of education, while 10% of the respondents had a postgraduate level as the highest level of education. This shows that majority of the respondents were learned and well equipped with the required skills to run the various tourism business in the conservancy.

4.2.4 Number of years worked
Table 4.3 Number of years worked
 Period Frequency Percentage
1-2 10 10%
3-5 years 50 50%
6-10years 35 35%
Above10 years 5 5%
Total 100 100%
As illustrated in Table 4.3 above, it is mentioned that over 50% of the respondents have worked for the companies for 3 to 5 years, 35% of the entire population have worked for 6 to 10 years, 10% have worked for 1 to 2 years and the remaining 5% have worked for over 11 years. From the analyzed data it can be concluded that majority of the staff have worked in OlPejeta conservancy for more than 5 years which is a sufficient time to provide reliable data for the study.

4.3 Influence of poaching on tourismRespondents were asked to state the extent to which poaching is common in Olpejeta Conservancy their responses were subjected to descriptive analysis and presented in the tables below. The influence of poaching in tourism was also determined in this section. The more the extent of poaching the negative image it connotes to Laikipia County tourism sector which includes tour operator companies and hotel industry for eating and accommodation of the tourists visiting the destination.
Table 4.4 Extent to which poaching is common
Frequency Percentage
Very great extent 5 5%
Great Extent 62 62%
Moderate extent 30 30%
Little extent 3 3%
No extent 0 0
Total 100 100%
In determining the extent to which poaching is common at OPC, Table 4.4 above shows that, 5% of the respondents indicated that poaching is common to a very great extent, 62% indicated it is common to a great extent, while 30% noted that poaching is common to a moderate extent and only 3% indicated that it is common to a little extent and finally non indicated that it is common to no extent. From these findings we can deduce that majority of the respondent confirmed that poaching is common within OPC.

Table 4.5: Influence of poaching on tourism
Frequency Percentage
Very great extent 28 28%
Great Extent 42 42%
Moderate extent 25 25%
Little extent 5 5%
No extent 0 0
Total 100 100%
With regards to the extent to which poaching has influenced tourism within the conservancy. Table 4.5 above depicts that 28% of the respondents indicated that poaching in OPC has influenced tourism to a very great extent, 42% of the respondents indicated that poaching has influenced tourism to a great extent, 25% of the respondents indicated that the influence has been to a moderated extent while 5% of the respondents indicated that poaching has influenced poaching to a little extent. From these findings, we can therefore infer that majority of the respondents confirmed poaching has influenced tourism to a great extent this agrees to that study conducted by Ngang’a, (2015) which indicated that poaching had greater influence on tourism ventures in Nakuru. The study found 86% of his respondents strongly agreed that poaching had a negative influence on tour operator companies and accommodation businesses.

4.4 Most Poached Mammal
Respondents were asked to state the most poached mammal in Olpejeta Conservancy their responses were subjected to descriptive analysis and presented in the figure below.

Figure 4.3 Mammals mostly affected by poaching in OPC

In determining the most affected Mammal by poaching in OPC, Figure 4.3 above shows that, 60% of the respondents indicated that Black Rhinos are poached to a very great extent, 20% indicated White Rhinos are poached to a great extent, 15% noted that Elephants poaching is common to a moderate extent and only 5 % indicated that Buffalo Poaching is common to a little extent. From these findings we can deduce that majority of the respondent confirmed that Black Rhinos are the most poached mammals within OPC.

4.5 The extent to which poaching-related factors influence tourism in OPCRespondents were asked to state the extent to which poaching-related factors influence tourism in OPC their responses were subjected to descriptive analysis and presented in the table below.

Table 4.6 Extent to which poaching-related factors influence tourism in OPC

Very great extent Great Extent Moderate extent Little extent Mean Standard deviation
Decline in
number of wild
animals 20 60 15 5 3.605 3.620
Extinction of
some rare animals
and plants 10 20 60 10 2.678 2.762
Poaching has
increased
insecurity within
the Conservancy 40 30 20 10 4.07 4.479
Poaching has led
to decline in
number of tourist
visiting OPC 20 35 25 20 4 4.199
High cost of
animal protection
within the
conservancy 40 30 20 10 4.279 5.678
The respondents were asked to rate poaching-related factors influence tourism on a scale of 1-5; (5; agree to a very great extent, 4; agree to a great extent, 3; moderate extent, 2; low extent, 1; no extent), Averages of the factors were established in order to provide generalized feelings of the respondents.

Means less than 1.5 implied that poaching influences to no extent. Means more than 1.5 but less than 2.5 implied that poaching-related factors influence tourism to a low extent. Means greater than 2.5 but less than 3.6 implied that respondents think poaching influences tourism to a moderate extent. Means greater than 3.6 but less than 4.7 implied that respondents think poaching influences tourism in OPC a great extent and means greater than 4.7 implied that respondents strongly feels that poaching-related factors affect tourism in OlPejeta conservancy to a very great extent.

The standard deviation, on the other hand, describes the distribution of the response in relation to the mean. It provides an indication of how far the individual responses to each factor vary from the mean. A standard deviation of more than 1 indicates that there is no consensus on the responses obtained, while less than 1 indicates that there is consensus on the response obtained.

Table 4.6 shows that it was generally noted that high cost of animal protection within the conservancy has influenced tourism to a great extent as shown by the standard deviation of 4.279, regarding increased insecurity within the Conservancy due to poaching, majority of the respondents agreed to a very great extent as it scored 4.07, in addition, respondent noted that poaching has led to declining in number of tourists visiting OPC when a mean score was 4.0. Regarding the Decline in the number of wild animals within the conservancy, the score of 3.605 was obtained depicting that it influenced on tourism to a moderate extent and finally the respondents indicated that the extinction of some rare animals and plants in the conservancy influenced tourism to a low extent as indicated by a mean of 2. 678.

4.6 Reasons for Poaching Behaviors
Respondents were asked to reasons behind the poaching behavior among the community around Olpejeta Conservancy their responses were subjected to descriptive analysis and presented in the figure below.

Figure 4.4 Reasons for poaching behavior

The results of the study showed that most of the hunters interviewed engage in poaching for monetary reasons (58%), 17% poached for food and 25% as a means of employment. Ten of the poachers interviewed were commercial hunters. A study in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania suggested similar results, 74.5% of people arrested for engaging in illegal hunting in the park did so to generate cash income and only 24.7% maintained that they hunted for food (TWF, 2012). People poached especially during the dry season when they were not engaged in any active farm activities. A poacher who was interviewed claimed that poaching was the easiest way to make money, unlike farming that has long gestation periods.

During the dry season, there was tremendous underemployment in communities around the OlPejeta conservancy, as farm work was exhausted during the period. This was quite evident during the study as in almost all communities the men were found resting under trees as women went about their daily chores (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2014). Farm activity and labor requirements peaked around May and June, whilst in December, January and February there was practically no farm work. Incidentally, this period was also the open season for hunting and the time when animals were easily spotted.

4.7 Marketing of Tourism in Olpejeta Conservancy
The main marketing strategies employed by OPC to boost tourism are Social media e.g. Twitter and Facebook, conservancy website and Print media e.g. magazines and newsletters. This information was given by the respondents when they were asked to state their knowledge on how marketing is done and how tourist arrivals influence community participation in tourism-related activities which are legal to avoid poaching. Information was subjected to descriptive analysis and presented in the table below.

Table 47 Influence of various marketing factors on tourism
Very great extent Great Extent Moderate extent Little extent Mean Standard deviation
High entrance
rates 20 58 17 5 3.744 3.463
Lack of
information
regarding the
conservation 30 35 25 10 4.116 4.635
Poor
accommodation
and other
tourist
facilities 10 20 50 20 2.358 1.8
Poor
marketing
strategy 35 28 27 10 3.667 3.633
The study sought to analyze how various marketing related factors influence tourism. From the data analyzed the Table 4.7 shows how various marketing related factors influenced tourism in the conservancy, lack of information regarding the conservation scored the highest mean of 4.116 which is an indication that it influences tourism in the conservancy to a great extent, High entrance rates and poor marketing scored 3.744 and 3.667 respectively which are the indication of their influence on tourism to a moderate extent and finally poor accommodation and other tourist facilities scored 2.358 which is an indication that it in fluencies tourism in OPC to a less extent.

CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONSIntroduction
This section summarizes the research variables that were under investigation by this study. It also presents the conclusions and recommendations drawn from this study.
5.1 Summary of the Findings The research revealed that poaching affects tourism in OPC to a great extent as noted by 95 % of the respondents only 5% indicated little extent. It has led to a decline in the number of animals in the conservancy, extinction of rare animals and plants and transfer of endangered animals to others conservancy and parks. This has to lead the Conservancy to maintain a low number of the animal which they can manage to monitor to curb poaching, especially those near extinction. 95% of the respondent indicated that poaching has a negative impact to tourism activities in the conservancy, a majority of the tourist visit the conservancy to see wild animals especially the big five, therefore due to their low number in the conservancy it has led to a decline in the number of tourist arrivals.

In relations to reasons behind poaching 58% of the respondent indicated that it’s due to monetary reasons, 17% poached for food and 25% as a means of employment. Ten of the poachers interviewed were commercial hunters. Most of both international and local tourist visit parks and conservancy mainly to view wild animals as (Subedi, 2010) noted that most important global destinations for tourists to view wildlife, for example mainly rhinoceros in Chitwan National Park through this behaviors wildlife species have declined.
It was noted that in OPC there were increased number of poaching-related cases hence the reason the Conservancy has maintained low number of animal targeted by poachers in OPC of which the conservancy can keep surveillance of, to curb poaching, the conservancy has further employed both day and night guards to man the animals and on the other hand the conservancy management tracks the communication channels of the game rangers working in the conservancy. While this has helped to curb poaching to a great extent the conservancy has incurred extra expenses in curbing poaching and animal relocation when the need arises. Despite the above strategy, the number of animals remains low for major tourists’ attraction.

Finally, regarding the influence of marketing to tourism in Ol Pejeta Conservancy, the study revealed that the marketing strategies employed by OPC are not sufficient to help the Conservancy achieve its target of maximum holding capacity of 95, 000 as 83% of the respondents indicated that the strategy employed is only effective up to a moderate extent. According to Armstrong (2010), the marketing mix is a set of controllable, tactical marketing tools that the company blends to produce a response in the target market; it consists of everything the company can do to influence the demand for its product. OPC has relied on social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter to reach their target clients however it can only reach those who have access to the internet. In addition the study established that the is few local tourists who visit the conservancy despite their proximity to it, this was attributed to the entrance charges and other charges while within the conservancy like one need own means of transport to take a game drive within the conservancy which the respondent indicated that the cost is prohibitive.
5.2 Conclusion
The study sought to establish the extent to which poaching has influenced tourism in OPC, from the findings and the discussions; it’s possible to conclude that poaching influences tourism in the conservancy to a great extent. Poaching has led to a decline in a number of animals within the conservancy, it has increased insecurity in the conservancy and finally, it has led to increased cost of animal protection. To that end, there is a need for the Conservancy to find ways to curb poaching in order to attract more tourists who mainly visit the conservancy to see wild animals especially the big five.
To address the poaching problem to enhance and sustain wildlife tourism development, the study suggests that efforts should be made at the national level to support wildlife conservation policies (socially, politically, and economically).

Finally, the study sought to establish how marketing has affected tourism in the conservancy, it can be concluded that the strategies employed by the Conservancy have not helped it to reach the maximum target number of tourist visiting the conservancy. The marketing tools used by the conservancy can only reach a limited number of potential tourists hence the need to look for alternative marketing strategies. The study revealed that there is a need for the conservancy to re-evaluate its marketing strategies to attract more tourists which can be done through participating in tourism nation forums, annual shows and public forums which will increase awareness.

5.3 Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations were made from the study.

Existing legislation in Kenya regarding Protected Areas (PAs) should be reviewed and revised to remove ambiguities concerning the illegal killing of animals, especially large mammals. The most effective law enforcement action to achieve long-term change in poaching would appear to involve increasing the incarceration penalties for poaching, and also equipping and training law enforcement officers more effectively.
Paying appropriate compensation to hardworking patrol staff, especially those who put their lives on the line to effecting arrests and jailing of poaching offenders. The staff should also be paid in a timely fashion to incentivize, build morale and provide encouragement to them to carry out their responsibilities.
Since poaching is both a local and global problem the county government should work closely with central government and other stakeholders like KWS, private sector and the community to curb poaching.
In terms of marketing, the conservancy needs to improve and intensify its marketing strategies. The channel currently in use is not sufficient to reach a majority of the target group, other channels of marketing that can be employed are participation in tourism expose at both county and country level.

5.4 Recommendation for Further StudyThis study sought to assess the factors influencing the success of tourism venture in other parts of Kenya conservancy areas just like OPC in Laikipia County, Kenya. It is recommended that a similar study should be conducted on the factors influencing the success of tourism venture in other parts of the country like parks in order to boost tourism in the country.

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APPENDIXESAPPENDIX I: RESEARCH QUESTIOBNNARESection A: Demographic Information
1. Your Gender: Male Female
2. Age bracket
Below 30 { }
31-40 { }
41-50 { }
51-60 { }
3. How long have you worked in Ol Pejeta conservancy?
Less than 2 years
2 – 5 years
5 – 10 years
More than 10 years
4. What is your highest level of education?
University (Specify PhD, Masters, Undergraduate) ______________________
College (Specify Diploma, Certificate) _____________________________
Secondary ___________________________
5. Your position in the organization
Top management
Middle management
Others, please specify _____________________________
6. Which tourism venture do you work for within the conservancy?
Specify________________________
Section B: POACHING
7. What extent is poaching common in Ol Pejeta Conservancy – on a scale of 1 – 5?
Very great extent- 5 Great extent- 4 Moderate extent- 3
Little extent- 2 No extent at all- 1
8. In your view to what extent would you consider poaching activities in Ol PejetaConservancy as significant/important? On a scale of 1-3
Insignificant-1 significant -2 very significant -3
9. To what extent has poaching influenced tourism in the conservancy?
Very great extent-5 Great extent-4 Moderate extent-3
Little extent-2 No extent at all-1
10. How would you describe the nature of influence that poaching exerts on tourism in Ol
Pejeta? Choose one:
(a) Positive, (b) very positive, (c) negative (d) very negative.
11. To what extent has the following Poaching related factors influenced tourism in
OPC? Rate your response on a five point Likert scale on which 1= no extent 2= less
extent, 3= moderate extent, 4= great extent and 5= very great extent (Please tick ? where
appropriate)
Very great extent Great Extent Moderate extent Low extent Not at all
A decline in the number of wild
animals Extinction of some rare
animals and plants Poaching has increased
insecurity within the
conservancy Poaching has led to a decline in
number of tourist visiting
OPC Section C: MARKETING
12. Which are the marketing strategies OPC has employed to boost tourism within the
conservancy_____________________?
13. To what extent has OLP Conservancy effectively marketed? On a scale of 1-5
Very great extent-5 Great extent-4 Moderate extent-3
Little extent-2 No extent at all-1
14. To what extent to you think that the marketing strategies employed to attract tourists in Ol Pejeta effective? On a scale of 1 to 5
Very great extent-5 Great extent-4 Moderate extent-3
Little extent-2 No extent at all-1
15. To what extent has the following marketing factors influenced tourism in the
conservancy?
Price Very great extent Great extent Moderate extent
Little extent No extent at all
Product variety Very great extent Great extent Moderate extent
Little extent No extent at all
Culture Very great extent Great extent Moderate extent
Little extent No extent at all
APPENDIX II: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE1. Position held by the game ranger or KWS official
2. How long have you worked in/with Ol Pejeta conservation
3. Has there been cases of poaching in OPC
6. Do you think OPC has done enough to market the conservancy as a touristdestination7. Suggest ways OPC can boost tourism to both local tourist and international tourist
APPENDIX III WORK PLANACTIVITY/MONTH Jan 2017 March –April 2017 May 2017 August 2017 Developing a research topic and literature review Writing research proposal Data collections Data entry, interpretation, and analysis Compiling of the final draft. APPENDIX IV BUDGETa) ITEMS (STATIONARY) Cost
Stationeries 3000/=
B) TRAVELING EXPENSES 6,000
TRANSPORT 3,000/=
Administering questionnaires 1,000/=
Lunch 4000/=
Subtotal 17,000/=.

C) SECRETARIAL SERVICES Research proposal research, typing, printing, and binding 5,000
Researching, Typing, printing and binding the final report 2000
Photocopying questionnaires 1,000/=
Sub-total 8,000/=
GRAND TOTAL 25000/=