In are “Excerpt from Brown vs Board
In this paper I will be analyzing five different sources that deals with civil right movement and what they stand for. The civil right movement started in 1954 after the World War 2, when the United States was faced with human rights issues. The United States were going around the world asking for the countries to come together and fight for freedom and human rights, when in their own Country they weren’t practicing what they were trying to implement. The United States was a segregated country, that believed in separate but equal under the doctrine that was adopted in 1868. This was put in place to keep race separated from each other but not violating their Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The five sourcing I will be analyzing are “Excerpt from Brown vs Board of Education, decided 9-0 by U.S. Supreme court in 1954. Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote the opinion,” Martin Luther King “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” 16 April 1963(Excerpts), “Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Position Paper”, Malcolm X: The Ballot or the Bullet” and the Black Panther Party Platform and Program. Each of these materials had a huge play in the civil rights movement that took place in the United States of America.
The first reading I want to talk about is the Brown vs Board of Education. This was one of the most important cases that ever stood in front of the Supreme Court of United States to help abolish segregation. In 1951, Oliver Brown filed a civil class action suit against the Kansas board of education stating one of his daughters was denied entrance to a local all-white elementary school. He stated that schools for black children were not equal to the one the white child had, which violated the equal protection clause of the 14 Amendment. In 1952 the supreme court agreed to hear about five cases in which the education system was different, all the case was put together under one name, Brown vs Board of Education. In May 17, 1954 the Supreme Court ruled 9-0 that the ” separate but equal doctrine has no place in public education.” This decision spark the civil movement its showed the black Americans that they can change the way law of land if they put effort into it.
It even helped people fight back on what is wrong and speak up for change. The justice believed that ” the only way they see if the segregation of public was depriving the plaintiffs of the equal protection of the law and better education was to desegregate the public school.” ” Education is the important foundation of a child life.
Education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. It is required in the performance of our most basic public responsibilities, even service in the armed forces. It is the very foundation of good citizenship.” The chief believed that if a child is not getting the education they need, they won’t stand a chance in the work forces. The next source I would like to talk about is Martin Luther King’s “Letter from Birmingham jail”, this letter was written by Martin Luther King on April 16,1963 while he was confined to a Birmingham jail. He wrote this letter because of some of the statement he received while in jail calling his action “unwise and untimely” in the city of Birmingham. He stated that he couldn’t just sit by and watch as injustice in Birmingham grow.
He had to act against the injustice even if it means ending up in jail. Martin Luther King believed in a nonviolent protest to get his point across. He based his campaign on four basic steps to tell if injustice exist in the city and they are ” collection of the facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self-purification; and direct action.
” After going over all four bases Dr. king believed that Birmingham ” engulfed the community.” Martin Luther King belonged to an organization called the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Dr.
King didn’t believe in violence instead his organization believed in sit in, marches and so forth. He thought by taking the nonviolent way it will ” help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the majestic heights of understanding and brotherhood.” In this letter Dr. King writes ” Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say, “Wait.
” But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate filled policemen curse, kick and even kill your black brothers and sisters; when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six year old daughter why she can’t go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Fun town is closed to colored children, and see ominous clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her little mental sky, and see her beginning to distort her personality by developing an unconscious bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for a five year old son who is asking: “Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?”; when you take a cross country drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the uncomfortable corners of your automobile because no motel will accept you; when you are humiliated day in and day out by nagging signs reading “white” and “colored”; when your first name becomes “nigger,” your middle name becomes “boy” (however old you are) and your last name becomes “John,” and your wife and mother are never given the respected title “Mrs.”; when you are harried by day and haunted by night by the fact that you are a Negro, living constantly at tiptoe stance, never quite knowing what to expect next, and are plagued with inner fears and outer resentments; when you are forever fighting a degenerating sense of “nobodies”–then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait.” I would have to say this is one of the bare statement that King has wrote, because it talks about everyone around him is telling him to wait and let the law figure things out. Let time caught up to what they want. They find it hard to wait because they waited for more than 340 for just to have rights that God has given them and the country has. Why should they have to wait on something that’s easy given to someone who steps of a boat and is given the right to vote, the right to live in a better neighbor and the right to say whatever they want without the fear of the government trying to bring them down or shut them up.
Dr. King stated he was arrested for parading without a permit and that it was an unjust when it was used to ” maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First-Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and protest.” Dr. King believed he will win the battle in Birmingham because it is the goal of American freedom.
The next source I would like to talk about is the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Paper, in this it hit four point they wanted to talk about which are the basis of black power, white power, roles of the white and black, and the black-self-determination. In the first point it talks about the myth of black people and how lazy they are and incapable of liberating themselves. They compare blacks to evil in a children book while white is the symbol of good. They also talk about how a white person cannot change their views on black people because ” the whole society has geared his subconscious in that direction”. They also talk about how someone who is not their skin color could not represent because they do not know the pain they have been thought and the hardship they had to endure just to have the chance to speak and be free. The next topic they talk about is the white power, here they state that blacks are not allowed to organize because of white interference.
The next point is roles of white and black, here they say that white should not be allowed to help the civil movement because the whole know see it as their movement and ideas instead of the black community. While they don’t think white should be pushed out completely they just don’t want to see them with big role like helping make the laws or the negotiation. The SNCC believe that Dr.
King of the SCLC is doing it the right way by staff mostly black people in the main office. The SNCC believes that the only way to gain true freedom is to cut themselves off from the white people. They must have their own school, their own bank, political parties and to be able to write their own histories. In last point they make is that they reject the American dream that is make by whites and now they must have defined and strive for the Afro-American dream. The next sources are Malcolm X: The Ballot or the Bullet.
In this paper Malcolm X talks about how different everyone is and how they need to put aside their difference to come together to rise above the common enemies they all had which was injustice to the black community and its people. They make a statement that the year of 1964 is going to the year of the ballot or the bullet. Meaning that they either can make a change in Washington D.C.
or go out and arms themselves for protection. With Malcolm X his approach is that he’s not afraid to use violence when it is the only way to get someone to respond or even pay attention to their movement. He also brought up the point about moving the civil rights up to the level of human right and then bring the case in front of the United Nation (UN). they will be able to take the government to the world court. He wants to show the world all the blood dripping from Uncle Sam hands and how much the United States is the number one hypocrite.
Malcolm X ends his speech with this ” Let him know that it must be the ballot or the bullet.” say that the government has a choose to either fix the problems in the government or they will riot in the street until there. The last source I want to talk about is the Black Panther Party, this party was based off Malcolm X platform. It’s the platform what they believe and what they want. The have 10 demands that they wanted from land so they can colonize the black community to begin exempt from the US military service. They wanted to bring down the existing government and to bring in a new one that can guard for their future. When it comes to Dr.
King and Malcolm X they have two different way of getting their point across. With Dr. King he uses a nonviolent approach to get his message across.
He doesn’t stand for breaking the law or for harming other. Dr. King believed in wise men to understand what is going in the country. He didn’t want to just help colored people but also everyone that the government is caused injustice for. Dr. King believed that he was an American and for that he should have the same rights as any man would. While Malcolm X protest for violent and for only the colored people.
He believed that the only way to get someone to change isn’t to sit down and talk with them but to forces them to change. He wanted to start a new government. Malcolm X said ” I don’t even consider myself an American” He believed that Europeans had more rights in America than the blacks. Malcolm was calling for a revolution if anything wasn’t going to change.
Malcolm wanted to bring the fight to the world stage also. While they both peached about peace and equal right, they were both taking a different path to get there.The difference between each groups language is that for the black panthers is they were demanding thing and telling them why they should receive the thing. They weren’t really fighting for civil right but more in trying to establish a community of their own. While the SNCC wanted no involvement of white people in their organization.
They believed if white people have a part in their organization that people would believe that it’s the whites man ideas and that the “Whites are “smart,” the “brains” behind the whole thing” They wanted to show the country that they are able to organize without any help. Just like Dr. King they also believed in a nonviolent protest. The movement has change when the black panther came around because they were more focus on receiving thing them trying to work towards equal right for everyone. They wanted to get paid for the horrible thing that happened to them, they went really trying to help themselves. The SNCC were more towards the beginning of the civil rights movement while the Black Panther were towards the end of the movement.
Black Power is a movement for equal right in the United States in 1960-1970. In Black Panther 10 points shows that the movement was a success in some points because they were now focusing on getting thing that they thought was owed to them and their community. They wanted to have change for their people and was tired of being treated like animals instead human being that they were.
They wanted the world to hear them and understand the pain they are going through in the united states. Dr. king was very successful in reaching his goals and bring other together to fight a cause and so was the Brown and the SNCC was also successful in some of their points. Now Malcolm X wasn’t as successful as the other three and either was the Black Panthers. In this paper I talked about five didn’t articles that had to do with the civil rights movement and how they all contribute something to the movement and help it get noticed by the government.