In the year 1960 David Barlo came up with a communication model abbreviated as SMCR, Sender, Message, Channel, Receiver from a model which was known as Shannon Weaver Model of Communication (1949). The David Berlo communication model also shows how the SMCR can be affected by various factors. According to David Berlo one can accept communication as authoritative when certain conditions are obtained, these conditions are discussed below as follows;
Sender; According to David Berlo argument, the sender is the person who is sending the message to the receiver. The content of the message originates from him for this case. For the intended message to reach to the receiver there should be communication skills which normally tend to affect the communication process.
The sender should therefore ensure that he or she has good communication skills for the information passed be interpreted well hence appropriate feedback. This means that if the information or the message passed is not communicated well then there will be a communication break up or misunderstanding. But according to this model, there are also a number of issues which may affect the message interpretation;
Attitude of the sender and the receiver may always create the effects of the message. The person’s attitude towards self, the receiver and the environment changes the meaning and the effect of the message. When the attitude of the sender is bad by the time the sender is sending the message, and then the receiver will misunderstand the content of the message properly. This will automatically lead to communication breakup.
Knowledge or familiarity; when the sender understands the message/ the subject matter he or she is communicating to the receiver then the message will be understood by the receiver effectively, hence effective communication.
Social systems; values, beliefs, laws, rules, religion and many other social factors affects the senders way of communicating the message. In social systems also fall place and situation.
Culture; the cultural parities may also affect the understanding of the message by the receiver. Cultural parities may make the interpretation of the massage to come out totally different from the intended message by the sender. It shows that what a sender may believe is right within his/her culture, may be a forbidden, a taboo or a vice to the other culture.
Message; in this model, a message is the substance or content that is being sent by the sender to the receiver. A message has factors or parts which qualifies it to be a message.
Content; content is the thing, what the body of the message contains that is in the message. The whole message from the introductory part to the end is the content.
Elements; they are non-verbal things that tag along with the content; they may include the following gestures, signs, language or words and even writings.
Treatment; treatment is the way in which the message is conveyed or transmitted from the sender to the receiver. In many occasions the treatment affects the feedback of the receiver.
Structure; this is the way the message content has been arranged which may at times affect the effectiveness of the message content.
Code; code is the form in which the message is sent. The message can be sent in various forms which may not be limited to the, text, video, newspaper or even telephone.
Channel; is the medium used to send message. In mass communication and other forms of communication, technical machines might be used as channels like telephone, internet, telex, telegram, televisions, radio, oral, and even print media.
The model illustrates that in general communication; five human senses are involved as channel of communication which may affect the effectiveness of the channel.
Sense of hearing; the main objective of this sense is to receive messages through hearing. In other words, it is a sense through which a person is aware of sound or a message.
Sense of seeing; this is a sense of perception. People get nonverbal messages by seeing.
Touching – Many of the non-verbal communication happens from touching like holding hands. To my perspective, this cue is mostly used by the blind community.
Smelling – We collect information from smelling. The blind communities are also gifted in knowing the smell of everything which helps them in identification.
Tasting – Taste also provides the information to be sent as a message. There are different types of taste which include sweet, sower, and bitter tastes which always provide the information.
Receiver; the receiver is the one who normally get the message sent by the sender. For the message to be effective, this model of David Berlo suggests that the above discussed steps must happen and be done by the sender which will result to the effective communication. This does not mean that there are no conditions for the receiver, the receiver MUST always have, good communication skills too, positive attitude, social systems among other things.
However, this model of David Berlo has a lot of criticism since; it doesn’t have what triggers the sender to send the message via channel to the receiver. This model also lacks the feedback process after the message has reached the receiver. Always communication is a cyclic process which doesn’t end with receiving message by the recipient. In either way, this model lacks the encoding and decoding processes.