identify factors which may place a child at risk of harm or abuse parental factors a parent who already have other children unwanted pregnancy parent who has abuse when they were growing up young mother with low education parent with few supports a parent who has mental illness a parent who is abusing drugs and alcohol Environmental factors overcrowding poverty and lack of opportunity violence in the house stress with in the environment Child factors Unwanted Physical or a development disability Child is a product of a relationship that was abusive Lack of attachment between the child and parent Physical Burses that cannot be explained Strange marks on the child’s body Injuries such as cigarette burns Unexplained broken bones Refusal to get undressed in front of others E

identify factors which may place a child at risk of harm or abuse
parental factors
a parent who already have other children
unwanted pregnancy
parent who has abuse when they were growing up
young mother with low education
parent with few supports
a parent who has mental illness
a parent who is abusing drugs and alcohol
Environmental factors
overcrowding
poverty and lack of opportunity
violence in the house
stress with in the environment
Child factors
Unwanted
Physical or a development disability
Child is a product of a relationship that was abusive
Lack of attachment between the child and parent
Physical Burses that cannot be explained
Strange marks on the child’s body
Injuries such as cigarette burns
Unexplained broken bones Refusal to get undressed in front of others E.g. for P.E
Shows of aggressive behavior
Being withdrawn
Doesn’t like physical contact
Emotional Developmental delay
Having a failure to thrive
A speech disorder that suddenly appeared Withdrawn from others
Being nervous
Having a lack of confidence
Being fearful
Sexual Strange pain
Itching
Bruising in their genital area
Bleeding in genital area
Discharge
Bed wetting
STI’S Insecurity
Lack of trust
Inappropriate sexual behavior
Sexual knowledge which they shouldn’t know
Sexually explicit toward adults
Neglect Hungry all the time
Being tired
Being smelly
Loss of weight
Developmental delay Withdrawn
Bad attendance
Saying they have been left alone
Domestic Having unexplained injuries Aggressive behavior
Anti-social behavior
Anxiety
Lack of concentration
Bullying Direct/indirect
Aggression
Talking about
Threats
Physical
Pushing
Kicking
Hitting
Pinching
Verbal
Name calling
Insults
Sarcasm
Spreading rumors
Teasing
Emotional
Excluding
Ignoring
Tormenting
Humiliating
Cyber
Unsung information to upset someone
Sending hurtful messages
Threats Lack of confidence
Low self esteem
Anxiety
Withdrawn
Depression
Attempting suicide
Mental health issues
Development delay
Orgsnisation Gp Role
Works within the community treating illnesses and other medical conditions
Responsibilities
maintain their skills in order to recons abuse or neglect
follow the correct procedures if they suspect a child is being neglected or abused
attend regular training in order to make sure their training Is up to date
Social services Role
Support families and the children within the family when they are found to be in need
Responsibilities
provide support to children who are vulnerable
coordinate and put a child protection plan in to place
to find out information in order for them to decide what action they need to take to be able to protect a child
go to court when a child is in or thought to be in danger
be a point for contact for the child in cases where their protection is concerned
to asses a child or young person’s needs
decide so they can be contacted by parents or anyone who has a concern about the child
Health visitor Role
To support the health and welfare of families and children 0-5
Responsibilities
carry out developmental checks on children under 5
support and guide the parents who have young children
support a babies and young children’s health
they are trained to Recognise the risks that children may be in
to gather information which includes the signs and the symptoms there may be that a child is being neglected or abused
need to use their own judgment on when it is necessary to share information with other agencies
Police Role
Their duty is to investigate anything that could result in an offence occurring
Responsibilities
protect all individuals
work in partnership with other organisations
investigate all child abuse cases
Probation Role
Supervising offender and offer support to them
Responsibilities
Support offenders so they will not offend again
Supervise offenders who are risk to children
Talk to different agency’s
NSPCC Role
Works alongside the police and social serves
Respond
Responsibilities
Provide support to a child and their families in situations such as domestic abuse
Work with other organisations such as social survives
Provide over the phone support to those who work into childcare
School Role
To ensure the children’s welfare is safeguarded
Responsibilities
To keep a learning space as safe as it can be
Identify concerns and to act on the concerns that they have
Go to all the child protection, first aid courses
To protect all children from being harmed or abuse
To meet the needs of all children
Talk to different agencies in order to support the child involved and to attend any conferences do to with the case
Prove policies and procedures in order to protect children
Mange any risks that is appropriately
Make referrals and provide information to the police if there are any child protection issues
Psychology Role
Review and gather information in to why the child came to harm
Responsibilities
Provide support to children who have been abused or have been harmed
Recommend on what Psychology treatment the child needs and if they don’t
Suspicion/ concern of abuse:
Make a note of what exactly what the child said about why they are sad and anything that is noticed by the practitioners within the setting
Talk to the named member of staff for safeguarding, this should have a more importance than anything what they are doing
If there are any other concurs that there are about the child, they need to be recorded as accurately as you can
Disclosure
Listen to the child carefully and remain calm and it is important not to appear shocked in what they are saying
Treat the comments of what the child is say seriously
Avoid making judgments and avoid jumping to conclusions
Do not ask questions that are leading
Reassure that the child has done nothing wrong and they have done the right thing by telling you
Never promises that you will keep a secret
Make sure that all the procedures are followed that the setting has set out
Case study 1 Sarah is a year old and the youngest of five children. As you pick her up you notice how light Sarah feels, her clothes smell, and she appears unwashed. When you change her nappy, you notice that it is soaking wet and that she has a severe nappy rash. Sarah also is lethargic and unresponsive to the staff’s attention.

This case is a concern because the child has not directly said that they are subject of abuse it is the practitioner’s responsibility to follow the policies that have been put into place based on the legislation and the guidelines. Over all we all as practitioners have a duty to safeguard children and promote each child’s welfare and we also have a responsibility to report any safeguard concerns a=or disclosures that are made these need to be reported to the designated safeguarding lead in the settings
Safeguarding policies and procedures
Listen to the child and what they are saying. Offer the child reassurance and give assurance that action will be taken
Do not question the child, however it is ok to ask any questions that are for the purpose of the clarification
Write down a record which forms a record of the observations or disclosures that have been made these need to include the dates and the times of when the observation and disclosures were made
With this legislation and setting policies I have a duty of care as a practitioner to be alert of the different signs of abuse and I also need to report any concerns that I have or any discourse that have been made to the designated safeguarding lead. By following the polices that are in place will ensure that I am doing everything in my power to ensure that I can safeguard the children that I look after
My role as the practitioner I need to write down what I have observed this needs to include my concern about her weight, about her seeming to be unwashed and her having nappy rash. It is extremely important that what I have found as soon as possible this will ensure that all the right information is written, and it is written factually. I also need to make sure that the date and the time the concern is written along with the name of the child their age, address and if ant what adults were present at the time. I also need to make sure that I inform the designated safeguarding lead as soon as possible if they are not in the setting then I need to inform the safeguarding lead. In cases where there is not a DSL or a SL I need to go the local safeguarding hub.
The body language of the practitioner should be eye level with the child this will help them to feel comfortable. This may also make it easier for them to disclose more information as they feel more relaxed in addition by using a soft voice and giving the child eye contact will help them to feel further comfortable. In addition, the child needs to be reassured if they have made a discloser that they are being abused that they have done the right thing by telling someone however in Sarah’s she is too young to make a disclosure which makes it a concern/suspicion
The first concern about the Sarah is that she is lethargic, and she is unresponsive to attention that she is being given from the staff members. This would point out to me that she is unwell and if her behaviour didn’t change I would need to seek medical attention and I would need to call her parents to ask if she has been or is ill. My immediate reaction would be that she is being neglected by her parents after witnessing that her cloths were unwashed and her body, in addition it strengthens my concern with her nappy being soaking wet and the severe nappy rash she has. In addition, I would change her nappy straight away and if permission has been given I would apply cream then I would go straight to the DSL.

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It is important to enable resilience in a young child which includes talking to them in a positive way, smiling at them will help them to feel settled. By ensuring that the child keyworker changes their nappy this will ensure that they have a familiar adult within the setting which will also help to build their self-confidence. In addition, by using positive body language with in the setting and by phrase the child will also enable their resilience in this case Sarah’s nappy are was obviously really sore. In this situation I would use positive body language and sing nursery rhymes to her while I am changing her nappy which may help to take her mind of how sore it is
The action that needs to be taken when a disclosure has been made or there is a concern about a child is to report it to the DSL. They will then decide what should be done and what is best to do for the child. The information that has been recorded need to be accurate and factual these records need to have
The child’s name, age and their address
Dated and the time the concern was raised
Word for word of what the child said
Who recorded the disclosure or concern?
Names of any witnesses
The legislations and guidelines that are set out in the working together to safe guard children document need to be implemented into the settings polices which also needs to be put into practice. The policies say that wherever practicable permission from parents should be gained before any referral is made to social services, however is the child is at further risk of abuse or neglect or evidence lost then permission from the parent does not need to be gained. In most cases it is the DSL responsibility to talk to the child’s parent about any concerns that have been raised if there is need for support then there should be permission from the parents to involve other agencies who can offer support

When a practitioner is talking and listening to a child it needs to be done at the child height what the child is saying needs to bat ken seriously. Make sure that when the child is telling you something you believe them, and they are getting told that they are doing the right thing by telling me. The advantage of giving the child eye contact when they are Bing spoken too and me being at their level is they will have more confidence to talk to me and give me as much information as they can. By ensuring that I listen to the child and respecting them and what they say it will empower them and help to improve their self-confidence. By giving children a choice within the setting to make their own discussions on what they want to play with will help to empower them and help them to boost their self-esteem. If a child is exposed to negativity they will lack self confidence
There are many different specialists a referral can be made to ensure that a child needs are met, and the family get the right support for their families. By working in partnership will help to support their parent when they have any problems they need support wit it will also help the setting to promote the child’s well-being. After a referral has been made to social services an assessment on the child will be carried out to assess the needs of the child and their family. Decisions that are made can be the offer of different services of support to help the child or their family it can also be a child protection conference which will be a result if the child is in immediate danger. By supporting a child within their family setting is better than talking the child away and putting them in to care. If there is a risk of physical harm the child will be put in to care straight away
By ensuring parents are getting the support that will help them when it is needed will ensure that the chid is not going to endure the long-term effects of abuse. Working in partnership is where the different agencies with in the community are working together to ensure the safeguarding of the child and to ensure that their needs are being met. This will ensure that the family are receiving the help that they need, and the child is also getting the help that they need this will ensure the situation does not get worse and the chance of the child being removed from the family home is reduced. The children who are benefiting from support will have a good achievement in reference to their self-esteem and confidence and they will be developing at a realistic pace in Sarah’s case she may only have one parent who is looking after her and she may be struggling to cope with all 5 children in which case she would benefit from support and advice which she will be able to gain from the setting and other outside agencies
Case study 2Daniel is four years old and has mild learning difficult
is. Daniel lives with his parents and elder brother, Jack. Whilst working on a problem-solving activity Daniel becomes upset and tells his key worked/person that he is ‘rubbish’ and that he ‘shouldn’t have been born’. At parents’ evening his key worker/person tries to share Daniel’s achievements with his parents. The parents tell the key worker/person that Daniel is not ‘going to amount to anything’ and that his elder brother Jack has the potential to go to university.

This case is a concern because Daniel has said that he is ‘rubbish’ and he ‘shouldn’t have been born, to his key worker it is important that he is listened to carefully he also needs to be reassured that he has done the right thing by saying what has happened. A record needs to be written word for word of what Daniel has said in addition if there are other concerns that was noticed at the time that also need to be written with. It then needs to be reported to the DSL with the report that is an accurate account and a factual account. Daniel is being emotionally abused from what I have read in the case study
The policies and the procedures with in the setting say that you must listen to the child and you can only ask questions when clarity is needed this will ensure that the child is not being misled it also stares that the child needs to be reassured that something will be don’t about the situation that he is in. it also needs to be reported to the DSL as soon as I can along with all the information written
The report needs to be dated with the time and signed by the practitioner if there are any witnesses they also need to sign this as well it is really important that all the information is factual and is legible because it need by other agencies or professional are involved in the case
My boy language is extremely important when I am listening to the child that is making a disclosure. By getting down to their height and giving eye contact and by smiling at them will ensure that they feel more comfortable. In addition, this can also be beneficial as the child may disclose more information. It is really important to ensure the child knows that they have done the right thing by tell me and that I am they’re anytime that the need to talk to them however it is very important that I do not till a child that I will keep the child a secret as other professionals need to know in order to help them
I insula reaction would be to find out if the child is receiving any support for his learning difficulty. After reading what he has said he is being emotionally abused and my concern would be that there are other types of abuse taking place. Because he is being emotionally abused I would be concerned that he has low self-esteem and that he is lacking in confidence. The child may need to be assessed and then a plane put in to place in order to support him emotionally and to meet any other needs that he may have in addition his family may also need support to deal with his leaning needs
In order to enable resilience his confidence needs a boost in order for him not to feel worthless this can be done my using positive body language and by using a positive attitude when talking to him as this will improve his confidence in addition by giving him parse will also help to boost it. By letting him talk about his ideas will let him know that he is cared about. Daniel should be encouraged to be independent for example putting his own coat on as this will help him to build his self-esteem in addition other activities could be aimed at him to help him to build on his self-confidence and resilience
As a practitioner I have a duty of care to safeguard all the children that are in my setting and I also have a responsibility to report any concerns that I may have. My responsibilities to ensure that I safe guard him and I help to promote his welfare this can be done by spotting early signs of abuse and reporting them as soon as possible. The concerns that have been reported need to be accurate and legible and it is important that no mistakes are made all reports need to have his name on his age and where he lives along with details and quotes of what has been said it is important that the name of the person who the disclosure was made to and written by is also recorded along with anyone else who hard it
When a disclosure is being made it is important that the child is listened too when they’re doing so. By using good body language will help the child to feel valued it will also help them to know that they are being listen to. It is really important that a child is given choices in order for them to make their own discussions on the activities that they would like to do as this will help to empower them and improve their self-esteem by using negative language and comments around the child they will believe what is being said to them. It is important that child is allowed to take risks as this will boost their self confidence
It is the DSLS responsibility to decide if they talk to the parents or if they go to the safeguarding board by working on partnership with the child’s family when referrals are being made when permission is gained to get I contact with specialists that are being to support they child and their family after the referral has been made to the social services an assessment will be carried out to identify the needs of the child and the family. The family might be offered support such as child protection conference this is if the child is at risk of any danger, by having this support for the child and their family is better than the child being put in to the care system
Safeguarding training is a really important part of a practitioner’s induction training as them along with the other staff need to have yearly updates the DSL has a responsibly of ensuring that all the other staff members are up to date with their training in addition the DSL needs to have child protection training
Working in partnership is where we work with parents to promote the child’s development and meet any needs that they have, by support the child family in partnership along with any other agencies that are involved in safeguarding children this is important when there are early signs of abuse will provide a better result than if it was later. Daniel, I am suffering from emotional abuse by working in partnership with his family and other agencies in order to safeguard him and keeping his best interests. Daniel may need to have an assessment that Is carried out by the special educational needs which will determine what his needs are and how he can be supported and how he can be helped at home and at school. It is vital that his family know his leering difficult and they fully understand them and they also need to know what they can do to help his self-esteem and how they can meet his needs by working in partnership will help his family will help them to learn to understand and solve any problems and to ensure that is welfare and safety are being protected
Case study 3 Aadi is a very talented and gifted child who has just joined a new setting. Aadi’s practitioner is concerned as she has observed that he has withdrawn himself from activities and his peers. He does not answer any questions. His practitioner often finds him hiding in the cloak room. When asked what is wrong, Aadi tearfully explains that he ‘hates school’ and that ‘other children trip me up and call me horrible names’.

This case is a Disclosure and it is important that this is recorded with all the information word for word is written of what he has said this report must also include his personal details and the date and the time it then needs to be reported to the DSL. Within the 2004 children’s act it says that there has to be a DSL who takes responsibility for ant concerns and referrals that needs to be made

The policies and. Procedures say ‘we are committed to building a ‘culture of safety’ in which children are protected from abuse and harm in all arears of our services delivery’
All the information that has be disclosed to the practiopner need to be recorded on paper and need to be accurate and factual. Which needs to include the name of the child and their additional personal information the practitioners name also needs to be written along with the date and the time and another staff member who is involved with the discolour. As it sates the information needs to be reported to the DSL
By having a positive body language will help the child to feel like he is being listen to and this may encourage him to disclose more. By getting to his height and having good eye contact and body language and speaking to him calmly and praising him when he has told me everything will also help
My immediate reaction to what has be disclosed would be that I need to listen to him and make him feel comfortable in himself as much as I am after I have recorded the information and reported it. I would need to talk to the child parents and tell them what is going on with their child, I would also need to speak to all the children who are involved if I had been made aware of who is was. I would then make the children aware of how he is feeling, and I would explain that they have not been nice to him
I would hope they this would help to stop the bullying and that Aadi will start to feel more commutable when he is at the setting. By listening to the child and by reassuring them that the behaviour that they have displayed is not good and their behaviour will be dealt with will help him to feel more relaxed. Enabling resilience helps to prepare children for when the transition from pre-school to primary school because they will be confident
As a practitioner I need to complete an accurate record of what has been said and it needs to be reported to the DSL and they will decide what to do with the information it is then their choice to decide what is best to do when I have made reports on my concerns and disclosures I am complying with the EYFS
Empowering children is about seeing a child as an individual and listening to their views as every child has a different view but ensuring that children are given the choice and are given disc ions to make an example of this is my asking them what they want to play with is empowering them because I am listening to them. In situation concerning safeguarding it’s really important that a child is listen to and their views are heard this is known as a child centre approach
When there is a serious risk to a child safety this is where a referral is made in cases where a child is being bulled the DSL would not involve other agenise and the setting has the power to solve this. If there is a recorded of concern that has been written it is vital that the DSL give a reason and the circumstances why the case was taken any further
Partnership working is very important in any case that the practitioner needs to work with a child parents in order to help Aadi to settle in to his pre-school the bully should have stopped and he should feel more settled and happy to come to the setting in order to help him to settle how could do half day sessions and can slowly increase witch will help to build his confidence it is important that the child is at the centre of the partnership between the practitioner and their parents this will ensure all his needs are.