GUJARAT of the Student Enrolment no1 PANCHAL
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITYChandkheda, AhmedabadAffiliatedleft151130right151130D.
A. DEGREE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGYAn UDPReport onSoil Stabilization Using Plastic Waste MaterialB. E. IV, Semester – VII(CIVIL Engineering Branch)Submitted by:Group:Sir No. Name of the Student Enrolment no1 PANCHAL MEET MANOJBHAI 1511801060082 VAGHELA MIHIR ASHWINKUMAR 1511801060243 KA PATEL DHRUV INDRAVADANBHAI 161183106013KEYUR PANCHALFaculty GuideVATSHAL UPADHYAYHead of the DepartmentA Project report Submitted toGujarat Technological University in PartialFulfilment of the Requirements for theDegree of Bachelor of Engineering in Civil EngineeringAcademic year(2018-2019)D.A. DEGREE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGYCERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the project reports, submitted along with the project entitled Stabilization of soil using plastic waste material has been carried out by Panchal Meet Manojbhai under my guidance in partial fulfilment for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2018-19.
These students have successfully completed project activity under my guidance.Date:Guide,Prof. Keyur Panchal Department of Civil Engineering D.A.Degree, Mahemdavad.Head of Department,Prof. Vatshal UpadhyayDepartment of Civil EngineeringD.
A.Degree, Mahemdavad.D.A. DEGREE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGYCERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the project reports, submitted along with the project entitled Stabilization of soil using plastic waste material has been carried out by Vaghela Mihir Ashwinkumar under my guidance in partial fulfilment for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2018-19.
These students have successfully completed project activity under my guidance.Date :Guide,Prof. Keyur Panchal Department of Civil Engineering D.A.Degree,Mahemdavad.Head of Department,Prof. Vatshal UpadhyayDepartment of Civil EngineeringD.
A.Degree, Mahemdavad.D.A. DEGREE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGYCERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the project reports, submitted along with the project entitled Stabilization of soil using plastic waste material has been carried out by Kapatel Dhruv Indravadanbhai under my guidance in partial fulfilment for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2018-19. These students have successfully completed project activity under my guidance.Date :Guide,Prof.
Keyur Panchal Department of Civil Engineering D.A.Degree,Mahemdavad.Head of Department,Prof. Vatshal UpadhyayDepartment of Civil EngineeringD.A.Degree, Mahemdavad.
SELF – DECLARATIONWe hereby declare that the project work entitled “Stabilization of soil using Plastic Waste Material” submitted to the D.A.Degree Engineering & Technology , is a record of an original work by us under the guidance of Pro. Keyur Panchal, Department of civil engineering, D.A.
Degree Engineering, and this project work submitted in the partial fulfilment of the requirents for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering. The result embodied in this Report have not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of degree. Date :Place :Enroll. No. Name151180106008 Panchal Meet Manojbhai151180106024 Vaghela Mihir Ashwinkumar 161183106013 Ka Patel Dhruv IndravadanbhaiSign of GuideProf. Keyur PanchalDepartment of Civil EngineeringD.A.
Degree, MahemdavadAKNOWLEDGEMENTWe the members of project are highly thankful for introducing such an existing way of developing our knowledge regarding the project development. We take pleasure in presenting the report of our project work entitled developing of STABILIZATION OF SOIL USING PLASTIC WASTE MATERIAL. First and foremost we would like to express our deepest sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to our Project guide PROF. KEYUR PANCHAL for their support and timely co-operation.
We are also thankful for those people who directly or indirectly helped us in project whose names not mentioned. We express our gratitude to Prof. Vatshal Upadhyay head of department of mechanical engineering for his constant encouragement, co-operation and support. Project team: Panchal Meet 151180106008Vaghela Mihir 151180106024Ka Patel Dhruv 161183106013ABSTRACTSoil stabilization is a process which improves the physical properties of the soil, such as increasing in shear strength, bearing capacity etc. Which can be done by the use of controlled compaction or addition of suitable mixtures like cement, lime, and waste materials like fly ash, phosphogypsum etc. The cost of introducing these additives has also increased in recent years which opened the door widely for the other kinds of soil additives such as plastic, bamboo etc.
This new technique of soil stabilization can be effectively used to meet the challenges of the society to reduce the quantities of waste, producing useful stabilization from plastic waste. Use of plastic products such as polythene bags, bottles etc., is increasing day by day leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore, the disposal of plastic wastes without causing any ecological hazards has become a real challenge. Thus, using plastic as soil stabilizer is an ecological utilization since there is scarcity of good soil for construction. This project involves the study on the possible use of waste plastic.INDEXContents TOC o “1-3” h z u ABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc526905604 h viiList Of Table PAGEREF _Toc526905605 h ixList Of Figures PAGEREF _Toc526905606 h ixAbbreviation PAGEREF _Toc526905607 h xCHAPER 1: INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc526905608 h 11.
1 General PAGEREF _Toc526905609 h 11.2 Why Plastic : PAGEREF _Toc526905610 h 11.3 Aim & Objectives : PAGEREF _Toc526905611 h 21.4 Types Of Stabilization Techniques : PAGEREF _Toc526905612 h 31.
5 Material & Tools Required : PAGEREF _Toc526905613 h 3CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc526905614 h 42.1 General : PAGEREF _Toc526905615 h 42.2 Principles of Soil Stabilization: PAGEREF _Toc526905616 h 42.
3 Soil properties : PAGEREF _Toc526905617 h 42.3.1 Atterberg Limits : PAGEREF _Toc526905618 h 42.3.2 Particle Size Distribution : PAGEREF _Toc526905619 h 52.3.3 Specific gravity : PAGEREF _Toc526905620 h 62.
4 RESEARCH PAPER PAGEREF _Toc526905621 h 7CHAPTER 3 : IMPLEMENTATION PAGEREF _Toc526905622 h 133.1 The experimental work consists of the following steps: PAGEREF _Toc526905623 h 133.2 Materials : PAGEREF _Toc526905624 h 133.3 Experimental work : PAGEREF _Toc526905625 h 133.3.
1 Specific gravity of the soil: PAGEREF _Toc526905626 h 133.3.2 ATTERBERG’S LIMIT PAGEREF _Toc526905627 h 143.3.3 SIEVE ANALYSIS PAGEREF _Toc526905628 h 193.3.4 STANDARD PROCTOR TEST PAGEREF _Toc526905629 h 22CHAPTER 4 : SUMMARY PAGEREF _Toc526905630 h 254.
1 Project Advantages PAGEREF _Toc526905631 h 254.2 Work To Be done in next Semester PAGEREF _Toc526905632 h 254.3 FEATURES OF PROJECT PAGEREF _Toc526905633 h 25REFERANCE PAGEREF _Toc526905634 h 26List Of Table TOC h z c “Table” Table 1 Range Of Specific Gravity For Different Soil Types PAGEREF _Toc526904292 h 6Table 2 Specific Gravity Of Soil Sample PAGEREF _Toc526904293 h 14Table 3 Observation Table Of Liquid Limit PAGEREF _Toc526904294 h 15Table 4 Observation Table For Plastic Limit PAGEREF _Toc526904295 h 17Table 5 Results Of Shrinkage Limit On Sample Soil PAGEREF _Toc526904296 h 18Table 6 Sample Sheet For Dry Sieve Analysis PAGEREF _Toc526904297 h 21Table 7 Dry Density PAGEREF _Toc526904298 h 24Table 8 Observation Table For Standard Proctor Test PAGEREF _Toc526904299 h 24List Of Figures TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1 Soil Collected From The Commercial Site PAGEREF _Toc526904466 h 16Figure 2 Plastic Limit PAGEREF _Toc526904467 h 17Figure 3 Sieve Analysis PAGEREF _Toc526904468 h 20Figure 4 Sample Grain Size Distribution Curve PAGEREF _Toc526904469 h 21Figure 5 Standard Proctor Test PAGEREF _Toc526904470 h 22Figure 6 Sample Sheet Of Standard Proctor Test PAGEREF _Toc526904471 h 24AbbreviationSymbol NotationPL Plastic limitLL Liquid limitSI Shrinkage indexOMC Optimum moisture contentMDD Maximum dry densitySL Shrinkage limit? Wet density?d Dry densityGs Specific gravityS Moisture content in percentage for complete saturationCu Coefficient of uniformityCHAPER 1: INTRODUCTION1.
1 GeneralFor any land-based structure, the foundation is very important and has to be strong to support the entire structure. In order for the foundation to be strong, the soil around it plays a very critical role. So, to work with soils, we need to have proper knowledge about their properties and factors which affect their behavior.
The process of soil stabilization helps to achieve the required properties in a soil needed for the construction work. From the beginning of construction work, the necessity of enhancing soil properties has come to the light. Ancient civilizations of the Chinese, Romans and Incas utilized various methods to improve soil strength etc.
, some of these methods were so effective that their buildings and roads still exist. In India, the modern era of soil stabilization began in early 1970’s, with a general shortage of petroleum and aggregates, it became necessary for the engineers to look at means to improve soil other than replacing the poor soil at the building site. Soil stabilization was used but due to the use of obsolete methods and also due to the absence of proper technique, soil stabilization lost favor.
In recent times, with the increase in the demand for infrastructure, raw materials and fuel, soil stabilization has started to take a new shape. With the availability of better research, materials and equipment, it is emerging as a popular and cost-effective method for soil improvement.Here, in this project, soil stabilization has been done with the help of random plastic material obtained from waste materials. The improvement in the shear strength parameters has been stressed upon and comparative studies have been carried out using different methods of shear resistance measurement.
1.2 Why Plastic :Plastic increases the shear strength and tensile strength of soil. It can significantly enhance the properties of the soil used in the construction of road infrastructure and available abundance. PROPERTIES OF PLASTIC Plastic have a numerous properties that make them superior to other materials in many applications. The different types of properties are physical properties and chemical properties. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Plastic has transparency, flexibility, elasticity, water resistant, electrical resistance and soft when it is hot.
Soil is a naturally occurring material?s that are used for the construction of all except the surface layers of pavements and that are subjected to classification tests to provide a general concept of their engineering characteristics.CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Chemical resistance, thermal resistance, reactivity with water, flammability, heat of combustion etc., are the basic chemical properties of plastic.1.3 Aim & Objectives :Our aim is to find the change in the property of soil, Once the plastic material is added into the soil and evaluate the optimum content of plastic at which soil gives maximum strength and to study the possible use of waste plastic to stabilize the soil economically.
Objectives :It improves the strength of the soil, thus, increasing the soil bearing capacity.It is more economical both in terms of cost and energy to increase the bearing. Capacity of the soil rather than going for deep foundation or raft foundation.Sometimes soil stabilization is also used to prevent soil erosion or formation of dust.
Which is very useful especially in dry and arid weather Stabilization is also done for soil water-proofing. It helps in reducing the soil volume change due to change in temperature or moisture content. Stabilization improves the workability and the durability of the soil. 1.4 Types Of Stabilization Techniques :Mechanical stabilization:Where the stability of the soil is increased by blending the available soil with imported soil or aggregate, so as to obtain a desired particle-size distribution, and by Compacting the mixture to a desired density. Compacting a soil at appropriate moisture content itself is a form of mechanical stabilization. Chemical stabilization: Mixing or injecting additives such as lime, cement, sodium silicate, calcium chloride, bituminous materials and resinous materials with or in the soil can increase stability of the soil.
Chemical stabilization is the general term implying the use of chemicals for bringing about stabilization. 1.5 Material & Tools Required :Materials:SoilPlastic stripsTools:Sieve Shaker Stack of SievesCasagrande Apparatus (Liquid Limit) Cone PenetrometerProctor Mold and HammerWeigh balanceElectronic BalanceDigital Oven with Temp. ControlVibratory TableTriaxail Testing PanelCHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 General :Soils are generally stabilized to increase their strength and durability or to prevent erosion and dust formation in soils.
The main aim is the creation of a soil material or system that will hold under the design use conditions and for the designed life of the engineering project. The properties of soil vary a great deal at different places or in certain cases even at one place; the success of soil stabilization depends on soil testing. Various methods are employed to stabilize soil and the method should be verified in the lab with the soil material before applying it on the field.2.2 Principles of Soil Stabilization:Evaluating the soil properties of the area under consideration. Deciding the property of soil which needs to be altered to get the design value and choose the effective and economical method for stabilization.
Designing the Stabilized soil mix sample and testing it in the lab for intended stability and durability values.2.3 Soil properties :2.3.
1 Atterberg Limits :1) Shrinkage Limit:This limit is achieved when further loss of water from the soil does not reduce the volume of the soil. It can be more accurately defined as the lowest water content at which the soil can still be completely saturated. It is denoted by wS.
2) Plastic Limit: This limit lies between the plastic and semi-solid state of the soil. It is determined by rolling out a thread of the soil on a flat surface which is non-porous. It is the minimum water content at which the soil just begins to crumble while rolling into a thread of approximately 3mm diameter.
Plastic limit is denoted by wP. 3) Liquid Limit: It is the water content of the soil between the liquid state and plastic state of the soil. It can be defined as the minimum water content at which the soil, though in liquid state, shows small shearing strength against flowing.
It is measured by the Casagrande’s apparatus and is denoted by wL.2.3.2 Particle Size Distribution :Soil at any place is composed of particles of a variety of sizes and shapes, sizes ranging from a few microns to a few centimeters are present sometimes in the same soil sample.
The distribution of particles of different sizes determines many physical properties of the soil such as its strength, permeability, density etc. Particle size distribution is found out by two methods, first is sieve analysis which is done for coarse grained soils only and the other method is sedimentation analysis used for fine grained soil sample. Both are followed by plotting the results on a semi-log graph. The percentage finer N as the ordinate and the particle diameter i.e. sieve size as the abscissa on a logarithmic scale. The curve generated from the result gives us an idea of the type and gradation of the soil.
If the curve is higher up or is more towards the left, it means that the soil has more representation from the finer particles; if it is towards the right, we can deduce that the soil has more of the coarse grained particles. The soil may be of two types- well graded or poorly graded (uniformly graded). Well graded soils have particles from all the size ranges in a good amount. Sometimes the curve has a flat portion also which means there is an absence of particles of intermediate size, these soils are also known as gap graded or skip graded. For analysis of the particle distribution, we sometimes use D10, D30, and D60 etc. terms which represents a size in mm such that 10%, 30% and 60% of particles respectively are finer than that size. The size of D10 also called the effective size or diameter is a very useful data.
There is a term called uniformity coefficient Cu which comes from the ratio of D60 and D10, it gives a measure of the range of the particle size of the soil sample. 2.3.
3 Specific gravity :Specific gravity of a substance denotes the number of times that substance is heavier than water. In simpler words we can define it as the ratio between the mass of any substance of a definite volume divided by mass of equal volume of water. In case of soils, specific gravity is the number of times the soil solids are heavier than equal volume of water.
Different types of soil have different specific gravities, general range for specific gravity of soils:Sand 2.63-2.67Silt 2.
65-2.7Clay ; Silty Clay 2.67-2.9Organic Soil ;2.0Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1 Range Of Specific Gravity For Different Soil Types2.4 RESEARCH PAPERSoil Stabilization using PlasticDr.
Babitharani, Ashwini D., Pavan siva kumar, Dimple Bahri, Koushik.B, Sindhu Shankar Department of Civil Engineering, SET, Jain University, India.ISSN 2394 – 3386September 2017 Soil deposits in nature exist in an extremely irregular manner producing thereby an infinite variety of combination which will affect the strength of the soil and many procedures to make it purposeful. Soil stabilization is the process of altering some soil properties by different methods, mechanical or chemical in order to produce an improved soil material which has all the desired engineering properties. Soils are generally stabilized to increase their strength and durability or to prevent soil erosion.
The properties of soil vary a great deal at different places or in certain cases even at one place the success of soil stabilization depends on soil testing. Various methods are there to stabilize soil and the method should be verified in the lab with the soil material before applying it on the field. Dr.
A. I. Dhatrak in 2015 after reviewing performance of plastic waste mixed soil as a geotechnical material. It was observed that for construction of flexible pavement to improve the sub grade soil of pavement using waste plastic bottles chips is an alternative method.
AKSHAT MALHOTRA ; HADI GHASEMAIN in 2014 studied the effect of HDPE plastic waste on the UCS of soil. In a proportion of 1.5%, 3%, 4.5% and 6% of the weight of dry soil, HDPE plastic waste was added. They concluded that the UCS of black cotton soil increased on addition of plastic waste. CHOUDHARY JHA ; GILL in 2010 demonstrated the potential of HDPE to convert as soil reinforcement by improving engineering properties of sub grade soil.RAJKUMAR NAGLE in 2014 performed CBR studied for improving engineering performance of sub grade soil.
They mixed polyethylene, bottles, food packaging and shopping bags etc., as reinforcement within black cotton soil, yellow soil and sandy soil.SUMMARY OF RESEARCH PAPEROn the basis of present experimental study, the following conclusions are drawn, Based on direct shear test on soil sample, with fiber reinforcement of 0.05%,0.15% and 0.25%, the increase in cohesion was found to be 50%, 34.
6%, and 22.4%, 3.9% and 6.1% respectively. The increase in the internal angle of friction (?) was found to be 10%, 3.
9% and 6.1% respectively.Since the net increase in the value of c and ? were observed to be 100%, from 0.
02kg/cm2 to 0.04kg/cm2 and 20%, from 35 to 42 degrees net increment respectively, for such soil, randomly distributed polypropylene fiber reinforcement is recommended. The result from the UCS test for soil sample are also similar, for reinforcement of 0.
05%, 0.15% and 0.25%, the increase in UCS from the initial value are 35.31%, 1.1% and 8.
8% respectively. This increment is substantial and applying it for soil sample is effective.Overall it can be concluded that fiber reinforced soil can be considered to be good ground improvement technique specially in engineering projects on weak soil where it can act as a substitute to deep/raft foundations, reducing the cost as well as energy. Soil Stabilization by using Plastic WasteArpitha G C, Dayanandha B V, Kiran kumar patil, Shruti Neeralagi Head of the Department, UG Students, Department of Civil EngineeringAmruta Institute of Engineering and Management Sciences, Bidadi, Bangalore (India)ISBN: 978- 93-86-171-54-2PLASTIC AND ITS POTENTIALITY FOR RECYCLINGPlastic such as shopping bags is used to as a reinforcement to perform the CBR studies while mixing with soil for improving engineering performance of sub grade soil. Plastic strips obtained from waste plastic were mixed randomly with the soil. A series of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests were carried out on randomly reinforced soil by varying percentage of plastic strips with different lengths and proportions. Results of CBR tests demonstrated that inclusion of waste plastic strips in soil with appropriate amounts improved strength and deformation behavior of sub grade soils substantiallyPlastic and materials made with plastic have become the integral part of our day to day life in various stages and also in various forms, but then, the disposal and dumping of the used and unwanted plastic has become a major threat for the civilized society, as the production and usage of new plastic and plastic associated materials are not in balance with its recycling recycled plastic products status.
Plastic bottle and plastic bags recycling has not kept pace with the dramatic increase in virgin resin polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) sales and the aspect of reduce / reuse / recycle, has emerged as the one that needs to be given prominence. The general survey shows that 1500 bottles are dumped as garbage every second. PET is reported as one of the most abundant plastics in solid urban waste whose effective reuse/recycling is one of the critical issue which needs immediate attention.SUMMARY OF RESEARCH PAPERFrom this study, we can conclude that plastic bottle strips can be used to increase the CBR value of a soil considerably. in this study we can see that the maximum CBR value can be achived when 2% amount of plastic bottle strips are added to the soil. but it decreases when further amount of plastic bottle strips is added.
so from this study,0.75% is optimum amount of the strips that can added to soil the soil for efficient use.We can conclude from the results obtained after performing the test with plastic bag strips that 2% of the total weight of the soil is the optimum proportion of strips cutfrom plastic bags to be added to the soil for reinforcement.
but it decreases when furthure amount of plastic bags strips is added. We can also state from this study that strips cut out of plastic bottles are a better option than the strips cut out of plastic bags,as the cutting of plastic waste from bags is too laboures and time consuming ,to enhance the CBR value of the soil.SOIL STABILIZATION USING PLASTIC WASTEDivya Patle, Mamta Burike, Sayli D.
Madavi, Suvarna RautUG Students, Department of Civil Engineering, SRPCE, NagpurAssistant Professor Department of Civil EngineeringISSN: 2394-8299Volume: 3 Issue: 2 March-April 2017EXPERIMENTAL WORKSoil stabilization in a wide sense incorporates different methods utilized for altering the properties of soil to enhance its physical properties and engineering performance. Soil stabilization is, no doubt utilized for a range of engineering tasks, the most well known application being in the road construction and airfield pavements, where the primary goal is to build the soil quality or stability and to lessen the development cost by making best utilization of locally accessible materials. It is important to stable the soil for any construction purpose.
SUMMARY OF RESEARCH PAPERIn the present study, the improved CBR value of the soil is due to the addition of plastic strips. Plastic can be utilized as one of the material that can be used as a soil stabilizing agent but the proper proportion of plastic must be there, which helps in increasing the CBR of the soil. It can be concluded that CBR percentage goes on increasing up to 4% plastic content in the soil and thereon it decreases with increase in plastic content. Hence, we can say that 4% plastic content is the optimum content of plastic waste in the soil. Utilization of plastic products in various forms is enormously increasing day by day. This has an adverse effect in nature and it is not possible to restrict its uses.
In this regard, the disposal of the plastic wastes without causing any ecological hazards has become a real challenge to the present society. Thus, using plastic as a soil stabilizer is an economical and gainful usage because there is lack of good quality soil for various constructions. This work serves as a means to meet the challenges of Amaravathi, the capital of newly formed Andhra Pradesh State and also to the whole society by reducing the amount of plastic waste and producing useful product from non-useful waste materials leading to the foundation of sustainable society. The use of plastic wastes has significantly helped in ground improvement. This new technique of soil stabilization can be effectively used to meet the challenges of society, producing useful material from non-useful waste materials. It can significantly enhance the properties of the soil used in the construction of road infrastructure. Results include a better and longer lasting road with increased loading capacity.
CHAPTER 3 : IMPLEMENTATION3.1 The experimental work consists of the following steps:1. Specific gravity of soil 2.
Determination of soil index properties (Atterberg Limits) i) Liquid limit by Casagrande’s apparatus ii) Plastic limit 3. Particle size distribution by sieve analysis 4. Determination of the maximum dry density (MDD) and the corresponding optimum moisture content (OMC) of the soil by Proctor compaction test5. Determination of the shear strength by: i) Direct shear test (DST) 3.
2 Materials :Soil sample : Soil samples collected from commercial site which is loacated near our college campus.Reinforcement : Short plastic strip3.3 Experimental work :3.3.1 Specific gravity of the soil:The specific gravity of soil is the ratio between the weight of the soil solids and weight of equal volume of water. It is measured by the help of a volumetric flask in a very simple experimental setup where the volume of the soil is found out and its weight is divided by the weight of equal volume of water.
Specific Gravity G = W2?W1/ W4?W1 ? W3?W2Specific Gravity G = W2?W1/ W4?W1 ? W3?W2 W1- Weight of bottle in gms W2- Weight of bottle + Dry soil in gms W3- Weight of bottle + Soil + Water W4- Weight of bottle + WaterResult :Sample number 1 2 3Mass of empty bottle (M1) in gms 66.3 66.2 66.2Mass of bottle + dry soil (M2) in gms 114.2 120 118Mass of bottle + dry soil + water (M3) in gms 192.
66 195.8 194.7Mass of bottle + water (M4) in gms 165 165.1 165.
2Specific gravity 2.35 2.32 2.32Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2 Specific Gravity Of Soil SampleAVERAGE SPECIFIC GRAVITY = 2.
33Acceptable values of G = 2.60 – 2.72 for coarse grained soils=2.70-2.80 for fine grained soils=2.
30-2.50 for organic soils.Since the result of the specific gravity of soil sample is 2.33. It comes under Organic Soil.3.
3.2 ATTERBERG’S LIMITIn 1911, a Swedish agriculture engineer Atterberg mentioned that a fine grained soil can exist in four states, namely, liquid, plastic, semi – solid, solid state. The water contents at which the soil changes from one state to other are known as consistency limit or Atterberg’s limitsLIQUID LIMITOBJECTTo determine the liquid limit of a soilEQUIPMENTBalanceContainerOven Evaporating dishSpatula425 microns IS sieveTEST PROCEDUREA soil sample weighting about 150g from thoroughly mixed portion of the soil passing 425-micron IS-sieve.
Soil samples obtained shall be worked well into a paste with adding of distilled water, In the case of highly clayey soils, to ensure uniform moisture distribution, it is recommended that the soil in the mixed state is left for sufficient time (24 hours) in an air- tight container.The wet soil paste shall then be transferred to the cylindrical cup of cone penetrometer apparatus, ensuring that no air is trapped in this process. Finally, the’ wet soil is levelled up to the top of the cup and placed on the base of the cone penetrometer apparatus.The penetrometer shall be so adjusted that the cone point just touches the surface of the soil paste in the cup clamped in this position.
This initial reading is either adjusted to zero or noted down as is shown on the graduated scale. The vertical clamp is then released allowing the cone to penetrate into the soil paste under its own weight. The penetration of the cone after 5 seconds shall be noted to the nearest millimeter.If the difference in penetration lies between 14 and 28 mm, the test is repeated with suitable adjustments to moisture either by addition of more water or exposure of the spread paste on a glass plate for reduction in moisture content.
The test shall then be repeated at least to have four sets of values of penetration in the range of 14 to 28 mm.Result :Mass of Mass of No of Empty Mass of Empty Mass of Dry Water Empty Mass of Water, Sr. No.
Blows container + container + Dry Soil, M5 = Content, W = (N) container Wet Soil (M2, Soil (M3, gm) M4 = M2 – M3 M3 – M1 (M4/M5)*100 (M1, gm) gm) 1 16 21.52 52.92 40 12.92 18.48 69.
91 2 26 22.29 49.24 39.4 9.
84 17.11 57.51 3 34 20.85 44.32 36.7 7.62 15.
85 48.08 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3 Observation Table Of Liquid LimitFigure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 Soil Collected From The Commercial SitecentertopLiquid limit from table = 592. PLASTIC LIMITEQUIPMENT REQUREMENTGlass plateExample rod, approximately 3.2 mm in diameterPROCEDURERoll one – third of the soil set aside for the plastic limit test into a 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) strand on the glass plate.
Gather the material into a ball.Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the strand shows signs of crumbling when it reaches 3.2 mm in diameter. This is the plastic limit.Place in a water content tare and cover.
Repeat steps 1 through 3 until at least 6 g of soil are collected for a water content determination.Measure the water content for the plastic limit determination.Repeat steps 1 through 5 for each of the remaining two – thirds.Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 Plastic Limit933450914400Mass of Mass of WaterMass of Empty Empty Empty Mass of Mass of Dry Content, Wcontainer (M1, container + container Water, M4 Soil, M5 = =gm) Wet Soil + Dry Soil = M2 – M3 M3 – M1 (M4/M5)*1(M2, gm) (M3, gm) 0013.26 21 19.35 1.
65 6.09 27.09Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4 Observation Table For Plastic LimitPlastic limit from table = 27.093. SHINKAGE LIMITEQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTSCalibrated waxWax melting potShrinkage dishLubricant (such as vacuum grease)Tap water (for calibration of the dish)Capped cylindrical molding tube that will produce a specimen with a diameter of approximately 5 cm and a height of approximately 4 cmStraight edgeCalipers with a measurement resolution of 0.
01 mmEquipment to measure volume by displacement method: string, beaker, and support hanger.PROCEDUREFor laboratory instructional purposes, about three determinations on the same soil will provide information to detect problems with resultsRecord the identifying information for the shrinkage limit dish.Place a thin layer of lubricant on the inside of the shrinkage limit dish.Obtain the mass of the shrinkage limit dish and lubricant (m) to 0.
01 g.ResultObservation Table Weight of empty mould, W1 (gm) 43.5 45.25 Weight of empty mould + Weight of Wet Soil, W2 (gm) 70.
25 72 Weight of empty mould + Weight of Dry Soil, W3 (gm) 55 56.4 Weight of empty mould + Mercury 317.6 321.7 Weight of mercury in mould,W4 (gm) 274.1 276.
45 Volume of dish, V1 (cc) 20.15 20.33 Weight of displaced Mercury, W5 (gm) 77.
9 75 Volume of Dry soil, V2 (cc) 5.73 5.51 Water Content (W) 132.
6087 139.9103 Shrinkage Limit 7.16 7.06 7.11SL (B) 7.11 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 5 Results Of Shrinkage Limit On Sample Soil3.3.
3 SIEVE ANALYSISOBJECTIVE:The object of experiment is to determine the grain size distribution of coarse grain soil by sieving.APPARATUS:Balance accurate to 1 gm and 0.1 gm;Sieves of sizes 4.76mm, 2.36 mm 1.
18mm, 600 ?, 425 ?, 300 ?, 150 ?, 75 ?;Mechanical sieve shakerTest Procedure:Test is performed according to IS: 2720 (part – 4) -1985. Take a representative sample of 400 gm oven dried soil which is retained on 75 ? and passing through 4.75 IS sieves in the order of (1) 4.75 mm (2) 2.36 mm (3) 1.
18 mm (4) 600 ? (5) 425 ? (6) 300 ? (7) 150 ? (8) 75 ?. Sieve the whole assembly for 10 minutes and observe the weight retained for each sieve and find the percentage finer. While sieving through each sieve, the sieve is agitated so that the sample rolls in irregular motion over the sieve. The percentage of soil retained on each sieve are calculated on the basis of the total mass of soil sample taken and from this results the percentage passing through each of the sieves are calculated. The grain size distribution curve is obtained and from that find out Coefficient of Uniformity (Cu) and coefficient of curvature (Cc).Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 Sieve Analysis13335308610Observation Table:Sieve Dia. Retained on % Retain Cum %Retain Cum %Passing (mm) each sieve (gm) (N) 4.
75 0 0 0 100 2.36 0 0 0 100 1.18 0 0 0 100 0.6 0 0 0 100 0.425 2.5 1.25 1.
25 98.75 0.3 83.6 41.8 43.05 56.
95 0.15 97.5 48.75 91.
8 8.2 0.075 13 6.5 98.3 1.
7 Receive 3.4 1.7 100 0 Total 200 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 6 Sample Sheet For Dry Sieve AnalysisFigure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4 Sample Grain Size Distribution Curve3.3.
4 STANDARD PROCTOR TESTEquipment:Mould, Manual rammer, Extruder, Balance, Drying oven, Mixing pan, Trowel, #4 sieve, Moisture cans, Graduated cylinder, Straight Edge.-53340162560Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5 Standard Proctor TestTest procedure:Depending on the type of mold you are using obtain a sufficient quantity of air-dried soil in large mixing pan. For the 4-inch mold take approximately 10 lbs., and for the 6-inch mold take roughly 15 lbs. pulverize the soil and run it through the # 4 sieve.Determine the weight of the soil sample as well as the weight of the compaction mold with its base (without the collar) by using the balance and record the weights.Measure out the water, add it to the soil, and then mix it thoroughly into the soil using the trowel until the soil gets a uniform color (See Photos B and C).
Assemble the compaction mold to the base, place some soil in the mold and compact the soil in the number of equal layers specified by the type of compaction method employed (See Photos D and E).The number of drops of the rammer per layer is also dependent upon the type of moldS used (See Table 1). The drops should be applied at a uniform rate not exceeding around 1.
5 seconds per drop, and the rammer should provide uniform coverage of the specimen surface. Try to avoid rebound of the rammer from the top of the guide sleeve.The soil should completely fill the cylinder and the last compacted layer must extend slightly above the collar joint.
If the soil is below the collar joint at the completion of the drops, the test point must be repeated. (Note: For the last layer, watch carefully, and add more soil after about 10 drops if it appears that the soil will be compacted below the collar joint.)Carefully remove the collar and trim off the compacted soil so that it is completely even with the top of the mold using the trowel.
Replace small bits of soil that may fall out during the trimming process.Weigh the compacted soil while it’s in the mold and to the base, and record themass (See Photo G). Determine the wet mass of the soil by subtracting the weight of the mold and base.Remove the soil from the mold using a mechanical extruder (See Photo H) and take soil moisture content samples from the top and bottom of the specimen (See Photo I). Fill the moisture cans with soil and determine the water content.Place the soil specimen in the large tray and break up the soil until it appears visually as if it will pass through the # 4 sieve, add 2 percent more water based on the original sample mass, and re-mix as in step 4.Determination No.
1 3 4 5Water to be added (%) 7 14 21 28Mass of mould + Compacted Soil (g) 3700 3900 4083 4039Mass of mould (g) 2136 2136 2136 2136Mass of compacted soil (g) 1564 1764 1947 1903Volume of mould (cc) 1000 1000 1000 1000Bulk density g/cc 1.564 1.764 1.
947 1.903Dry density g/cc 1.483 1.
560 1.581 1.489Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 7 Dry DensityWater ContentMass of Empty container (M1, gm) 20.95 23.23 21.88 19.
34 Mass of Empty container + Wet Soil (M2, gm) 46.1 52.7 54.3 59.
8 Mass of Empty container + Dry Soil (M3, gm) 44.8 49.3 48.
2 51 Mass of Water, M4 = M2 – M3 1.3 3.4 6.1 8.8 Mass of Dry Soil, M5 = M3 – M1 23.85 26.
07 26.32 31.66 0.
0545 0.1304 0.2318 0.
2780 Water Content, W = (M4/M5)*100 5.45 13.04 23.18 27.80 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 8 Observation Table For Standard Proctor TestFigure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6 Sample Sheet Of Standard Proctor TestCHAPTER 4 : SUMMARY4.
1 Project Advantages Reducing the permeability of soils.Increasing the bearing capacity of foundation soils.Increasing the shear strength of soils.
Improving the durability under adverse moisture and stress conditions.Improving the natural soils for the construction of highways and airfields.Controlling the grading of soils and aggregates in the construction of bases and sub bases of the highway and airfields.4.2 Work To Be done in next SemesterFinding the quantity of plastic which is to be reinforced in soil for better outcome.To compare strength of soil using bottle plastic and polythen plastic.
To perform the direct shear test by using different proportion of plastic.To compare the results of soils without plastic and with plastic.To optimize the size and shape of strips and increasing its percentage content.
To assess the durability and aging of the strip.To find the possible use of plastic by which we can stabilize the soil.4.
3 FEATURES OF PROJECTThe uses of plastic are in various field but after that the waste that it becomes really has adverse effect in nature and its not easy or possible to restrict its uses but it can be used as an soil stabilizing agent which would be economical and effective implementation in engineering field.Recently, many expensive methods for the stabilization process are carried on such as geosynthetic materials and other techniques. So, this techniques can be replaced by the reinforcement with plastic strips which will make the construction process economical and also make the proper arrangement of plastic waste conserving the various component of the environment. REFERANCEWikipedia Information .Google information’s.Various videos related to our project on you tube.
Punmia B.C. 2007, “Soil Mechanics & Foundations” Laxmi Publications Methods of soil stabilization, December 24, 2010 online Available at: http://www.engineeringtraining.tpub.com/14070/css/14070_424.
htm IS 2720(IV):1985 Methods of Test for Soils. Determination of grain size analysis. IS: 2720(Part-2), 1973 Methods of Test for Soils.
Determination of water content.The need for soil stabilization, April 9, 2011 by Ana online Available at: ; http://www.contracostalandscaping.com/the-need-for-soil-stabilization/;Dr.
A.I. Dhatrak, S.D. Konmare (2015): “performance of randomly oriented plastic waste in flexible pavement” IJPRET march 2015/vol. 3/no.