GQDs, single-layer sheet of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms, a two-dimensional, are planar nano flakeswith a few atomic layers thick and with a higher surface to volume ratio than spherical carbon dots (CDs) of the same size. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are nanometer-sized fragments of graphene with an average thickness of around 1.3 nm and lateral dimensions in the range of 2–4 nm.
The ease of processibility and functionalization together with the promising properties make graphene based materials ideal candidates for a whole range of new biological and industrial applications in recent years such as unique physical properties, excellent mechanical strength, good thermal stability, low cytotoxicity. electronic and photonic devices, high electronic conductivity, sensors and clean energy.
This review article gives an overview of a general introduction to graphene and its derivatives, the synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications of GQDs. This article provides an overview of critical insights into exciting future developments as well as potential future directions of research in various fields.