Globally, donation rates in Africa are generally
Globally, more than half a million women die each year from complications of pregnancy and childbirth. The most common cause of maternal death is severe bleeding, which contributes to up to 44% of maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa.(Tapko.J.B. , 2014)
African Region frequently experiences man made natural disasters that considerably increase the demand for blood transfusion. Unfortunately, many countries in the Region do not collect enough blood for their populations. Blood donation rates in Africa are generally low(4.15 per 1000 population) in 2006 compared with over 30 per 1000 population on average in developed countries. Most of the African countries in the WHO African Region collect less than half of the blood needed to meet the transfusion requirements of their populations.(Tapko.J.B. , 2014)
Individuals lost their life’s due to lack to access to a safe blood supply during emergency health conditions resulted due to violence or injuries, road traffic accidents and complications related to pregnancy and child birth (like haemorrhage). With this instances for example,world wide, each year, more than 100 million people sustain injuries and most of them die from blood loss.Further more, Road traffic accidents are still the leading cause of deaths among people age 15–29 years;according to the latest WHO estimates, 1.25 million people died from road traffic injuries (over 90% of deaths occurred in low and middle income countries), almost 60% of road traffic deaths occur among people aged 15–44 years((Dalvi, 2004)).
Similarly, globally high number of maternal deaths are due to ineffective blood transfusion services, with this respect for example, every day around 830 women die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth, where almost 90% of this death accounted by occurs in developing nation. Haemorrhage alone accounting for up to 27% of maternal deaths worldwide ((USAID, 2014))(11no ref. still).
The contribution of haemorrhage to maternal mortality in Africa was about 17.3% (mean; range 9.1–47.7%) of these deaths 26% preventable and happen due to lack of blood for transfusion. Reasons for lack of blood for transfusion had arisen from inability of the women to pay for blood in advance, lack of blood donors, unwillingness of relatives to donate blood(Bates et al., 2008). Sub-Saharan African accounts for 24·5% (16·9–34·1) maternal death due to haemorrhage (Say et al., 2014)
Since timely access to safe blood transfusion is a life-saving measure in many of these clinical conditions and can also prevent serious illness in these patients. Furthermore, blood transfusion also recognized as one of the eight essential component of comprehensive emergency obstetric care, which has been contribute its share to reduce maternal mortality(Say et al., 2014)).
In this respect for instance, literatures designates the existence,access to safe blood could help to prevent up to one quarter of maternal deaths each year (5).Similarly, finding from a systematic review to assess the contribution of ineffective blood transfusion services on maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, showed that overall 26% (16–72%) of maternal haemorrhage deaths were due to lack of blood transfusion (10(Bates et al., 2008)).
WHO estimates that blood donation by 1% of the population is generally the minimum needed to meet a nation?s most basic requirements for blood (6(WHO, 2010)).
Worldwide, a total collection of 112.5 million blood donations made.However, the level of blood collection varies between developed and developing regions(compared to the total population they have). With this, instance for example,about 47% of the global donations were from high-income countries, though low-income, and lower middle-income countries collected 2% and 22% of the global donations respectively(7(WHO, 2017b).
There were wide variations in whole blood donation rates among countries, which was 32.1 donations per 1000 population per year in high-income countries, 14.9 in upper middle-income countries, 7.8 in lower middle-income countries, and 4.6 in low-income countries. (WHO, 2017a)
Ensuring sufficient supplies of safe blood and blood products, and prevention of transfusion-transmissible infections are primary concern during selection of blood donors, where voluntary non-remunerated donations are safe compare to other sources.
There are variations in blood donation types also as explained by WHO in 2013. With this, instance for example, worldwide, of the total 88.2 million whole blood donations, 83.3% were reported as voluntary non-remunerated donations, 16.4% as family or replacement donations, and the rest 0.3% as paid blood donations; where as the proportion of voluntary non-remunerated donations in the African Region, was 74.8% , 24.7% family/relatives, 0.4% paid. The average annual blood donation rate was 4.3 units per 1000 population
In Ethiopia blood donation practice remains a challenge to many health facilities to ensure availability of adequate and safe blood products. With this instance,despite the fact that the country?s annual demand of blood was 250,000 units, only 88,000 units of blood collected(WHO, 2009b)from this all collected, voluntary non-remunerated donations were 53, 686(23.5%), Family/ replacement donations were 25,588 (WHO, 2017a)) and the donation rate in Ethiopia is 0.6%(Tapko.J.B. , 2014, WHO, 2017b)).
Different studies across the world shows ,socio-demographic and economic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude related variables identified as a predictor factors for blood donation practices (13–18(Mirutse, 2014).
Indeed a range of studies from Ethiopia aimed to assess blood donation practice and factors associated with it (17(Mende M 2016),(Shambel Wedajo 2016)shambel et, al.2016). However, most of them were facility based studies, which is difficult to asses the general population towards blood donation practice, since a very large proportion of the potentially eligible population does not actively donate blood. Therefore, in this study further exploration of knowledge at the community level were considered.
The rationale of the current study; for the fact that the current study area, (Shashogo district), many mothers referred due to pregnancy and child birth complications which either need surgical procedure or emergency obstetric interventions like blood transfusion. Therefore, understanding community practice and factors related to blood donation will help to come up with strategies and alternative strategies that possibly improve community awareness towards blood donation practice and ensure the availability as well as sustanablity of blood collection activities.