Fluid disease. Age is one of the potetial
Fluid moves into the extravascular space, due to increased hydrostatic pressure, causing pitting edema in the lower extremity and fluid movement could also be due to hypoalbuminemia, in some diseases, leading to a low oncotic pressure. Fluid accumulation causes pulmonary oedema and loss of air space causing ventilation-perfusion mismatch. This leaves less area for oxygen diffusion form the blood vessels causing Shortness of breath. Erythropoietin (EPO), the major erythropoiesis stimulator, is released from the kidneys; with renal failure, there is loss of EPO release this causes. Anaemia Brenner and co-workers identified glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration as major contributors to the progression of chronic renal disease.
Age is one of the potetial risk factor for CKD.