Eugene Mullen Section one

Eugene Mullen
Section one:
General introduction
Life expectancy has increased over the past number of years the reason for this increase, improved healthcare and medicine,example vaccinations,antibiotics ,hearth disease medication and improved social conditions such as housing.

As People get older they have to cope with the ware and tear that their body has been subjected to over the course of their lifetime.

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Everybody grows old differently but some things are certain the body is more sensitive to illness it takes longer to recover from illness and it does not function as well as it previously did.

Growing older means that the person needs to take much more care than they use to and in some cases it may even mean needing help to do that.

When people retire they have family’s members that get married and move out from the family home these family members call in daily to check out their parents and assist with daily tasks like keeping the fire lite,shopping some house maintenance,Family members then have their own children and the daily calls become less because of their have their own life’s to get on with.,then you have one of the parents may pass away ,you have a living alone parent this is when the caring requirements increase for the older person,daily activities become more difficult like eating properly,keeping the house warm making the house is secure and safe,loneliness creeps in.
Should an older person become ill they will need to be monitored carefully in the home this is where the home care package comes into play,careers,nurses and healthcare assistances ,if they are admitted to a hospital or nursing home the care will also be monitored.

Older people in a healthcare setting should have the following checks carried out routinely :temperature,pulse,respiration,blood pressure,urinalysis,weight,blood glucose level,blood tests and pressure areas these monitor checks are important in the wellbeing of the older person.

Individualised care involves the delivery of care by using a recognised care model such as the Roper Logan and Tierney model of nursing .This model describes the 12 Activities of daily living which will be dealt with in more detail later on this assignment.

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To work as a healthcare assistant (HCA) you will require the following QQI level 5 components or be working towards
Health Care skills
Health Care support
Care of the older person
Intellectual disability studies
Pallitive care
Health and Safety
Communications
Communication Work experience
Moving and handling operations in the Health care sector
Infection control
CPR
First aid
Garda vetting
Be Familiar and up –to- date with the Health Information Quality Authority (HIQA)
Health
The World Health Organization describes health as a state of complete :Physical
Mental
Social wellbeing .Physical health covers the normal functioning of the body.

Mental health covers the health of the mind and the ability to think clearly and carry out intellectual processes,it also includes the ability to express emotions and cope with mental demands like stress and worry.

Social health is the ability to form relationships both personally and professionally,loneliness can contribute to ill health.

The above three aspects are interrelated and each can impact on the other therefore the approach to health is a Holistic approach.

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Outline the needs of the older person
Care needs of clients throughout their life refer to the on-going needs that are essential and required by each client to reach their full potential in Physical health,Mental health and Social wellbeing .

Clients may often need support in order to achieve this and they must be constantly encouraged in achieving their full potential .

With Maslow’s model in mind, health-care workers can assess an individual as a whole person this includes the physical, intellectual, social, emotional,recreational,financial and environmental needs .

Basic physical needs food,water,air, light,warmth ,sleep and shelter
Safety needs include the need for safety,security and stability ,free from chaos anxiety and fear
Emotional needs include the need to be loved,form friendships and relationships ,express affection and show care.

Self-esteem/ refers to the need that people have to feel good about themselves ,feel important ,have confidence,positive image and mental wellbeing (by encouraging age appropriate activities/stimulation)
Self-actualization needs mean reaching ones full potential, achieving goals,developing present needs and attempting new challenges
Social Needs include the ability to form and maintain relationships,if social needs are not met the result is loneliness and isolation .

Psychological needs is to do with the mind and the study of its processes,therefore it is to do with mental wellbeing.Mental wellbeing is the ability to think clearly,problem solve and deal with stressful situations and cope with other demands.

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Intellectual needs refer to the need to keep the brain active,mental alertness ,can be stimulated by interests and hobbies.

Recreational needs is a need for mental activity or stimulation this includes interests/activities that can be done in the clients spare time and that can be done anywhere,hospital,nursing home or the clients home.An activity programme should have client input as they know their needs and likes and dis likes,close families can also engage.

Financial needs Older people may be financially dependent if they are in a lower socio economic group or if they have made no pension provision,state pension may not meet their needs as they have to feed themselves and keep warm. If an older person cannot deal with their own affairs then appropriate legal steps must be taken to ensure that someone else can do it for them.

Environmental needs means relating to the surroundings in which we live in this includes housing,noise, air and water quality.Environmental needs in a hospital or nursing home setting are closely related to physical needs i.e . warmth,temperature,quite and the atmosphere.Older persons should wherever possible be cared for in their own surroundings.
Spiritual needs have to do with beliefs,one of the basic human rights is the freedom of thought,conscience and religious expression.As a heathcare assistant we have a duty to facilitate all religious beliefs as I reland becomes a multicultural society.The HCA must be prepared to learn about different cultures and religions.

Spiritual needs can be met by:Identify religious denomination and learn how to facilitate it, remind clients about mass on the T.V ,Facilitate groups/people who want to pray together,Create an environment of peace and quite for religious practice,Treat all ministers of religion with dignity and respect.

All above needs are interlinked and have an effect on each other, by taking a Holistic view all all needs will be met for the older person.

The 12 Activities of daily living
Maintaining a safe environment Slips, trips falls,sharp objects and kettelsCommunication Explain all procedures in clear concise language,tone of voice,
Breathing and circulation Dry and warm environment no dampness good ventelation
Eating and drinking(nutrition) Adequate nutrition levels need to be maintained and weights taken regularly,Meals on wheels.

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Elimination can cause loss of dignity and be embarrassed/ashamed of incontinence wear ,commodes,catheters accessible toilet facilities
Washing dressing bed baths,laundry needs,shaving
Controlling body temperature suitable clothing,insulation,adequate heating,elimination draughts
Mobilisation Wheel cairs/ramps/Stair lifts/linking
Working and playing(social interaction)gardening/craftwork
Expressing sexuality Make up,hair done,clothing
Sleeping for cell repair 7.5 hours sleep each night ,medication may be required
Dying Pallitive care is the care of individuals who have life limiting illnesses
Old people need to be safe
Very important duties
In order to prevent the spead of infection the HCA must be aware of the importance Hand washing
The HSE Hand washing procedure and the five movements for hand hygiene (please see appendices)

The HSE Pressure Ulcer Management (the prevention of pressure sores)(please see appendices)

Pressure sores can develop in a matter of hours
Most vulnerable
Elderly patients who have long term illness
Patients with disease

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Show and understanding of conditions which affect older people and then choose one condition that you would like to research further,this can include interviewing a client and / or their family (rember to protect client confidentiality)
Some of the conditions the affect the older person
High blood pressure/High Cholesterol/Dementia/Stroke
High blood pressureA person with high blood pressure often feels and looks well and may have no symptoms, but the condition adds to the workload of the heart and arteries and causes damage over time, which may contribute to a heart attack or stroke.

There are a number of factors that usually combine to cause the condition, including:
Not eating enough fresh fruit and vegetables
Drinking too much alcohol
Taking too much salt in the diet
Being overweight
Family history of the condition
Smoking
Ageing
Stress.

Treatment for high blood pressureif you have high blood pressure your doctor may recommend some lifestyle changes, which may be enough to treat it, such as:
Losing weight – and keeping the weight off
A good brisk walk every day
Eating more fruit and vegetables
Reducing fat in your diet
Cutting down on salt
Drinking less alcohol
Stopping smoking.

Monitor your blood presure regualary

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CholesterolYour body produces cholesterol and you also get it from your diet, but too much cholesterol in your blood can be dangerous as it builds up on the walls of your blood vessels and leads to narrowing or hardening of the arteries,There are two main forms of cholesterol:
LDL cholesterol (low density lipoprotein) – known as ‘bad’ cholesterol
HDL cholesterol (high density lipoproteins) – known as ‘good’ cholesterol.

Causes of high cholesterolmany factors contribute to high cholesterol. These include:
Not taking enough regular exercise/Too much fat in the diet/Being overweight/Family history of the condition.

Treatment for high cholesterolSimple lifestyle changes may help lower cholesterol levels, including:
Diet – your doctor may refer you to a dietician
Exercise – decreases ‘bad’ cholesterol and increases ‘good’ cholesterol
Dementia
Dementia is degenerative condition of the brain(brain wasting away) which results in memory loss,it also effects the persons ability to carry out daily activities and may also effect their mood and personality .

Other symptoms disorientation in familiar surroundings ,problems with Language,misplacing things regularly and difficulty.

Many dementias are progressive this means that they start out slowly and gradually get worse ,dementia is more common in older people but can start in people as young as 40 .

Dementia is diagnosed by Medical and family history.

The issue of finding a cure for dementia continues to be extensively researched some pharmacological interventions can slow down the progression.

Early diagnosis is important as it allows the person and their families to make plans for their future needs including legal matters such as making a will.

Support services
Alzheimer society of Ireland/The carers association/Dementia services development centre(page 78 Care of the older person Book)

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Stroke (Cerebrovascular accident) (CVA)
In Ireland strokes are a major health problem ,every year the number of people that will have a stroke is 8500 ,it is the third largest cause of death .

People who are at risk is the over 65s,People who smoke are over weight ,lack of exercise and poor diet.
Other people with the following conditions are at risk of having a stroke:High blood presure,high choelesterol and diabetes.
A stroke is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off.

Like all organs the brain needs the oxygen and nutrients provided by blood to function properly.

If the supply of blood is restricted or stopped ,brain cells begin to die.This can lead to brain damage and possible death.

Strokes are a medical emergency and prompt treatment is essential because the sooner a person receives treatment for a stroke the less damage is likely to happen.

All patients that arrive at a hospital with a suspected stroke will have a Brain scan .
Computer Tomography (CT scan) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan)
Swallow test this is essential when a person cannot swallow properly there is a risk that food and drink may get into the wind pipe and then into the lungs called aspiration which can lead to chest infections and pneumonia.

Test is the person is given a few teaspoones of water to drink if this is ok they will then be asked to drink a half glass of water.

Any issues with this they will then be refered to a Speech and Language therapist (SPL)for a more detailed assesment.

To find out what caused the stroke a Ultrasound test will be carrried out,a doctor will also complete a physical examiniation checking your pulse and blood presure using a stethoscope to listen to the sound of blood in the neck arteries.

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Types of stroke

Ischaemic the blood supply is stopped due to a blood clot
Haemorrhagic a weekened blood vessel supplying the brain bursts and causes brain damage
Transient ischaemic attack Mini Stroke should be treated seriously as they are often a warning sign that a stroke is coming.

Symptoms and signs of stroke a healthcare worker should be aware of these
If you suspect that someone else is having a stroke phone 911 and ask for an ambulance,if the signs disappear while waiting on the ambulance the person should still go to the hospital as they might be having a Mini stroke .

The healthcare worker should familiarize themselves with stroke sign FAST on the HSE webpage.
F.A.S.T
Face: the face may have dropped on one side,the person may not be able to smile or their mouth or eye may have dropped.

Arms: the person with suspected stroke may not be able to lift one or both arms and keep them there because of arm weakness or numbness
Speech: their speech may be slurred or garbled,or the person or the person may not be able to talk at all despite appearing to be awake
Time it is time to dial 911 immediately if you see any of these signs or symptoms.

More important if you a healthcare worker and caring for a person with Diabetes or High blood presure this person is in the high risk zone of having a stroke .

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Other symptoms to look out for
Difficulty in Swallowing ,Blackout,Communication problems,Balance and Coordination.

Strokes can be prevented
Eating a healthy diet.

Taking regular exercise.

Small amounts of alcohol(in moderation)
No smoking
Strokes can be treated using a combination of medicines and in some cases surgery.

However many people will require a long period of rehabilitation and not all will recover fully.

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Discuss the impact of aging on the older person
Aging is another stage of life ,people age differently and experience aging differently based on heredity and lifestyle.

Aging also means changes in physical,psychological,relationships,social ,environment,situation,behaviour,spiriltual and intellectual .

Every one adjusts to aging differently,people who did not like change when they were younger will not like change as they get older.
Physical changes in
Vision: eyes have more difficulty focusing on near objects
Hearing : difficulty hearing tones that have high pitch
Psychological impact of Ageing:
This refers to the mental faculties and mental well being (state of mind)some of the changes an older person gets slower,taking a lot longer to take in information comprehend this information and replying.

Takes time to retrieve information from the short term memory ,leaving a stove fire door open,not locking up a night time.

Radio on in the bed room at 4am in the morning,not able to do the things they use too, loss of routine ,low esteem some negative emotions .

Not enough stimulation their environment changes ,reciently loss of a loved one the remaining partner goes down hill if this person is still living at home this is where family and the Healthcare team steps in.

Mobility
Clinets who are inactive and have health problems may experience declines in strength and mobility this will limit Daily activites.

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Home and personel possessions
Moving home to a smaller house or with other family members loss of personal possessions and familiar surroundings
Reminiscence
Dwelling on how things used to be and how they have changed,wishing for things used to be and how they were when they were younger.

Rage
An older person feel that they have little control over the present and may react in anger,they will lash out at family members who are most supportive because they know that this family member will still love them in spite of their anger .
Persons income will decline at retirement the older person will worrie about financial security and be reluctant to spend
The Death of a spouce is one of the major causes of temporary confusion in the older person,the loss of family or friends may cause the older person to face up to the inevitanility of their own death causing them to wonder when their time will come this can cause a feeling of anxiety or depression.
HCA role
Encourage Client to establish a good routine this will help them remember daily tasks like good breakfast porridge .Get a good big diary book with dates in big bold ,they can put a reminder for daily medication next appointments,important dates like birthdays.
Type of care is very important by having different people calling they get confused and communication is short,by familiar people calling they will find loads to talk about.

Understand the needs of the client,family will be happy that a relationship has built up.

Encourage independence ,bring a daily and local news paper makesure the tv is working so they can get news the BBC have good quiz programes like pointless ,mastermind this will help stimulate the brain.

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Social impact of Ageing
The process of growing old can result in various social changes,retiring from being on a wage and then dropping down to state pension which is half ,with the reduction in ESB units,phone allowance taken away ,property tax,water charge ,extra levy charge on medication ,heating oil this is additional stresses to the older person .

Will they have enough money to bury them selves and not leave this cost to their loved ones.

Not getting out of the house unable to drive a car feeling isolated ,the day can be very long with familys out working during the day and calling in the evening and nights getting dark .

Going to bed being afraid ,not sleeping .
The older person will also feel vunerable ,post man ,bread man ,milk man collects his money might call once a week.

The very sad case where two brothers with a disability one looking after the other and both found dead living in estate at Bluebell 2016 (evening hearld 5/10/2016)
House getting damp no maintenance being done this will bring on colds and flus,power outages .

Then you have the safety piece ,slips trips and falls, kettles boiling ,cookers and electric heaters left on fire hazard.
Having a bath or shower to keep hygiene this carries its own hazards.
Going out side to get coal for the fire in frosty weather .
Most people would have completed daily tasks them selves during their lives which mean they get very independent they try to keep this independence when old and do not ask for help.

The only outing they have is to the post office on a Friday to get the pension ,some shopping food,meat for the week.
Wheather your in the Heathcare environment or not ,always call to a older person that you know that’s lives alone they will be glad to see you ,ask would they like any thing done its only takes a small amount of time and you will feel better in yourself.

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Discuss the importance of health promotion for older people and the carer’s role in promoting positive aging
How do we look at old people in society do we see them as useful or useless members of society.For a health promotion point of view,people should start to prepare early on in life for the changes that are likely to occur in old age,there are certain things that can be done to promote health in the older person and to help them live to a healthy old age by having a positive attitude to life.

People who are positive learn how to turn negative situations to their advantage,happy people laugh more and create a feel good factor .

In order to maintain and enhance independence and health promotion for the older person the older person themselves the client’s family ,HCA and the wider care team should be involved in the planning of activities to support their wellbeing .
Some elderly people especially those living a lone live on nutritionally poor diets,they have arthritis,making shopping and cooking difficult.

They may have difficulty chewing food or lack the motivation to cook balanced meals.
Health promotion also means a good balanced diet an old person in a nursing home or hospital would be eating food and drinks at the following times Breakfast,mid morning,Lunch,mid afternoon,evening meal and hot drink before going to bed a good balance is important .

HCA can assist
Low fat cheese,milk and yoghurt as the foods are high in calcium and low in fat ,Calcium prevents osteoporosis (brittle bones)
To prevent hearth disease ,limit high cholesterol foods such as butter(use Flora) and sausages.

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Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables good for vitamin C

Reduce salt ,fat and sugar intake and processed foods such as tinned foods,to help constipation a high-fibre breakfast will help.

Energy requirements and appetite may change too but Nutrient requirement’s do not,by eating less it is important to aim for more nutrient – rich foods and drinks.
Activities
The client should be given time to perform their own care even if the task involved is time consuming ,being able to do tasks increases independence ,self-esteem and feeling self-worth,healthcare assistance should do for the client only what they cannot do for themselves.

A positive self-image results when dignity and self-worth are maintained,a client’s choice of clothing may reflect the image they want to portray,clients need to feel that they are making a positive contribution.

HCA have a duty to get clients involved in activities suitable to age and level of skill and ability.

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Activities involving their own peer group are most valuable as people tend to relate better to those who are most similar to them.

Join Walking clubs,small walks in Parks if your beside the beach this is refreshing
A regular session singing familiar songs is fun, entertaining and encourages physical activity,learning new songs provides mental stimulation .

Types of activities that are suitable for a wide range of older clients with varying levels of ability include listening to music,enjoying nostalgia tapes/video’s ,dancing,playing bingo playing card games (bridge),knitting ,sewing .

Flower arranging and some gardening is a pleasurable activity you can see the results watering them watch them grow self-achievement .Books can be borrowed from the libraries ,small walks and swimming are great activities for keeping the mussel’s active.

Sitting in groups having interactive conversation with friends is a suitable activity,especially when coffee / tea biscuits and cake are provide.

Some clubs and retirement groups that cater for older people have lifelong learning facilities where active older people can get involved in learning new skills Cookery classes and computer skills,theatre,cinema,IPads are very user friendly.

Reading the daily newspaper keeping up to date and conversations can shared on topics .
Physiotherapy can be useful for older people clients who can be shown some simple exercises,which the HCA can then help them to perform ,thus improving skills and wellbeing.

Some very useful websites like Age and Opportunity focus on three different strands that interest people
I Physical activity and sport
2 Arts and Culture
3 Education and engagement

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Also on the age and opportunity web is Azure
Azure explores how people with dementia-related conditions such as Alzheimer’s, and the people who care for them, can have a deeper involvement in cultural institutions and can participate in cultural activities.

Some positive attitudes to aging
Treating the older person as a valuable member of our society who has vast knowledge and life experience.

Recognising that a mix of younger and older workers complement each other.

Encourage older family members to make adequate retirement provision.

Promoting the attendance of pre-retirement courses
Encouraging monetary provision for retirement
Promoting regular check ups medical and dental smear ,postate and breast checks
Promote active mind hobbies reading education
Encourage good family and social links such as joining clubs and encour

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Identify and discuss the needs of the dying older person and their Family
The Majority of deaths in Ireland occur in Acute Hospitals, the Network of Hospice Friendly hospitals works to ensure that end – of – life care is central to the mission every day,it promotes a quality service for all patients at end of life, whether their death is expected or unexpected and acknowledges the role of clinical support and administrative staff in supporting the patient and Family,most older people would like to be at home when close to end of life ,the HSE have palliative care support
Almost 30,000 people die in Ireland every year (info HSE web page)
43% acute hospitals
25% Long- stay facilities
26% At home
6% Hospices
Some patients may die suddenly with little or no time to prepare for death ,others could have an illness such which is not treatable and know that the evitable result is death.

The recognition of Dying is always complex there are occasions when the person who is thought to be dying lives longer than expected and when a person dies more quickly than expected
Some of the Symptoms associated with dying the patient will feel:
A lot of Pain
Respiratory tract secretions.

Nausea and vomiting
Breathlessness
Anxiety
The Patient would like at the end of life:
To be surrounded by people they love
To be free from pain and be comfortable
To be conscious and able to communicate (Listen ,Non verbal communication ,body lanauge)
To have medical HCA and nursing support ready available
To have spiritual support
To be in a private space

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For the patient that is dying and family the HCA care worker must make sure :They are treated with Dignity and Respect
They are treated as individuals
The physical,emotional,social and spiritual wellbeing of the person are given equal emphasis
Family members and those important to the patient are included in the care approach
The patient must not be left alone ,the thoughts of having no one with them can be frightening
Given space for the family so they can be together
Remeber treat the Patient and family as the way you and your family would like to be treated.

Time to express their needs and the support of a Counsellor
It is important that dying is diagnosed in a timely manner as this can ensure that the proper care and communication needed by patients and families is anticipated and provided the Patients themselves may already be aware that they are dying before healthcare professionals.

HCA should familiarise the Patterns of – dying Trajectories, this will allow you to anticipate particular needs for patients and families.

Communicating with patients and families at the end of life can be very difficult ,HCA should be aware of this,the patient and family will feel anger and sadness,they will ask why me ,why my mother or father ,the dying patient will be worried about the family that will be left behind ,how will they cope,the patient and family will be in an emotional state this is where the HCA role is very important,give them what ever assistance possible like making tea,quite room,,not to strong light ,hold a hand and reflect the feelings they are experiencing.
Spiritual needs will be very important with all the different religions the HCA can work with the nurse on this.

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Be there with the patient and family ,makesure room is peaceful ,no interuptions,allow for silence and tears ,listen,any requests from the patient and family you are unable to answer any questions go to your supervisor (nurse),stay close to the patient and family be extra gentle when attending to their needs,regular sips of water to keep hydrated.

When the patient dies the nurse will check the patients vital signs,the doctor will then be contacted to confirm the death has occurred,at this time the body remains the responsibility of the nurse and HCA .

At all times dignity and respect of the deceased person and family should be maintained the family will want to spend some time with there loved one they can then be taken to a quite room so the any dressings I.V lines soiled pads can be removed .

The persons arms should be rested by their side and a white sheet placed loosely over the persons body.

Provide refreshments,prepare family for viewing and advise the family of any change in the patient’s appearance,in the private room keep the lights very low.

Allow time for spiritual care
A Hospital Post Mortem (PM) Examination is usually initiated by a request from the medical team in some cases a request may be initiated by the family.

The other Patients will be aware that their close friend has died ,they would have built up a friend ship and be sad and upset support them also .

The Hospital or nursing home will have their own a policy the HCA should familiarise themselves with this policy.

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Section two
Discuss the general role of the HCA and the healthcare team in Caring for older people
The Role of a Health care assistant (HCA)is to support the delivery of client care under the supervision and direction of nursing personnel ,the role involves understanding the following concepts:
Confidentiality
Curtesy,
Health and Safety,
Privacy,
Dignity,
Accountability
Empathy
Respect
Patience
Communication(Two way)
Good listener
Be trustworthy
Good at understanding
Have good manners
Reflecting feelings
CourtiousPunctual
Good hygiene
The HCA will assist the registered nurse to carry out planned and basic care of the older person, to have an understanding of what needs to be reported/recorded ,to report any unusual findings to the registered nurse and to carry out duties i.e. head to toe care skin,body,hair,eye,mouth and hand .

HCA tasks : Grooming,Washing dressing,Mobility.Continence needs,Eating and drinking,Facilitating good sleeping patterns,Encourage independence and Social/recreational activities also, the HCA to participating,inform whats happening locally and worldwide,read a news paper for the client open a conversation on the news.

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The HCA should know how to communicate effectively with all types of clients in their care ,have enthusiasm for their job ,be cheerful,never show disapproval when doing a task that is difficult or repugnant and never appear rushed if some one wants to tell them something,which may be important to them.

Empowerment this means giving control to the client enabling them to take control of their own lives make their own decisions and chose their own activities.

Advocacy this means the HCA can speak on the clients behalf and present their case for them,this will also encourage and enable clients to speak up for themselves and be assertive.

Being a good effective communicator:
Showing sympathy/empathy to client and family
Being prepared to listen to problems and assist in finding solutions
Being friendly,smiling and showing a caring attitude
Social awareness being in tune with others is essential in Healthcare
Learn tobe a good listener and look out for non verbal communication.

HCA must understand the importance of reporting changes in a clients condition to the Nurse,the HCA is accountable and responsible for their own actions,this means understanding what it is they are and are not qualified to do,report to and work under supervision and direction of a registered nurse.
HCA will assist in the provision of a quality service by promoting and adopting the care settings philosophy ,report any accident or potential incident which may compromise health and safety of the client and other people in the healthcare setting.

Other duties include :Promoting healthy options,Caring,assisting in wound care,lifting and transferring,Confidentiality,Resuscitation,Communicating with the cl,ents team,taking telephone messages,dealing with complaints,dealing with Family and Friends,promoting independence,choise and self esteem.

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Encourage mobility monitor dietary intake – input/output charts,promotion intake of fluids prevent the possible spread of infection ,all HCAs must have completed the course on Infection control .

How to wash your hands correctly to reduce infection the HSE have procedure latest version January 2016 on HSE web page

The 5 moments describes when to use the hand hygiene technique
Before touching a patient
Before clean/aseptic procedure
After body fluid exposure risk
After touching a patient
After touching a patient surroundings

The Health care assistant should receive the Flu vaccines every year

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The healthcare team
The below team play a very important role in maintaining the wellbeing of the older person and people with disabilities and creating an environment for independence,the HCA will be working and communicating with the Nurse on a daily basics .

Nurses there are many types of Nurses General nurse,Psychiatric nurse,Clinical nurse,Public health nurse. They carry out doctors instructions and administer the appropriate medications.Nurse in a care setting are responcible for the care and safety of their patients.They formulate individual care plans for their patients which they update on a regular basis.Nurses like HCA can work in hospitals,nursing homes and home care settings in the community.Nurses are also responsible for promoting best practice and ensuring good standards of care ,supervising and mentoring student nurses,HCAs and carers.Health promotion and keeping up to date with their own education needs.
Speech and language therapists they help to correct speech problems which may have been caused by head injuries,strokes and other disabilities.

Social worker they are based in most care settings and focus on the social aspect of illnesses,such as examining the family situation, discharge plans and some counselling for families going through difficult or uncertain times.

Dentists they are based in dental surgeries and health centres they promote oral hygiene ,identify and treat gum disease .

Chiropodists specialise in foot care they operate from heath centres or in community and residential settings,they treat all foot conditions,such as corns,bunions and ingrown toenails.

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Dieticians deal with nutritional issues,such as malnutrition,obesity and excessive weight loss/gain they work in hospitals and community settings.

Physiotherapists can be based in hospitals ,communities,health centres and in private practices,they provide treatment for pain and mobility problems ,they arrange for the provision of mobility aids for clients.
Occupational therapist they are based in hospitals and in the community ,they aim to help clients to maintain and /or regain their ability to carry out activities of daily living,they also assess clients weaknesses and help them regain skills to live as independently as possible.They will also assist in the alteration or redesign of living accommodation.
General Practitioner they work from health centres or from their own practice,they have a referral service to hospitals consultants.

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Show your understanding of Cultural and Ethnic influences that may be encountered when caring for an older person
As Ireland has become a more multicultural society so too has our health service.

Both healthcare employees and health services users come from various walks of life and different parts of the World,in a multicultural society it is vital that the diversity of lifestyle,culture and religion that are encountered in both day to day life and work are facilitated.

Culture can be described as a collection of ideas and habits shared by a given group i.e. the norms and value of a group,they help to reinforce the identity of the group making it different from other groups,individuals learn the roles acceptable to others within their culture.

The culture we are raised in can be one of the biggest influences in our lives.

The word ethnic is used to describe people who have a common ancestry,geographical place of origin and cultural tradition,they may share the same language,literature,music,traditions.

Ethnic traditions are peculiar to a group of people who share a common bond.
To facilitate means to aid,to assist or to make easier from difficulties or obstacles and diversity means a variety,assists in creating dynamic culture in the work place as every person is an individual human being,diversity in the workplace makes work interesting.

HCA have duty of care to protect the rights of all clients regardless of Culture,Religion or Political beliefs,culture is like an iceberg most of it is below the surface ,culture is a learned way of life for a group of people which is passed down from one generation to the other.

Culture consists of the following :custom and habits ,religious beliefs,accepted ways of behaving,ceremonies and rituals,communication and language,status,law,world views history ,myths and legends.

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Religion HCA have a duty of care to clients to facilitate choice and allow the practice of religion where possible.

Care settings should have a policy for the education of staff in the facilitation and tolerance of religious needs,encouraging and raising awareness of differences in religions and the value of particular religious beliefs.

Care facilities
Provide quite rooms,Encourage ministers of religion to visit,Help clients with religious celebrations,Learn about the customs of various religions,Have cultural awareness days with staff.
One of the students on the course is from North Africa Nigeria they go to mass on Sundays and a set time from 13pm to 15pm this is important to them.
It is important to mention that it is up to all members of staff to respect differences in lifestyle,culture and religion,this includes speaking the English language at all times while in the workplace and not isolating colleagues by communicating in native tongue,everyone must make an effort to understand individual differences so that mutual respect and a harmonious working atmosphere can be achieved.

Everyone should be treated with dignity and respect and vice versa.

Eugene Mullen
Outline the role of services and the care settings available to older people,this should include national and local support groups both statute and voluntary.

The components of the healthcare service in Ireland can be broadly categorised as follows:
The department of Health,which develops overall health policy,the Health Service Executive areas which are responsible for managing the implementation of health policy.

Eastern area/South Eastern area/Midland area/Mid Western area/North Western area/Southern area/Western area.

Hospital services and community care services,which act as the interface between the health services and the public.
Community care and personal social services can be broadly defined as those that are designed to enable people to remain living in their communities especially when they have difficulties doing so because of illness ,disability or age Examples home Nursing services,home help,occupational therapy and social work services.

The HSE provides a wide range of services for people growing older in Ireland,supports are also available from other agencies like the department of social protection,local authorities and volountary organisations.

Voluntary agencies are independent agencies that provide services by contract which has to be tendered for.

Voluntary agencies can also be provided by charitable agencies and public funding.

Voluntary and independent provision
Local support groups
Residential care
Age concern
Community services centres
Charity shops (Barnados/SVP)
Red cross
Meals on Wheels
Helplines(usually non profit making)

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Private providers and agencies
VHI/Aviva health
Private hospitals mater
Home care packages to help an older person to be cared for in their own home.

Mary Wilson (RTE)drive time for the week gave time to discuss the services that are available
Home instead provide private care at 20 to 25 euro per hour.

A Farmer whos wife had Dementia as he had to work the farm he could not mind his wife so he got local help and paid in cash.
Comfort keepers /Home instead/Kare plan/Blue bird all work the the HSE they provide a service at older peoples home .Services as follows,shower and bath clients,prepare meals,makesure client is ok and the living accomadation is ok,report when things are not right,be a friend and a good listener,do some shopping go to the chemist .

Nursing home support scheme like the fair deal.

Morehall lodge use the house hold model with the layout of the nursing homes (web page)
Services for older people in Louth
Cottage hospital
St Marys hospital
Volountary organisations.

Home support workers work with vulnerable people in the community help with day to day tasks ,house work,shopping preparing meals,getting pension and companionship.

Eugene Mullen
The Alzheimer Society of Ireland Drogheda day care centre Donore road (please see appendices)
Visit date 11/10/2016 met Helen Baroon,opening hours 8.30am to 15.30pm no of clients per day 12,visit the art gallery ,reflexology service available ,Coffee,Tea and Buns served,Lunch provided by Loafs and Fishes .

New site available beside green hills school building costs 800k they have half the money.

Found the staff very pleasant ,Helen said over 55000 people with Deminta/Alzheimers.

They raise money localy to support the day care centre.

The Leading advocacy organsitation for older people
What they do to support older people
Care and repair,Life long learning,Generations together,Information service,Computer training.

Make submmissions to government on state pension,home care packages,prescription charges fuel and telephone allowance.

HSE provide
Other Services through the public health nurse personnel care like help with dressing,bathing,diet.
Benefits and Financial entitlements Medical cards,respite care,grants to secure the house and be more comfortable at home.
Irish news on web page 15/10/2016
Taoiseach Enda Kenny will today launch the first meeting of the Citizens’ Assembly.
One of the five items on the agenda: is
(The response to challenges facing the ageing population).

Eugene Mullen
Discuss retirement ,the possible impact on an individual,range of services and pursing personal interests/hobbies
There is no single fixed retirement age for employees,if you are employed your retirement age is set out in your contract of employment,some contracts of employment have a mandatory retirement age (that is ,the age at which you must retire)but they also have provisions for earlier retirement generally and /or on grounds of illness.

The usual retirement are in contracts of employment is 65,some may have provisions for early retirement from the age of 60,should you have the correct number of PRSI contributions you are then entitled to the state pension, to check your records ring the Dept Social Protection 1890690690
Many people dread the thought of retirement,during working years a persons life is organized around the job arriving at the place of work at the same time each day and doing the same things with the same people .

Retirement can bring on a sence of rejection by society that holds no value for old people a loss of status ,retirement can also bring financial problems for old people as a result the standard of living/social lifestyle can be affected there may be lots of free time but no money to follow any useful social hobbies .
The golden years are really golden positive thinking is the key
Retirement can be a positive while you are working but for some people this date comes to soon they are not prepared ,one day they are working the next day they are retired.

Some employers will have a retirement transition plan for its employees flexi time in the last three months,coffee meetings,HR meetings
Before retiring visualise what you want it to be like,be motivated /inspired to take the first steps to ensure your retirement plans are in place,create the retirement you are aiming for and make a list of what you would like to do in retirement .

Eugene Mullen
Some things to think about
When planning for retirement there is no room for pessimism.

Keeping fit and healthy going for walks,hill walking
Take care of your health and make fitness a priorty .Activities,hobbies,and interests playing golf
Travel and exploring visit places you have never being before
Get involved in Volunteering, do some charity work ,SVDP visit a friend that cannot leave the house
Spending more time with Family and friends go out for a day
Do some thing in the community this will make you feel good
Approaching retirement
Get the right information of your entitlments and allowances
Do you need work done on the house
Find out what services are around in your area
The shed on the Donore road is a great way to meet people
When your retired
Getting use to being at home
Look for positives
Take each day at a time(it takes time to adapt)
Be encouraged to try new activities (healthy cooking)
Remember quality of life is directly related to how well you feel,travel while you can this is a great way to keep positive energy .(Shepell.fgi work.health.life)