Endocrine disorders are diseases caused by changes in hormones, which result in the body not responding to the hormones in the required way. Hormones are used in the transmission of important chemicals in the body, which are important in the day-to-day body processes (Lehne, 2014). Some of these processes include metabolism, reproduction, and growth. A high level or a low level of hormone production is attributed to endocrine disorders. One of the most common endocrine disorders across the world is diabetes, which is a metabolic disorder (Lehne, 2014). Diabetes occurs when there is no balance between the demand and the production of the insulin hormone. This disorder develops due to the body not producing enough insulin, which is a hormone responsible for controlling the blood sugar in the body (Lehne, 2014).
Insulin helps in maintaining the blood glucose level at a balanced rate by lowering the blood glucose level with glucagon being responsible for increasing the blood glucose level (George & Copeland, 2013). This disorder also develops if the body cells do not respond according to the produced insulin. High blood glucose levels can be fatal so as very low levels of blood glucose. This can also lead to other complications, which include eye problems, kidney, and nerve damage (George & Copeland, 2013). In individuals without diabetes, insulin and glucagon work concurrently to maintain the blood glucose level. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body is not able to produce enough insulin, which results in high blood glucose levels, which requires injection of insulin to maintain the blood glucose level (George & Copeland, 2013).
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body is unable to respond appropriately to insulin, which can lead to increased blood glucose levels. This type of diabetes is addressed by medications, which help the body to increase its sensitivity to insulin (George & Copeland, 2013). This can be achieved by stimulating the pancreas to increase the level of insulin or inhibiting the release of glucagon. The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is caused when the immune system attacks and destroys beta cells, which are located in the pancreas (Baynes, 2015). These cells are responsible for producing insulin. This leads to an insulin deficiency which results in the destruction of the pancreas islets, which leads to the onset of the disease (Baynes, 2015).
The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes involves a limited insulin production, which is not adequate in meeting the required need. Medications are required to stimulate adequate insulin production (Baynes, 2015). The endocrine cells in the pancreas sense an increase or a decrease in the blood glucose which in response release insulin or glucagon which are hormones aimed at addressing either high or low blood glucose levels alternatively (Baynes, 2015). If the blood glucose is high, insulin is released which is responsible for the absorption of this glucose by the muscles and liver cells. If the blood glucose is low, glucagon is released which is responsible for the release of additional glucose from the liver (Baynes, 2015).
The hypothalamic-pituitary axis is the central response system when the body is stressed. This connects the central nervous system and the endocrine system (McCance & Huether, 2015). The response involves the release of corticotrophin-releasing hormone, which stimulates the release of cortisol to address the stressing factors. This system is important in transmitting information relating to the failure of adequate production of a certain hormone, which is important for the day-to-day body functions (McCance & Huether, 2015). There are various pharmacologic agents used to treat diabetes, which are either used to treat type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Metformin is a medication, which is used to treat type 1 diabetes and works by reducing hepatic glucose production, which in result reduces hypoglycemia. Other agents include sulfonylurea and meglitinide, which increase insulin production for patients with type 2 diabetes (McCance & Huether, 2015).
Baynes, H. W. (2015) Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism 6(541).
George, M. M., & Copeland, K. C. (2013). Current Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Youth: Today’s Realities and Lessons from the today study. Current Diabetes Reports, 13(1), 72–80.
Lehne, R. A. (2014). Pharmacology for nursing care: Study guide for Pharmacology for nursing care. Philadelphia: Saunders.
McCance, K. L., ; Huether, S. E. (2015). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children. St. Louis: Mosby.