Do You have any idea that who invented Bread?
We cannot relate the wonder invention of bread to a single person or the people of a specific region. Rather the invention has occurred and is found in its present state after a process of over a large period of time.
Bread is an ancient food which has origins dating back more than 22,000 years. Study shows that Wonder Bread began marketing the first sliced loaf of bread in 1930. Rather the modern version of sliced bread is a fairly a new invention.
The first evidence of humans processing wild cereal grains was found in 2004 when scientists found nearly 22000 years old barley grains. These gains were found caught in a grinding stone at an excavation site called Ohalo II, which is modern-day Israel.
Howard Miller, who is a food historian and professor at Lipscomb University in Nashville, Tennessee, has described in detail about the origin of bread. According to him perhaps, at such ancient times, the seeds and grains were heated on a rock or fire and the bread was like the flat cakes of these ground seeds. That really seems to be awesome when we compare such an imagined ancient style bread with the standard sandwich bread that we have in our modern world.
Bread grains were the first domesticated plants. And these plants were first garnered by the Natufians in the wild. The Jordan River Valley region of the Middle East is told to be the place where this Mesolithic group of hunters & gatherers (Natufians) lived in about 12,500 years ago.
Miller describes that the Natufians used to process the grains into a coarse flour. This flour was then used to make a small unleavened, pita-like loaf that was cooked directly on the coals of a fire.
Another food historian and author of “Bread: A Global History” (Reaktion Books, 2011) William Rubel reports that the Natufians are considered to be excelled in the process of making transition between survival purely on foods that they harvested from nature to becoming farmers who controlled all the aspects of the food supply. Rubel also says that the infrastructure of this community was basically grinding barley and then converting it into the form of bread. They were the first to have an agricultural-based society.
Over a period of several thousand years, the trade contacts amongst the hunter & gatherer peoples of the Nile Valley, Mesopotamia and east of the Indus Valley, the tradition of agriculture and the cultivation of grains spread across the Middle East and southwest Asia. Rubel has exclaimed that the invention of Bread was the evolutionary spark which directed towards the development of state and large political units. Conferring to Rubel, this great invention permitted the growth of surplus. This is the same way as villages got bigger till we have actual cities.
When the Natufians began making flatbread, subsequently after about more than 5,000 years, three civilizations i.e. the Egyptians, the Mesopotamians (that was situated in today’s Iraq) and the Harappans (in the Indus Valley, in present Pakistan) were rapidly growing and expanding during the Bronze Age. They are considered to be the largest civilizations that depended on bread in the ancient world. The major content of their food used to be the bread. This was the bread that created the class difference amongst the people. Those having surplus of bread were considered to be the class of artisans.
According to Miller, the first-knowned leavened bread dates back to around 1000 B.C. in Egypt . It was the one made with semi-domesticated yeast. While Rubel says that
the exact origin, as debated by scholars is given by the evidence which suggests that Mesopotamians also produced yeast-risen bread. Thus, we can say that in fact, the invention of yeast-risen bread cannot be clearly related to the history of a specific civilization.
Miller related the Beer to liquid bread telling that both of them have the same ingredients i.e. water, grain, yeast; the difference is just due to proportions of these three ingredients. Referring to a 1994 study published in the journal Egyptian Archeology, both the barley and the emmer wheat were used by Ancient Egyptians in order to brew sour beer and to make sourdough bread. In the era of ancient Egyptians, Beer could also have been made by baking the yeasted dough into the beer loaves, and afterwards decomposing that bread and rinsing it with water. This decomposed and strained bread would then ferment into beer, as described in the book “Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology”.