DESIGN OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN SITIO MIGBANDAY

DESIGN OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN SITIO MIGBANDAY, POBLACION, CLAVERIA, MISAMIS ORIENTAL
A Research Project submitted to the
Civil Engineering Department
College of Engineering and Architecture
University of Science and Technology in southern Philippines
M. Recto Ave., Lapasan, Cagayan de Oro City
In partial fulfillment to the requirements in the Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
Submitted by
Perez, Berwen S.

Remonsada, Harold M.

Sorela, Joanne P.

Wasil, Sean Maico W.

September 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
TITLE PAGE——————————————————————————-i
LIST OF FIGURES———————————————————————–iii
LIST OF TABLES————————————————————————iv
CHAPTER
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study————————————-1
Statement of the Problem————————————2
Objectives of the Study—————————————3
Significance of the Study————————————-3
Scope and Limitation——————————————4
Conceptual Framework—————————————4
Definition of Terms———————————————5
2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 7
3 METHODOLOGY 14
3.1 Research Locale———————————————————-15
3.2 Reconnaissance———————————————————-15
3.3 Collection of Data———————————————————16
3.3.1 Source Profile—————————————————–16
3.3.2 Topography——————————————————–17
3.3.3 Rainfall Data——————————————————-17
3.3.4 Soil Data————————————————————17
3.3.5 Water Demand Ratio——————————————–18
3.3.6 Instrument———————————————————-20
3.4 Design———————————————————————–25
3.4.1 Piping—————————————————————-25
3.4.1.1 Design Specification————————————–25
3.4.1.1.1 Mainline Pipe————————————-25
3.4.1.1.2 Sub-mainline Pipe——————————25
3.4.1.2 Working Pressure—————————————–26
3.4.1.3 Design Pressure——————————————-28
3.4.1.4 Service Factor———————————————-28
3.4.1.5 System Capacity——————————————-28
3.4.1.6 Head Losses————————————————28
3.4.1.7 Design Velocity———————————————28
3.4.1.8 Outlet———————————————————-28
3.4.1.9 Check Value————————————————-29
3.4.1.10 Pressure Relief Valve———————————–29
3.4.1.11 Soil Type and Water Movement———————-29
3.4.2 Tank Storage ——————————————————–31
3.4.2.1 Site Location————————————————-31
3.4.2.2 Tank Size Capacity—————————————-31
3.4.2.3 Design of Walls ——————————————–31
3.4.2.4 Foundation and Flooring Design———————–31
3.4.2.4.1 Foundation—————————————–32
3.4.2.4.2 Flooring———————————————32
3.4.2.5 Column——————————————————–32
3.4.2.6 Inlet————————————————————32
3.4.2.7 Outlet———————————————————-32
3.4.2.8 Structure Resistant to Loads—————————-32
3.4.2.9 Quantity Estimation of Tank—————————–32
3.4.3 Reservoir————————————————————-33
3.4.3.1 Tank Size Capacity—————————————-33
3.4.3.2 Soil Characteristic——————————————33
3.4.3.2.1 Bearing Capacity————————————-34
3.4.3.3 Outlet———————————————————-34
3.4.3.4 Inlet————————————————————-34
3.5 Simulation using EPANET application——————————–35
3.5.1 Design Layout————————————————-36
3.5.2.1 Source——————————————————–36
3.5.2.2 Tank Location———————————————–36
3.5.2.3 Piping Layout————————————————36
3.5.2.4 Design Parameters—————————————–36
3.6 Data Analysis—————————————————————-37
3.7 Result and Evaluation—————————————————–37
3.8 Plans and Estimates——————————————————-37

REFERENCES 38
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1 Conceptual Framework of the Study 4
Component of a Drip Irrigation 8
Flowchart of Activities 14
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
List of Crop Varieties found in Pobalcion, CLaveria, Misamis 14
Oriental and the number of hectares used for planting.

Shows Schedule 40 Dimension 26
Shows Schedule 80 Dimension 26
Shows Schedule 120 Dimension 27
Shows the recommended spacing for basic soil types 29
Shows the emitter length in every gph 30
Estimated Soil Water Holding Capacity 34
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Irrigation is one of the solutions in planting crops especially in the gardens and farmlands. It helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation.

One method used in irrigation system is the drip irrigation, it involves dripping water onto the soil at very low rates (2-20 litres/hour) from a system of small diameter plastic pipes fitted with outlets called emitters or drippers, and it is most suitable for growing row crops such as vegetables.

Use of Drip irrigation lessens the labor and operating cost, lessen the use of water, and maximized the use of water-use efficiency for plants, soil erosion and nutrients leaching is reduced, and lower operating pressure especially to reduce the energy cost for pumping. Drip irrigation systems can apply frequent and small amounts of irrigation water at many points of a field surface/subsurface near the plants (Decroix and Malaval, 1985; Youngs et al., 1999). With drip irrigation, plant water and fertilizer requirements can also be applied to the plant root zone with minimum losses, maintaining steady
moisture in the soil profile. In addition, drip irrigation system has the advantage of fitting to difficult topography (Wei et al., 2003).

In Sitio Migbanday, Claveria, Misamis Oriental, the other source of farmer’s water for their crop production came from springs. Some of them don’t have an irrigation system yet and they manually watered their crops that is mostly classified as high valued crops. The researchers planned to apply the drip irrigation system in the area to help farmer/s to maximize the utilization of water, and to present a way to lessen the manual labor in watering the high value crops.

This research paper presents an alternative and promising solution of irrigation in supplying water for crops through the irrigation system design proposed using EPANE T software.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the problems that the farmers are facing in their farm are the source of water and the water distribution for their crop. In Sitio Migbanday, Claveria, Misamis Oriental, there are portion of the land that the farmers have a problem in ease access of water distribution especially for their high valued crops. They use spring/groundwater as a source. Advanced system for watering the plants has not yet been developed in the area. Some of them watered their crops using hose and manually projected the water flow into the plants.

Researchers wanted to design an irrigation system that can maximize the use of groundwater/spring in Sitio Migbanday for distribution in their crop production.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to design an irrigation system in Sitio Migbanday, Claveria.

This study aims for the following objectives:
1. To gather data necessary for the study such as rainfall, topography, soil map, pipe details, kind of crops, and water demand ratio.

2. To determine the parameters needed for the EPANET application.

3. To make a design layout of irrigation system for EPANET simulation.

1.4 Significance of the Study
This research aims to create a plan for irrigation system for the farmer in Sitio Migbanday specifically to present a design of irrigation system having a complete plan for water distribution for the crops.

Furthermore, this study will benefit the following stakeholders:
The farmer in Sitio Migbanday: Irrigation design for water distribution will affect their crop production and will help them to harvest and lessen the manual effort they exert in their farm.

The Sitio Migbanday Residents: This research will be beneficial for them especially in the availability of the crops produce by the farmer in the area.

The LGU (Local Government Unit): The laid out design and new way of utilizing spring as a source for irrigation can be their reference if they want to implement water distribution to communities, etc.

The Researcher: This study would deviate their interest to discover new ideas that will add to their knowledge and to fully understand the operations to undertake in irrigation system and design. This study will also be a stepping stone for the researcher for their future use as to their employment in order for them to compete to the reality of outside world technology.

1.5 Scope and Limitation
The sources of water which comes from springs only provides low to medium (that occurs in heavy rainfall events) flow rate. Since most of the cultivated lands are located at lower elevations, it is suggested to provide irrigation only on these areas. Any means of distributing it in elevated areas would require water pumps which would not be economical for the proposed irrigation system, and may cause shortage of water supply for irrigation.

1.6 Conceptual Framework
3719015100083002026693100083002047210008400 3877354323215OUTPUT
0OUTPUT
2190750299085METHOD
00METHOD
173421299304INPUT
0INPUT

2190466323405EPANET
00EPANET
3882788350700IRRIGATION SYSTEM
AND
WATER DISTRIBUTION FOR CROP PRODUCTION
00IRRIGATION SYSTEM
AND
WATER DISTRIBUTION FOR CROP PRODUCTION
88710323405Criteria in Designing an Irrigation System
1.Topography
2.Pipe details
3. Kind of crop
4.Water Pressure
5.Water Demand
6. Rainfall Data
00Criteria in Designing an Irrigation System
1.Topography
2.Pipe details
3. Kind of crop
4.Water Pressure
5.Water Demand
6. Rainfall Data

3310255389364016375563733800

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Study
Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of this study. The data’s like topography, pipe details, water pressure, kind of crop, and water demand ratio will be needed in designing an irrigation system, and will be inputted in the EPANET software to have a water distribution and irrigation system for crop production output.

1.7 Definition of Terms
Discharge – is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given cross-sectional area.

Drip Irrigation – is a controlled irrigation method where water is slowly delivered to the root system of multiple plants.
Emitter Device – is basically a low pressure device that emits water close to the individual plant.

EPANET (Environmental Protection Agency Network) – is a public domain, water distribution system modelling software package. It performs extended-period simulation of hydraulic water behaviour within pressurized pipe networks.

Head Loss – a portion of that energy is lost to the resistance to flow due to friction.

Hydraulic Pressure – is a power for each unit in some area.

Irrigation – It is the application of water for plants at controlled intervals.

Nozzle – a cylindrical or round spout attached at the end of a hose, or tube, that is used to control a jet of gas or liquid.

Reservoir – a large tank or natural or artificial lake used for collecting and storing water for human consumption or agricultural use.

Slope – a surface which one side is higher level at the other.

Spring – a source of water that flows out of the ground as a small stream or pool.

Surface – the outside part of something.

Water Scheduling – in irrigation, it is method or process used by irrigation system managers to determine the duration and correct frequency of watering.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter contains related studies that may contribute to the research pertaining to the drip irrigation system design.

2.1 Efficiency of Drip Irrigation
Usage of irrigation water depends on what type of crop you will propagate. Comparing two varieties of crops such as between watermelon, which survives in dry conditions of weather, and tomato, which needs abundant water to produce quality crops, the rate of water demand would depend on what variety of crop you will propagate. Evaluation of actual irrigation system performance control of water is important to maintain the growth of plants. Overwatering or insufficient watering of plants could affect the quality of crops. The type of crop to plant does not seriously give huge impact on the general water consumption, though it can significantly reduce the water use for the plants (Berbel, 2014). Therefore there is an advantage in terms of crop quality when the irrigation system of a certain plantation is properly managed by selecting the appropriate kind of irrigation system to be installed in an area.
Drip irrigation is a way of watering plants from above or below the soil surface directly to its roots by use of pipes with small holes to its sides to water the plant. In this method, water from pipes releases through small emitters or drippers at slow rate of flow over time that lasts several hours. This allows to apply water closest to plants to avoid water loss, but still provides a very favorable moisture in soil that is needed by plants. Drip irrigation system is composed of valves, backflow preventers, pressure regulators, emitters, and filters, which control water discharge, prevent dirt, reduce, release and clean the water, respectively (Mulaveia, 2013). It is advantageous to use in terms of its controlled consumption to water, satisfying water demands of the cultivated area without waste of resource.

-33155812763500
-688783338455Figure 1: Components of a Drip Irrigation Service Line
00Figure 1: Components of a Drip Irrigation Service Line
Wilson and Bauer (2013) stated some advantages and disadvantages of using drip irrigation. One of the advantages of using drip irrigation is the water loss minimization. It mitigates the loss of water because of runoff, wind and evaporation. In some occasions, this type of irrigation is effective during windy periods of the year.

Drip Irrigation removes mold spots on house sidings and damage to wood boundary fences. Water being distributed by drip irrigation stays within the landscape and won’t affect wetting on other parts of the landscape except on the soil nearby the plants.

Chances of repair to service lines with old Galvanized Steel is expelled to the maintenance expenses. Low volume of water needed for drip irrigation avoids corrosion to steel pipes.

It can benefit to people with busy lifestyles, which do not have time to water their cultivated land, because Drip Irrigation is handled by AC or battery powered controllers.

Expansion of cultivated land needs modification of irrigation system, and drip can do these in a more convenient way by repositioning, extending and removing of emitter lines.

However, disadvantages like the probability to cause clogs to emitters, insignificant assurance of water release on emitters, and trip hazards is always present, and the effectiveness of drip irrigation if affected if the installation of service lines is poorly placed.

The usual design of drip irrigation system consists of assembling small pipes, distributing the water source to the located plants, aiming an optimal use of water resource. To further making drip irrigation system feasible for small-scale farmers to plant high quality, and different varieties of crops, Delos Trinos (2018) introduced a large-scale drip irrigation system system applicable for rice planting. It could able to plant even expensive varieties of rice, which serves as a high profit to farmers. This innovation would promote the said irrigation system.

2.2 Groundwater as Irrigation Source
Aquifers hold billions of gallons of water and feed water bodies on the surface. However, the use of these aquifers, including the source coming from springs, can cause some bad effects to groundwater conditions when subjected to excessive pumping. Crops and agricultural practices are one of the impacts that affects the quality of groundwater underneath the soil. The time it takes for deep percolation water from irrigated fields to reach underlying groundwater increases with decreasing particle size of the vadose zone material and increasing depth to groundwater. For average deep percolation rates, decades may be required before the water joins the groundwater. Due to non-uniform irrigation applications and preferential flow, some deep percolation water will reach the groundwater much faster. Dissolved salts, nitrate and pesticides are the chemicals in deep percolation water of main concern in groundwater pollution. Movement of pesticides may be retarded in the vadose zone, but biodegradation may also be slowed due to reduced organic carbon content and microbial activity at greater depths.
2.3 Effect of Slopes and Soil Conditions in Irrigation
Slope or elevated area contributes to the effect of the type of irrigation method used. It is more challenging to attain the good uniformity of water. Applying water effectively and efficiently can be extremely challenging. Too little water and plants would not grow, too much water and other problems arise. Fortunately there are components available that can be used to improve uniformity, therefore it is adaptable to any farmable slope. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the duration and frequency of irrigation to avoid erosion of nutrients in the soil. Also, intensity of emitting water depends on the soil type of the cultivated area. For sandy type of soil, the behavior of water goes directly downward to the soil, so it needs to irrigate more often but emits water in a lesser amount of time. Whereas with the heavy, fine grained soils, water seeps horizontally with the soil surface which then it needs to be irrigated less often but for a longer duration (Mulaveia, 2013). Removal of nutrients from the soil is possible because of the surface runoff from the area.
2.4 Rationale of the Study
Researchers have considered that existing of retention ponds may cause negative impacts to the water quality, including algal blooms and other negative effects. Mitigating these effects on detention ponds could teach us more on how to manage it, and at the same time, could help agricultural lands to improve their irrigation and reduce the effects of using fertilizers in groundwater.

2.5 Application of EPANET for Modelling Water Distribution System
In engineering aspects, especially in plumbing, irrigation, and water resource management, EPANET is one of the software used by civil engineers, master plumbers, and other professionals inclined with the study. EPANET could able to analyze and model pipe networks, simulating the flow of water in every pipe with corresponding pressures and the height of water in every tank. For drip irrigation uses, EPANET provides use in terms of the pipe dimensions of main and submain pipes, by analysis of flow in each pipes, and if the design of pipes would provide the needed pressure for the drip emitters. (Mulaveia, 2013).

2.6 The use of Storage tanks
Keeping a farm irrigated can be a financial nightmare especially since the farm will require many liters of water to keep the plants lush and healthy. Farmers rely heavily on the rainy seasons to ensure that their crops flourish so that they have a harvest at the end of the season. If there is a period of no rain then the crops can either die or they will lose their health. When using rainwater you will be able to save money by using the roofs of your structures to capture the run off. The water that would normally run off the roof and be wasted on the ground will now be captured in the tank and stored for use in the irrigation of crops and other produce.
2.7 Loop Distribution for Irrigation
In terms of sustaining a good quality of irrigating crops, the concept of loop distribution of water is a good concept, especially for the areas that are large enough to water the crops. Thus, design of pipes for distributing water becomes smaller which helps in reducing expenditures for water distribution.

2.8 Open Reservoir
Open Reservoirs could be in any of the three different types: Valley-dammed, Bank side, and Service Reservoirs (Robb, 2018). For small-scale ones which provides lesser discharge, a concrete service reservoir are suitable. It could be made of precast concrete (Russel and Jackson, 2017), bricks, or steel plates, which can be installed elevated or within the surface. (Johnson, Ratnayaka and Brandt, 2017)
CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the process and procedures employed in order to achieve the objectives of the study.
23604282800791360967-10633Reconnaissance
00Reconnaissance

1360805306070Source Profile
Topography
Rainfall Data
Soil Map
Water Demand Ratio
Instrument
00Source Profile
Topography
Rainfall Data
Soil Map
Water Demand Ratio
Instrument
136080523022Collection of Data
00Collection of Data

1358265395767Design
00Design
2349795179749
1360170228127Piping
Tank Reservoir
Open Reservoir
00Piping
Tank Reservoir
Open Reservoir

1360805455768Simulation using EPANET
00Simulation using EPANET
2349795248920
2360428280670
2371061333832136080544612Data Analysis
00Data Analysis

23710603869951360170107788Result and Evaluation
00Result and Evaluation

1360805150022Plans and Cost Estimate
00Plans and Cost Estimate

Fig. 1. Flowchart of Activities
3.1 Research locale
Being known as an agricultural area, Sitio Magbanday, Poblacion, Claveria serves as a crop basket in some areas of Cagayan de Oro City, as well as with other companies which uses raw crops like pineapple, tobacco, banana, and other agricultural products. The cold climate and high elevation of the area suits for the plants to grow, and abundance of groundwater supply such as springs helps to sustain the needs for the crops to grow.
20193056451500Table 3.1: List of Crop Varieties found in Poblacion, Claveria, Misamis Oriental, and the number of hectares used for planting
Retrieved from irrigationtutorials.com
3.2 Reconnaissance
To gain further knowledge on the area, other information such as the chances of planting alternative crops, physical profile of the location where the source of water is located is needed to be determined to set some adjustments on the design of drip tubing and emitter design, and make some assessments on the location of the source, respectively.

Observation of the area shows that the source of water which is a groundwater spring is located in an enclosed area within the area of Sitio Migbanday, Claveria, Misamis Oriental, flowing through the surface, forming a small stream. One of the objectives of the research is to optimize the use of this spring for irrigation purposes by transporting its water through pipes down to a reservoir for storage, then use it to irrigate the agricultural area.

In an interview with one resident in Sitio Migbanday, chances of double cropping are possible, planting multiple varieties of crops in every area. Therefore, adjustments of emitter discharge in every water demand of a crop variety is necessary for every area.
3.3 Collection of Data
The researcher gathers Source profile, topography, soil data, rainfall data, and water demand ratio to come up with the study and used.

3.3.1 Source Profile
The researchers conduct an activity of measuring the discharge of spring through a 1 liter plastic bottle and timer, which will be used to record the time to take until the bottle is at full storage. This process will repeat 3 times to get the average value recorded from the trials made.

History of the said area of water source is one of the information that the researchers need to know. Changes of flow is one of the important factors that needs further understanding. Would this source last its discharge for longer years? This question is needed to be answered through interviews and acquiring of records within the area of source.

3.3.2 Topography
The researcher gathers data of the topography in Claveria Municipality. Where the topography of the area contains the elevations of every station and the arrangement of the natural and artificial physical features of an area.

Rainfall Data
Researcher gathers data from PAGASA.

3.3.4 Soil Data
To perform the determination of soil properties through acquiring the soil map of the area is important for the design of the irrigation system, including the pipe diameter, discharge and spacing of the emitters (Hunter, 2013), through the assistance of LGU’s of Poblacion, Claveria, Misamis Oriental.

If there is no available soil map in the particular area, researchers would perform a method of soil classification (USDA) by determining the properties of soils in the Laboratory (Hunter, 2016).

3.3.5 Water Demand Ratio
Water Demand Ratio is use as a reference data of the volume of water needed for the plants in irrigation system per day, this will give basis to the volume and dimensions of the tank and detention pond used for irrigation. This data is calculated by the used net irrigation requirements of the crops which is
In=ET crop-Pe+Ge+Wb mm/day (eq.1)
Where:
In = net irrigation requirements of the crops
ET crop = Crop water requirements
Pe = Rainfall
Ge = Groundwater contribution
Wb = Stored soil water at the beginning of each period
Crop water requirement is then calculated by the formula,
ET crop=kc*ETo mm/day (eq.2)
Where:
ET crop = Crop water requirements
ETo = Crop evapotranspiration
Kc = Crop coefficients
Crop evapotranspiration is then calculated by the use of Blaney-Criddle Method. Given with thee formula
ETo = cp(0.46T + 8) mm/day (eq.3)
where:
ETo = reference crop evapotranspiration in mm/day for the month
T = mean daily temperature in degree Celsius over the month
p = mean daily percentage of total annual daytime hours
c = adjustment factor which depends on minimum relative humidity,
Sunshine hours and daytime wind estimates
The project irrigation supply requirements (V) can be obtained from:
v=10EpinA*In1-LR (eq.4)
Where:
Ep = project irrigation efficiency, fraction
A = acreage under a given crop, ha
In = net water requirements of given crop, ram/month
LR = leaching requirements, fraction
3.3.6 Instrument
3.3.6.1 Hydraulics Calculations
Hazen-William Formula:
(eq.5)
Where:Q = Flow (l/s)
L = Length of pipe (m)
C = Hazen Williams roughness
D = Pipe internal diameter (mm)
3.3.6.2 Efficiency Calculations
Potential soil moisture deficit (PSMD) – Is a measure for moisture stress that is experienced by a plant or crop. This can be calculated using:
PSMD = SMD ? Dc SMD ; Dc : (eq.6)
Where:
PSMD = Potential soil moisture deficit in any period where the SMD;Dc
SMD = Soil moisture deficit
Dc = Critical deficit
Seasonal potential soil moisture deficit (PSMDseason) – The Seasonal PSMD can be calculated from the soil moisture budgets by getting all the sum of deficits below the critical deficit (or MAD):
PSMDseason = ?(PSMD1 : PSMD PSMDn) (eq.7)
Where:
PSMDseason = Seasonal potential soil moisture deficit
PSMD1 = Potential soil moisture deficit in the first period
PSMDn = Potential soil moisture deficit in the nth period
Seasonal deep percolation (SDP) – This includes all drainage from irrigation or precipitation. This can be estimated from the balance of water not retained in the root zone and can be calculated after any surface losses have been accounted for.
SDP = ?(DP1 : DPn) (eq.8)
Where:
SDP = Seasonal deep percolation
DP = Deep percolation in periods 1 to n
Seasonal irrigation deep percolation (SDPi) – Seasonal deep percolation resulting from irrigation is a measure of the amount of irrigation water applied that drains from the soil profile. It is, in effect, seasonal application in-efficiency.
SDPi = (1 – SAE) (eq.9)
Where:
SDPi = Seasonal deep percolation from irrigation
SAE = Seasonal application efficiency
Drought induced yield loss (YLdi) – It is calculated from potential yield or client expected yield, drought response factor, and the PSMD using:
YLdi = Ypot x PSMD x Fdr (eq.10)
Where:
YLdi = Drought induced yield loss
Ypot = Potential yield (t/ha)
PSMD = Potential soil moisture deficit (mm)
Fdr = Drought response factor (%yield / mm PSMD)
Value of lost yield (YLv) – The lost yield value can be determined from the crop value and the amount of lost yield:
YLv = Price x YLdi (eq.11)
Where:
YLv = The value of lost yield ($/ha)
YLdi = Drought-induced yield loss
Price = Price paid per unit yield
3.3.6.2 Base Calculations
Coefficient of variation (Cv) – Is a statistical measure of variation within a sample, and can be calculated using:
(eq.12)
Where:
Cv = Coefficient of variation
s = Standard deviation in the sample
x = Mean value from the sample
Standard deviation from the mean (s)
(eq.13)
Where:
xi = Performance of an individual within the sample
i = Number assigned to identify a particular individual
n = Number of individuals in the sample
Emitter pressure flow relationship – Is the relationship between the flow rate and emitter operating pressure. It can be calculated using:
q = Kd px (eq.14)
Where:
q = Emitter flow rate
Kd = Emitter discharge coefficient
p = Operating pressure
x = Emitter discharge exponent
Emitter discharge exponent – This can be determined using the formula (DAM):
(eq.15)
Where:
x = Emitter discharge exponent
p1 and p2 = Pressures
q1 and q2 = Flows at p1 and p2 respectively
Emitter discharge coefficient (Kd) –It is determined from the rearranged pressure flow equation:
(eq.16)
Where:
Kd = The emitter discharge coefficient
q = flow
p = Pressure
Distribution uniformity (DUlq) – This adopts the low quarter distribution uniformity ratio. The formula for the low quarter distribution uniformity coefficient is:
(eq.17)
Where:
DUlq = Lowest quarter distribution uniformity coefficient
Vlq = Average volume (or alternatively the mass or depth) of water collected in the lowest quarter of the field
V = Average volume (or alternatively mass or depth) of water collected by all collectors used in the data analysis
Design
Designing structure is performed by the used of collected of data that will give basis to the design of the pipes connected from the source to the open reservoir, main pipes from the open reservoir to the storage tanks of each farm land and sub-main pipes for distribution from the storage tanks to the crops.

3.4.1 Piping
The pipe in the distribution system must be evaluated for the design purposes. The type of pipe to be use is polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

3.4.1.1 Design Specification
Design Specifications would be based on the ISO Standards for Irrigation
3.4.1.1.1 Mainline Pipe
Pipe fittings for the mainline pipes shall be based according to the design velocity required for the supply of water to be discharged for irrigation.
3.4.1.1.2 Sub-mainline Pipe
Pipe fittings for the sub-mainline pipes shall be based according to the design velocity required for the supply of water to be discharged for irrigation.

3.4.1.2 Working Pressure
The pipeline shall have a pressure class rating greater than the state of working pressure plus surge at any point.
Table 3.2 shows Schedule 40 Dimension.

Table 3.3 shows Schedule 80 Dimension.

Table 3.4 shows Schedule 120 Dimension.

All the tables shown above are retrieved from
https://www.professionalplastics.com/professionalplastics/PVCPipeSpecifications.pdf
3.4.1.3. Design Pressure
Considering that the Pipe Distribution System for drip Irrigation is planned to be gravity-fed, the location of the pump should be in a higher elevation than the land to be cultivated, and can sustain enough pressure to distribute water to all drip pipes then to the emitters. The Design Pressure for the drip irrigation is 25 psi.

Service Factor
All pressure ratings are being determined in water environment of 23+/-2 deg C.

System Capacity
The design capacity of the pipeline shall be sufficient to provide an enough water for the irrigation.

Head Losses
Headloss in mainline should not be more than 5 meters and 1.5 meter in sub mainlines. It can be calculated using Hazen-William formula.

Design Velocity
Maximum permissible velocity is 2m/s, and can be calculated using Hazen William formula.

Outlet
Outlet shall have the capacity to deliver the design flow of water to the distribution system.

Check Valve
Check valve shall be installed in tank discharge, open reservoir, and in the pipeline. Check valve shall be designed to close without slumming shut at the point of zero velocity of water to prevent damaging the flow of water.

Pressure Relief Valve
Pressure relief valve shall be installed before the check valve to maintain the design pressure of the water. It shall be designed to pass the full tank discharge with a pressure no greater than 5 psi (0.345 kg/cm2) above the pressure rating of the pipe.

Soil Type and Water Movement
The soil texture affects the movement of the water. The flow rate of the emitter, spacing, and line spacing must be adjusted to compensate.

Table 3.4 shows the recommended spacing for basic soil types.

Table 3.5 shows the emitter length in every gph.

Storage Tank
In reducing chances of shortage for irrigation, implementation of Storage tanks is designed for consistent water supply distribution.

Site Location
The type and shape of reservoir is determined by basing on what type area and where it is located.

Tank Size Capacity
Size of the tank is designed according the total daily volume available as per crop water requirements. This can be calculated using (eq. 4).

Design of walls
The most common used in construction materials for the walls PCC (Portland Cement Concrete).

The walls of the tank shall and could be subjected to three loading conditions:
Pressure from the earthen backfill on the outside of the tank,
Pressure from the inside of the tank which is the water pressure, and
Other temporary loading such as earthquake.

Foundation and Flooring design
The design of foundation and flooring should be subjected to loading condition:
Foundation
The pressure from the earthen material on the outside surface of the foundation.

Flooring
The Pressure from the water inside the tank
3.4.2.5 Column
The design for column shall be sufficient enough to carry the tank and to maintain the elevation to attain the desired pressure head for the distribution system.

Inlet
The opening of the pipe from the source to then tank shall be sufficient enough to sustain the adequate amount of water to pass.

Outlet
The opening of discharge pipe shall be sufficient enough to have an adequate amount of water to flow.

3.4.2.8 Structure Resistant to Loads
The structure is designed to resist loads such as earthquake and wind loads.

3.4.2.9 Quantity Estimation of Tank
The calculations of these quantities are based on the following assumptions:
All concrete is 1:3:6 mix.
All mortar and plaster is 1:4 mix.
These calculations do not include allowances for losses (wastages). Losses can vary considerably from place to place and the given situation and/or conditions in which the construction takes place.
Reservoir
A design of the reservoir will be included in the planning process, including the volume of water that it can hold and the materials needed for the structure. Also, the location of the open reservoir is important for a more efficient storage for water to be used for irrigation.
Size Capacity
The Size Capacity of the Reservoir will depend on the calculation of supply and the rate of shortage of the water distribution system for drip irrigation.

Soil Characteristic
One of the factors to consider in the water demand for irrigation is the Soil Water Holding Capacity. Table shows the different Estimated Soil Water Holding Capacity in every soil class. Researchers will use this information for estimating the spacing and the discharge of every emitter for drip irrigation
Table: Estimated Soil Water Holding Capacity

Bearing Capacity
It is included in the plans to create a suitable foundation design for the reservoir. Determining the Ultimate Bearing Capacity of the Soil in the area is important for an optimum and economical construction for foundations, by getting the properties of soil in the area, held in a Laboratory Testing.

Outlet
Design of outlets should be enough to transport the water to the emitters. Basis of design is from the ISO Standards for Irrigation.
Inlet
Design of inlets will be based on the plans as indicated by the researchers. It will be based probably on the design velocity for the pipelines.
Simulation using EPANET application
952558420EPANET Parameters
Elevation (topography)
Pipe (diameter and length)
Hazen William Formula
Manning’s Formula
Water Demand Ratio
Pressure
Time Set (Hydraulic and Pattern)
00EPANET Parameters
Elevation (topography)
Pipe (diameter and length)
Hazen William Formula
Manning’s Formula
Water Demand Ratio
Pressure
Time Set (Hydraulic and Pattern)

Network Model9525183515Pipes
Length
Diameter
Material
Construction Year
Water Sources (Tank Reservoir)
Head
Elevation

00Pipes
Length
Diameter
Material
Construction Year
Water Sources (Tank Reservoir)
Head
Elevation

15766162407Water Level – Volume
Min. and Max Water Level
Valves
Type (flow control, pressure reducing or sustaining)
Diameter
Setting (l/s or m)
Junction/ Water Use or Demand
Water use
Demand Pattern
Average Demand
Elevation

00Water Level – Volume
Min. and Max Water Level
Valves
Type (flow control, pressure reducing or sustaining)
Diameter
Setting (l/s or m)
Junction/ Water Use or Demand
Water use
Demand Pattern
Average Demand
Elevation

The EPANET application is used as a model of the distribution systems analysis for the design structure.It perform the calculation by its hydraulic modeling capabilities of the friction headloss and performs the extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within pressurized pipe networks. A network that consists of pipes, nodes (pipe junctions), pumps, valves and storage tanks or reservoirs. It also tracks the flow of water in each pipe, the pressure at each node, the height of water in each tank.
Design Layout
Source
The source of this study which is the spring is first laid in the system design in EPANET software.

Tank Location
Determining the specified location of tank for the design water distribution system in the EPANET software.
Piping layout
Layouting and arranging the pipeline according to the design layout of the plan on the EPANET software.

Design Parameters
Assigning and inputting the EPANET parameters needed and making design model in the software as shown above for the EPANET simulation purpose.

3.5 Data Analysis
This is the process of analyzing the model of the distribution systems by the EPANET application. This will be used as a reference of the possible design structure of the Irrigation system at Sitio Migbanday, Poblacion, Claveria, Misamis Oriental.
3.6 Result and Evaluation
The analyzed and calculated data is used as a reference for the evaluation of the results. This represents the designing plan strategy which is a method of aiming a good quality of an ideal surface drip irrigation design that suites the environment and water needs for plants in the specified location.

3.7 Plans and Estimates
The materials such as pipes, materials for concrete tank, and materials such as valves are estimated for the total cost of the design.

REFERENCES
Berbel, A., Marín, A., ; Expósito M. (2018). Microeconomic analysis of irrigation efficiency improvement in water use and water consumption BIBLIOGRAPHY
Burt, E., Clemmens, S., ; Strelkof L. (2014) Irrigation Performance Measures: Efficiency and Uniformity.

Cahn, M. (2008). Improving irrigation uniformity of drip systems on sloped fields.
Chretien, D., Gagnon, L., Theriault, G., ; Guillou V. (2016). Performance Analysis of a Wet Retention Pond in a Small Agricultural Catchment. Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 142
Decroix, M ; Malaval, A. (1985). Laboratory evaluation of trickle irrigation equipment for field system design. Proceedings of the third International Drip/Trickle Irrigation Congress, Volume 1, pp. 325-338.

Doorenbos, M., ; Bruitt G. (2013). Guidelines for predicting crop water requirements.

Gimeno, B., Provenzano, L., de León, et. Al. (2014). Assessment of yield and water productivity of clementine trees under surface and subsurface drip irrigation. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325464922_Assessment_of_yield_and_water_prodproducti_of_clementine_trees_under_surface_and_subsurface_drip_irrigation
Hunter, G.R. (2016). Drip Irrigation Design ; Installation Guide.

Irrigation Code of Practice and Irrigation Design Standards. (2007, March). Retrieved from https://irrigationexpress.co.nz/media/wysiwyg/pdfs/irrigation_Code_of_Practice.pdfJohnson, M.,Ratnayaka, D.D. ; Brandt M.J. (2017). Twort’s Water Supply
Le, M.G. (2011). Detention Ponds in Agricultural Fields
Pipe Distribution System for Irrigation. (1998, September). New Delhi.

Robb, A. (2018). What is Reservoir? – Definition, Formation and Charateristics
Song, W., Oxley, Ma (2018). What determines irrigation efficiency when farmers face extreme weather events? Journal of Integrative Agriculture, pp. 1888-1899.

Tsavdaris Z., Williams, L., & Mitchell, G. (2013). An experimental evaluation of sustainable drainage systems. Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering,
Wei Z., Tang Y., W. Zhao & Lu, Z. (2003). Rapid development technique for drip irrigation emitters. Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 9, pp. 104-110.

Zarian C. (2018). A homegrown drip Irrigation System. Retrieved from agriculture.com.ph/2018/04/29/a-home-grown-drip-irrigation-system