Community Development Review
Community Development Review
The article explains development of the community, starting from early self-efforts in community organization, social work, government thrust and university. It explains the purpose of major organization, literature and individuals in growth of the field.
Organizations emerged in the post-civil war working towards improving rural life. According to the author radical agrarian mood had increased which was a way of responding to the farm crisis (Coleman, 2009). There were several reports that were written on community development, one was of Bailey that recommended “establishment of a nationwide extension workforce without which no college of agriculture can adequately serve its state”.
Smith Lever Act established Cooperative Extension service to compliment the Department of state land-grant colleges and department of Agriculture. The report recommended a bill that aimed at establishing the extension of the entire nation by providing at least a single trained administrator or teacher for every agricultural county who must provide direction and leadership in all rural activities including economic, financial and social. (Ferrari 2012) he individual was to take over leadership in every movement. The objective was to improve farming, more happiness, better living, better citizenship and more education.
The rural community organization
The country life commission discovered that lack of organization was a major problem in the report of 1909. In 1923 Smith in his report had stated that all extension programs should be based on local community analysis. Many communities had clubs or local committees that were to join extension agent in working out and developing local plans of work. Successful efforts involved local people specifically in developing appropriate program and identifying needs.
It played a big role in supporting community development and contributed greatly in developing it as a field of practice and study. The NUEA established a committee on community organization in 1948 and community development division. The adult education has been supporting and advocating community development for a long period (Green, 2015).
Several universities supported the community development service and education. The pioneers of this program included Nova Scotia, and St. Francis University. Not all university based community development were practice oriented. Community development work was done by land-grant universities.
Other community developments included the following; institutionalized community development, state sponsored programs recognized by several states. The community development literature which emerged in 1940s. Community development society which was established in Columbia in order to provide teachers and practitioners of community development. Christian community development association based in Chicago. And finally the Federal government thrusts which was a major involvement of federal government (Leiner, 2009).
Weakness of the community development programs
Although the community development programs played a crucial role in the United States going by the article on History of Community, but according to my analysis it had several weaknesses as follows;
They discouraged the participation of citizens so as to meet legal requirements.
Those programs discouraged integrated development approach and holistic view of the community.
Community development programs created dependency on federal government for finance.
They interfered with the priority of local funds instead of going for the priority needs and other important priorities, they were used in these projects instead of using them in right projects.
Coleman, K., Austin, B. T., Brach, C., & Wagner, E. H. (2009). Evidence on the Chronic Care Model in the new millennium. Health affairs, 28(1), 75-85.
Ferrari, M., & Quaresima, V. (2012). A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application. Neuroimage, 63(2), 921-935.
Green, G. P., & Haines, A. (2015). Asset building & community development. Sage publications.
Leiner, B. M., Cerf, V. G., Clark, D. D., Kahn, R. E., Kleinrock, L., Lynch, D. C., … & Wolff, S. (2009). A brief history of the Internet. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 39(5), 22-31.