Children not yet developedwhich can cause a delay
Children with Down Syndrome andtheir DevelopmentalMilestones typical child cognitive skills infant toddler child child with down syndrome -Comprehends less than 2-4 words -Notices when caregiver speaks, but does not yetunderstand simple reprimands such as “no” -Comprehends approximately 10-15 words -Recognize familiar faces and sounds -Respond to environment with facial expressions -Begins to understand object permanence (9-12months) -Enjoys looking through picture books -Counting -Identify familiar objects and people in books -Knows the difference between “me” and “you” -Sorting (shape, color, size) -Able to complete 3-4 piece puzzles -Manipulate lids and door handles -Can copy a circle -Builds 6+ block tower -Motor-speech area of the brain not yet developedwhich can cause a delay in speech -Comprehends around 40-60 words -Use of gestures develops -Begins asking “why” questions to better understandsomething -longer attention span (5-10 minutes) -Ability to tell someone where they live -Rhyming -Can draw pictures of familiar places and things -Engages in short (often 2-word) conversations -Recognizes familiar symbols (stop sign, restaurants,etc.) -Counting to 10 Sensory and perceptual skills infant toddler child -Mature hearing -Track objects with eyes -Looks at hands -Responds to sounds and voices -Visual problems -Hearing loss (~? of children with Down Syndrome) -Sporadic reactions to sound -Reacts to extreme temperature changes -Enjoys “messy” play -Copies sounds that are made -Recognizes common dangers (glass, hot objects,stairs) -Starts to hold eye contact -Frequently watches other children -Feeds self without difficulty -Able to sit and pay attention for an extended periodof time -Most have 20/20 vision at this point -Begin to visually recognize environmental cues andsymbols Language skills infant toddler child -Baby will engage in ‘joint attention-baby will look atthe same thing caregiver is looking at purposefully -Caregiver engaging in play activities and bookreading with baby encourages them to speak faster -Reacts to sound -Turns head towards sound source -Babbles -Waves ‘bye’ -Usually does not babble until 10-12 months -Understands less than 2-4 words around 6-10months -Does not always turn head towards sound source -Their First oral word is usually between 11-15months -produces 50 words -Says own name on request -Asks for ‘more’ -Answers to ‘where?’ and ‘what?’ questions -Listens to longer stories -Begins to use adjectives -Comprehends 100-125 words -Produces 3-6 oral words around age 2 -Follows one step commands -Initiates vocalizations to others -Imitates familiar sounds and actions -Produces animal noises -Acknowledges others with eye contact -Follows instructions with 2-3 steps -Can name a majority of objects -Can state their name, if they are a boy or girl, andtheir age -Can name their friends -Says words like ‘i’ ‘me’ and ‘you’ -Can carry on a conversation using 2 to 3 sentences -Understands 250-400 words -Produces 90-150 words -Begins two word 'sentences' -Can name some colors -Can count some objects -Can carry out two stage commands -Pays attention to longer stories Gross motor skills infant toddler child -Turns their head towards colors that are bright -Pushes down on legs when feet are on hard surface -Can hold their head up and steady -Reaches for objects, can pick them up -Plays with their feet when laying on back -Can have hypotonicity -Can hold head steady at 5 months -Can move in and out of sitting -Pulling to stand and standing -Self-feeding -Release of objects -Eye-hand coordination -Pushes self to stand -Stands unassisted -Walks with support -Ability to navigate in the environmentindependently -Can walk on level, graded, or uneven surfaces -Can climb stairs -Walks unassisted -Walks up steps with help Eryn Lobo Tori Hudgings Emily Lawson Jessica KirkFine motor skills infant toddler child -Imitate adults using a cup or telephone -Wave bye-bye -Puts objects in a container -Pulls off shoes, socks, and mittens -Can point to a picture that you name in a book -Makes marks on paper with crayons -Feed themselves with a spoon to feed themselves(not necessarily neatly) -When playing with a book, turns pages, althoughmay turn two or three pages together -Can put on their shoes -Grasp object -Hold bottle independently -Self feed with fingers -Scribble with crayons -Intentionally drop objects – Eat with spoon -Reaches for objects and picks them up -Helps hold the bottle during feeding -Uses fingers to point at things -Floppy not due to weakness -Clinodactyly -Attempts to draw a person has a two-dimensionalbody (e.g a circle instead of a stick for a body) -Can print some letters (if taught) -Use fork, spoon and (sometimes) a table knife -Can dress and undress without help -When playing with a book, can turn one page at atime -Drink with open cup -Eat with fork Social/emotional skills and participation infant toddler child -Respond to their parent’s voice -Becomes quiet in response to sound, especially tospeech -Makes sounds with expression as if trying to talk -Attempts to imitate sounds when engaged in vocalplay with parent -Lets you know if they are happy or sad -On track with typical development -Play peek-a-boo and patty cake -Makes “ma-ma” or “da-da” sounds -Wave bye-bye -Points to things they want and tries to use words toask for things -Plays with other children for a few minutes -Demands a lot of your attention -Shows affection -On track with typical development -More open display of feelings -Fantasy play -Understand the concept of counting and may knowa few numbers (e.
g understands ‘you can only haveone’) -On track with typical development -Participate in sports by school age -High rates of provocative behavior -Low levels of aggression -Disobedient/ argumentative ADL/iADL skills infant toddler child -Dependent for all hygiene -May begin to enjoy bathing -Begins to hold onto bottle -Can feed with fingers -Sucks on solid food rather than chewing -Due to hypotonia and weakness of the muscles ofthe cheeks, tongue and lips, feeding is difficult forsome infants with Down syndrome. OTs suggestpositioning and feeding techniques. -Sitting to look at a book independently -Unbuttoning large buttons -Tolerating a range of different textured foods -Distinguishing between urination and bowelmovements, and names correctly -Using a napkin to wipe face and hands -Feeding self simple meals using a fork or spoon -Taking shoes and socks off -Knowing where familiar items are kept -Attempting to brush teeth -Feeding self without difficulty -Tolerating different clothing textures, seams, tags -Independently packing items away -Using a napkin to wipe face and hands -Can chew solid food and suck through a straw withassistance -Hold bottle independently -Self feed with fingers -Scribble with crayons -Toileting independently -Brushing teeth independently -Dressing and undressing self (only requiringassistance with laces, buttons, and other fasteners inawkward places) -Begins brushing teeth and wiping nose -Combs/brushes hair -Eat with spoon and fork -Drink with open cup -Toilet train -Dressing with assistance Play skills infant toddler child -Can hold toys and shake them -Can swing at dangling toys -Play contently with family in the room -Plays give and take -Interacts briefly with other infants -Listens to stories -Will engage with parent -May be able to blow bubbles -Engaging in imaginative play -Enjoying/tolerating messy play -Taking Turns during play -Begins peer interaction -Imitative play -Can enjoy solitary play -Will listen to simple stories and point at the pictures -Usually has a favorite toy and will seek or request itwith gestures -Brings objects to show others -Works puzzles and blocks -Enjoys physical play -Prefers to play with other children -Pretend play becomes more abstract and an objectcan be used to represent something else — a blockcan become a phone, a large box can become a car, aswing can become a space ship .
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