Chapter 3 Material and Method
3.1 Research Methodology
This study has been carried out on a Descriptive Design . It deals with the textual elaboration of novel Wintergirls by Laurie Halse Anderson. Some aspects of psychoanalysis have been considered to analyze this text, the psychodynamic study of Neuroses an important aspect of psychoanalysis. This study is qualitative in nature. This study has been carried out through a note reading of selected novel. There are two types of data collection sources, primary and secondary sources The secondary sources are taken from some critical works, previous study and some books that concern with the novel and the psychodynamic study of Neuroses. Related reviews and commentaries appearing on internet have been taken into consideration. Various other research attempts , just lika a research paper, Journals, scholarly article and digital. Resources such as PDF files have been consulted. In this study the method of collecting data is library. Library research work through many books and articles that support the topic and technique of taking notes. It is analyzed by using psychodynamic study of Neuroses, the cause, the state and the impact of physical and mental disturbance in person’s life.
3.2 Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework that has been selected for the present research is based on Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis to explore the aspect of general theory of Neuroses that leads towards the internal and external state of character’s mind and body. This framework focus on the Fried’s revolutionary theory of psychoanalysis, this theory reveals the great idea of human personality of their behavior mental and physical state.The fundamental principles of psychoanalysis are developed. Many criticism and strengths of various aspects examines the Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis. It is comprehensive with respect to its weakness and strength that innovative the test of time. Many authors intends these theory as great idea of personality. As a therapy, psychoanalysis is a term that adults are unaware the factors of their thoughts, emotions and behavior. Sometimes these conscious and unconscious factors leads a person to unhappiness which expressed through various symptoms, including disturbing personality of human in self esteem and general disposition.
Psychoanalytical treatment uses to analyze the unconscious factors effect behavior patterns, relationship and metal situation. Psychoanalysis is a term of stage of growth and development. It is a general theory of human behavior and personality. It is used to explain the relationship between body and mind,also described the role of illness in mental and physical health. Many critics praise regarding over psychoanalysis. Freud known as the founder of psychoanalysis. All psychologist known that this idea is based on psychological treatment. Sigmund Freud was the first psychologist who introduced the idea of emotions with respect to conscious and unconscious state of mind . He works on the internal state of mind. Freud’s idea relates the mental thoughts and emotional state of personality. Psychoanalysis began in 1925, it was established around the world in flourishing movement. Today most of psychologists believed that psychoanalysis is more effective way of interpret the idea of human mind .Freud explain psychoanalysis with these three forces the id, the ego, andthe super ego. The id has a quality of being unconscious that everything has at birth is present(Freud 14). The ego has a quality of being conscious and it is responsible for controlling the demands of the id ,that between id and external world(Freud 15). The ego is the adaptation of flight, while the super ego is a demand by id that and it is responsible for the satisfaction and clarification of others such as parents, teachers, role models , racial and social cultural tradition(Freud 15). The two basic tendency are Eros ( love ) and the death. The purpose of Eros is to built and save unity through relationship and the death is used to demolish the unity as in form of destruction. These tendency are opposite or combine to each other through attraction.
Freud introduces the sexual relationship and development with the passage of time as there are four sexual phases of development are Oral phase, Anal phase,the phallic phase and the genital phase and each phase is characterized by specific development. In oral phase the individual places emphasis the satisfaction for the needs of mouth, which emerges as the first erotogenic zone (Freud 24). During the Anal phase , satisfaction comes out through aggression. During the Phallic state the adults enters the Oedipus state where a boy/girl feels fear from his father and fantasizing sexually relations with his/her mother, from phallic stage the period of sexuality begins in human body as in form of emotions. Finally the genital state is completely leads towards sexuality and urges to complete this pleasure . it also known as homosexuality.
The basic objective of psychoanalysis is to remove neuroses because to cure the patients by giving them normal state. As analysis there is positive and negative responses of emotions. Psychoanalysis based on several steps like free association, Interpretation, transference and patient slips and parapraxes (Freud 56). Evaluating the criticism on psychoanalysis. Criticism on Freud evidence, technique ,principles of psychoanalysis, strength of psychoanalysis. The entire psychoanalytical theory is fundamental, it is used to critically observe the mind of human personality. Free association is a method to interpret the mental state of mind .in which he explains the theory of dreams. Eysenck (1986) remark to maintain :
” I have always taken it for granted that the obvious failure of Freudian therapy to significantly improve on spontaneous remission or treatment is clearer proof we inadequacy of Freudian theory,closed followed by success of alternative method of treatment , such as behavior therapy”.
Beystehner’s article.”Psychoanalysis: Freud revolutionary approach to human personality” in his article , hi various reviews of psychoanalysis and criticism on psychoanalysis, he says the collection of data of Freud is lack of data.Free association , according To Grunbaum (1986) , is ” not a valid method of accessing the patients, repressed actual memories because there is no way of ensuring that analyst is capable of distinguishing between the patients actual memories and imagine memories leading questions” ( 226). He wants to described that error occurring in sexual relations. Psychoanalysis is a theory that shouldn’t b deny. Plaut assets that many modern analyst marrying by Freudian way.Nathan Jones argued that it is good attempt to analyze Freudian theory because it is great idea of presenting thoughts. Despite many critics views on psychology the author believes that Freud idea is not overlooked. She was inspired by theory of Freud which gives many other ideas of personality.