CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1. Biogas is a combustible mixture of gases. It consists mainly of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and is formed from the anaerobic bacterial decomposition of organic compounds, i.e. without oxygen. The gases formed are the waste products of the respiration of these decomposer microorganisms and the composition of the gases depends on the substance that is being decomposed. If the material consists of mainly carbohydrates, such as glucose and other simple sugars and high-molecular compounds (polymers) such as cellulose and hemicellulose, the methane production is low. However, if the fat content is high, the methane production is likewise high. Methane – and whatever additional hydrogen there may be – makes up the combustible part of biogas. Methane is a colourless and odourless gas with a boiling point of -162°C and it burns with a blue flame. Methane is also the main constituent (77-90%) of natural gas.
2. People have known of the existence of naturally produced biogas since the 17th Century and experiments with the construction of actual biogas systems and plants started as early as the mid-19th Century. One of the oldest biogas systems is the septic tank, which has been used for the treatment of wastewater since the end of the 19th Century and is still used for isolated properties where there is no sewerage system. In this type of plant the biogas is, however, not collected and used. In the 1890s, the Englishman Donald Cameron constructed a special septic tank, from which the gas was collected and used for street lighting. In Denmark, the construction of biogas plants for wastewater treatment started in the 1920s.
3. The gas was initially used to heat the plant’s digestor tank and the main purpose was therefore not to extract energy, but to decompose organic matter in the wastewater and thus reduce and stabilize the sludge, which is a product of the treatment process. In the following period and until shortly after the Second World War, there was a substantial growth in the biogas industry, particularly in Germany, Britain and France, and the technology also gradually found its way into agriculture with energy production as the main purpose. At the end of the 1950s, development nearly stopped, however, due to the cheapness of the fossil fuels oil and gas. The interest in biogas was not reawakened until the mid 1970s following the oil crisis in 1973.
4. The Danish state initiated a research and development programme with the aim of testing and constructing different types of biogas plants using animal manure as the main source of biomass. Today there are about 60 biogas facilities installed at sewage treatment plants. In addition, around 20 communal biogas plants of various sizes have been constructed to treat manure, slurry in particular, from a number of livestock farms. These biogas plants also take in large amounts of organic waste from the food industry and slaughterhouses, whereby the energy from the waste is extracted and the nutrients recycled to the agricultural sector. On top of this, there are approximately 60 on-farm facilities and a number of biogas plants associated with landfill sites and with different industries that produce waste water with a high organic content. From the mid 1990s, the expansion of the biogas sector once again stagnated in Denmark due to lack of economic incentives. But with the political agreement in Folketinget in 2008 on an energy policy promoting green energy and on a better price for electricity produced from biogas, the sector is slowly starting to wake up again (Peter Jacob Jørgensen, PlanEnergi and Researcher, 2009).
5. Biogas is produced naturally in swamps, bogs, rice paddies and in the sediment at the bottom of lakes and oceans where anaerobic conditions prevail at a certain depth. Methane is also created in the rumen of ruminant animals (cows, sheep, deer, camels, lamas, etc.). Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It is organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. Biomass comes in different forms. The most common forms in Sri Lanka are, fuel wood, municipal waste, industrial waste and agricultural waste. When these organic products are burned, they turn back into energy. Utilization of biomass for electricity generation is gaining a new momentum in Sri Lanka. (Mallawatantri, 2013) The concept of biomass based electricity generation, commonly referred to as Dendro, holds much promise to Sri Lanka. Biomass is one of common source energy supply in the country, with the majority usage coming from the domestic sector for cooking purposes. (Wijewardana, 2007).
6. In Sri Lanka, the natural vegetation covers an area of 2047 million hectares which is 30.93% of the land area and Sri Lanka being a tropical country receives maximum solar insolation of 1000W/m2. Paddy, tea, rubber and coconut are major agricultural crops in Sri Lanka. Nearly 80% of energy from biomass resources are mainly derived from non-forests resources viz. tea, rubber, coconut plantations and home gardens. Sri Lanka Energy Balance Report 2012 highlighted a total of 13 million tons of biomass (plant material) from vegetation and plantation crops in Sri Lanka. The total extent of degraded land is estimated to be around 2 million hectares which could be utilized to grow short rotation crops for power generation. A study on the potential of biogas from biomass sources (Human waste, municipal solid waste, landfills, livestock waste, agricultural waste, plantation industries) in Sri Lanka carried out by Intermediate Technology Group (Sri Lanka) estimates a total power generation potential of 288 MW of which includes 86 MW from livestock waste. A report on biogas potential in Sri Lanka prepared by Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy, India estimate 3600 million m3 ?annum with the possibility of 3 million family-sized bio gas plants. (IDEA, 2003).
7. There are 90% of the population use biomass and 73 % of the biomass used is in the domestic sector mainly for cooking. Rural and small-scale industries use 27% of biomass. Biomasses the major energy source for cooking and industries. Nearly 80% the household use inefficient cooking methods such as the open fire or traditional stoves. Only 20 % use “Anagi” (The most popular Improved Cook stove in Sri Lanka is marketed under the trade name “Anagi”) stoves or other improved stoves. In addition to cooking, biomass in many cases is used inefficiently to sustain a wide variety of livelihoods and survival activities covering many cottage and small scale income generating activities. (IDEA, 2003).
8. In the long term, it is desirable that bioenergy systems become self-sustaining. This requires projects to be commercially viable and risk resilient. The prospects of this are maximized if bioenergy development builds on previous experience, operates with robust business models and builds capacity and resilience. To maximize chances of success it is important to have an idea of what bioenergy and other energy projects have been implemented within Sri Lanka more generally. This should include both successful and unsuccessful projects so that can may learn from previous experiences, avoiding mistakes and learning from best practice.
9. Therefore, since biomass is one of common source energy supply in the country, and due to the increasing prices of imported petroleum-based energy sources (LP Gas) and scarcity of natural energies (fire wood), it mandates to search and adopt an alternative method to generate energy to fulfil the future requirements in the Sri Lanka Army.

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1.1 Background of the study
10 Kitchen refuse and other garbage sources in the Sri Lanka Army camps present a disposal problem. Cooking in the Sri Lanka army is done using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (cylinder) and local burning items (wood) in low efficiency stoves that cause large energy losses as well as health hazards to cooking personal. Moreover, army supply can provide only limited Liquefied Petroleum Gas cylinders annually for camps since it’s more expensive.
11. Bioenergy systems are designed primarily to produce renewable energy which is low carbon and minimizes environmental impacts. When implemented appropriately, bioenergy can enhance food production by using wastes and residues, recycling nutrients and generating energy. Potential issues may arise where land for biomass competes with food, biodiversity is compromised, feedstocks are intensively produced, greenhouse gas (GHG) savings are negligible, or other environmental impacts arise. It is therefore critical that bioenergy systems are assessed to understand the energy and GHG balances, in addition to other impacts such as resource depletion, damages to ecosystem services or effects on human health.
12. Army camps provide three meals every day that are usually composed of three hot meals. Often cooking is carried out in highly expensive and also wastage due to negligence of cooking authorities. These residues are a continuous headache for camp operators. Bio gas generation from such refuse, partially hydrolysed residues was not a difficult task to accomplish. The task was to choose the proper design and operate the plant under optimal conditions. Additionally, the waste management in the Sri Lanka Army becomes a greater issue. One strategy to reduce, disinfect, and better utilize food waste is to run it through an anaerobic digester and from its harvest biogas, containing mostly methane. The biogas collected is flammable and this provides several options for utilization. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of utilizing bio gas in the kitchens of Sri Lanka Army camps.

1.2 Aim of the Research
13. The aim and objectives of this study is to explore the potentials of utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army.

1.3 Objectives
14. There are following objectives focused on the research study.
1. To assess the level of army personals awareness and attitude towards biogas technology.
2. To evaluate the cost and benefits of biogas technology as compared to other sources use in the army for cooking prepuces.
3. To discuss the challenges, face by military personals in order to introduce the biogas technology in military camps
4. To investigate the level of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability.
5. To identify the long term economically and environmental friendly solutions can be achieving with biogas technology, in the Sri Lanka Army.

1.4 Rationale of the study
15. This research study is significance for Sri Lanka army. Bioenergy systems are designed primarily to produce renewable energy and it can be reduced the environmental impacts. When implemented appropriately, bioenergy can enhance food production by using wastes and residues, recycling nutrients and generating energy. Therefore, this is the potential aspect for Sri Lanka army.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Historical Background of Bio Gas
16. The appearance of flickering lights emerging from below the surface of swamps was noted by Plinius and van Helmont recorded the emanation of an inflammable gas from declaring organic matter in the 17th Century. Volta is generally recognized as putting methane digestion on a scientific footing. He concluded as early as 1776 that the amount of gas that evolves is a function the gas emerges, and that in certain proportions, the gas obtained forms an explosive mixture with air. (Marchaim, 1992).
17. In 1804-1810 Dalton, Henry and Davy established the chemical composition of methane, confirmed that coal gas was very similar to Volta’s marsh gas and showed that methane was produced from decomposing cattle manure. France is credited with having made one of the first significant contributions towards the anaerobic treatment of the solids suspended in waste water. In 1884 Gayon, a student of Pasteur, fermented manure at 35ºC, obtains 100 litre of methane per m3 of manure. It was concluded that fermentation could be a source of gas for heating and lighting. It was not until towards the end of the 19th centuries that methanogenetic was found to be connected to microbial activity. In 1868, Bechamp named the organism responsible for methane production from ethanol. This organism was apparently a mixed population since bechamp was able to show that, depending on the substrate, different fermentation products were formed. In 1876, Herter reported that acetate in sewage sludge was converted stoichiometrically to equal amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. (Ruwisch, Conra, 1988)
18. As early 1896, gas from sewage was used for lighting streets in Exeter, England, while gas from human wastes in the Matings Leper Asylum in Bombay, India, was used to provide lighting process, in which the suspended material was separated from the wastewater and allowed to pass into a separate hydrolysing utilizing bacteria, and he found that format and hydrogen, plus carbon dioxide, could act as precursors for methane. On the applied side, Buswell began studies of anaerobic digestion in the late 1920s and explained such issues as the fate of nitrogen in anaerobic digestion, the stoichiometry of reaction, the production of energy from farm wastes and the use of the process for industrial wastes (Buswell, Hatfield). Heating digestion tanks made practical use of the methane produced by the anaerobic process. It is of interest to note that methane gas was collected in Germany in 1914-1923 and used to generate power for biological treatment of plants, as well as for the cooling water from motors being used to heat the digestion tanks.
19. Numerous additional studies led to a better understanding of the importance of seeding and pH control in the operation of anaerobic digestion systems. Much of this work is still relevant today, and those who are developing biogas as an energy source would gain much from review of this earlier work (Marchaim, 1992).

2.2 Composition of Biogas
20. This is the mixture of gas produced by methanogenic bacteria while acting upon biodegradable materials in an anaerobic condition. Biogas is mainly composed of 50 to 70 percent methane (CH4), 30 to 40 percent carbon dioxide (CO2) and low amounts of other gases as shown in the table below.
Substances Symbol Percentage
Methane CH4 50 – 70
Carbon Dioxide CO2 30-40
Hydrogen H2 5- 10
Nitrogen N2 1-2
Water vapour H2O 0.3
Hydrogen Sulphide H2S Traces
Table:2.1 Composition of Biogas
Source: Thao, (2011).

21. Biogas is about 20 percent lighter than air and has an ignition temperature in the range of 650° to 750° C. It is an odorless after burning and colourless gas that burns with clear blue flame similar to that of LPG gas. The calorific value of biogas is about 6kWh/m3 (209mega joule) – this corresponds to about half a liters of diesel oil. The net calorific value depends on the efficiency of the burners or other user appliances; a conventional biogas stove has an efficiency of 50-60 %. Methane is the valuable component under the aspect of using biogas as a fuel.

2.3 Biogas Configuration
22. Biogas is the gaseous emissions from anaerobic degradation of organic matter, such as plants or animals, by a consortium of bacteria. Biogas is principally a mixture of Methane (CH4) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) along with other trace gases. Methane is the principal gas in biogas. Methane is also the main component in natural gas, a fossil fuel. Biogas can be used to replace natural gas in many applications including cooking, heating, steam production, electrical generation, vehicular fuel (THAO, 2011)
23. Biogas can be produced from a wide variety of available organic materials and wastes, including sewage sludge, animal manure, municipal and industrial organic waste, parts from ethanol production, crop residues, and especially grown energy crop and more, in an environment that contains little to no oxygen. Typically, this naturally occurring bacterial decay is underground or in areas where the access to oxygen is limited by gas displacement. From the below figure, we can see that one ton of bio waste feedstock could produce 100m 3biogas which contains about 61% methane (Thao, 2011).

Figure:2.1. Biogas yield and methane content of various substrates
Source: Thao, (2011).

2.4 Comparison of Different Fuels
24. Biogas compared with other fuels, shown below table 2:2.
Fuel Unit Calorific value Application Efficiency U/m3
kWh/U % biogas

Cow dung Kg 2.5 cooking 12 11.11
Wood Kg 5.0 cooking 12 5.56
Charcoal Kg 8.0 cooking 25 1.64
Hard coal Kg 9.0 cooking 25 1.45
Butane Kg 13.6 cooking 60 0.40
Propane Kg 12.0 cooking 60 0.39
Diesel Kg 12.0 engine 30 0.55
Electricity KWh 1.0 motor 80 1.79
Biogas m3 6.0 cooking 55 1
Table:2.2. Biogas compared with other fuels
Source: Thao, (2011).

2.5 Methanogenic Bacteria or Methanogens
25. These are the bacteria that act upon organic materials and produce methane and other gases in the process in an anaerobic environment. As living organisms, they tend to prefer certain conditions and are sensitive to the micro-climate within the digester. There are many species of methanogens and their characteristics vary. The different methane forming bacteria have many physiological properties in common, but they are 7 heterogeneous in cellular morphology. Some are rods, some cocci, while others occur in clusters of cocci known as sarcine. The family of methanogens (Methanobacteriacea) is divided into following four general groups on the basis of cytological differences (Alexander, 1961)
26. A considerable level of scientific knowledge and skill is required to isolate methanogenic bacteria in pure culture and maintain them in a laboratory. Methanogenic bacteria develop slowly and are sensitive to a sudden change in physical and chemical conditions. For example, a sudden fall in the slurry temperature by even 2oC may significantly affect their growth and gas production rate (Lagrange, 1979)
2.6 Bio chemistry of biogas generation
27. Biogas is a produced by certain types of “Bacteria”. Several different types of bacteria live in biogas digester and do different job. Bacteria is a single-celled organisms surrounded by a membrane. They secrete chemicals, called “Enzymes”, through the membrane into the food around them, to break it down into simple substances. These substances will dissolve in water, so they can be absorbed and used by the bacteria. Mainly there are three kinds of bacteria’s as Hydrolysis, Acidogenesis and Methenogenesis.

Figure: 2.2: Bio chemistry of biogas generation
Source: google survey (2018)

28. The measure of acidity is call “Ph”. A normal valve for Ph in a working biogas plant is between 7 and 8. When a biogas plant newly started, the acid formers become active first, reducing the Ph to below 7. The Methenogens then start using this acid, increasing the Ph back to normal. The key factors are the exclusion of air and light and a temperature closed to heat between 200C and 400C for above bacteria’s. A typical biogas plant consisted of a digester, in which the fermentation takes place and a gas holder which stores the gas produced. Variations in different designs are found in several aspects of biogas plant construction and operation. The designs should be,
a. Digesters are usually designed for continuous fed operation.
b. There are few designs for batch –operation, especially for utilization of agricultural wastes (Chinese design)
c. Gas holder in some plants is integrated with the digester
d. There are several systems for stirring the sludge and breaking the scrum.

2.7 Biodigester designs
2.7.1 Floating Gas holder type Bio Gas Plant
29. The biodigester is a physical structure, commonly known as the biogas plant. Since various chemical and microbiological reactions take place in the biodigester, it is also known as bioreactor or anaerobic reactor. The main function of this structure is to provide an anaerobic condition within it. As a chamber, it should be air and water tight. It can be made of various construction materials and in different shapes and sizes. Construction of this structure forms a major part of the investment costs for a biogas plant. Some of the commonly used designs are discussed below.

Figure: 2.3. Floating Gas holder type Bio Gas Plant
Source: Google image, (2018)

30. Experiments on biogas technology in India began in 1937. In 1956 the floating drum biogas plant, popularly known as Gobar Gas plant, was introduced. In 1962, this design was approved by the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) of India and this design soon became popular in India. The design of KVIC plant is shown in Figure 2.2. In this design, the digester chamber is made of brick masonry in cement mortar. A mild steel drum is placed on top of the digester to collect the biogas produced from the digester. Thus, there are two separate structures for gas production and collection.
31. With the introduction of fixed dome Chinese model plant, the floating drum plants became obsolete because of comparatively high investment and maintenance cost. The advantage of the floating drum design is the constant gas pressure, which is equal to the gasholder’s weight divided by its surface. This means that lamps, stoves and other appliances don’t need any further adjustments ones they have been correctly set. Another advantage is that the level the gasholder has risen above the digester pit, is a clear indication of the available gas. The high installation and maintenance costs have made this design obsolete for domestic use.

2.7.2 Fixed Dome Digester or Chinese Model Digester
32. The fixed dome also known as Chinese model biogas plant was developed and built in China as early as 1936. It consists of an underground brick masonry compartment (fermentation chamber) with a dome on the top for gas storage. In this design, the fermentation chamber and gas holder are combined as one unit. This design eliminates the use of costlier mild steel gas holder which is susceptible to corrosion. The life of fixed dome type plant is longer (over 20 years) compared to the floating drum design.

Figure: 2.4. Fixed Dome Digester or Chinese Model Digester
Source: Google image, (2018)

33. The original Chinese model is usually complete made out of concrete and constructed with the help of moulds. Based on the principles of fixed dome model from China many different designs have been made. In Nepal a very successful design has been developed and constructed on a large scale since the last 20 years. The concrete dome is the main characteristic of the Nepal design. The digester’s round wall and the outlet can be made out of bricks or stones. Therefore, this model can be constructed throughout the country, also in the hilly areas where bricks are not commonly available. A noticeable change to the original Chinese design is the manhole. This has been moved from the top of the dome to the connection between digester and outlet.

2.7.3 Deenbandhu Model
34. In an effort to further bring down the investment cost, the Deenbandhu model was put forth in 1984 by the Action for Food Production (AFPRO), New Delhi, India. This model proved to be some percent cheaper than other fixed dome designs used at that time in India. It also proved to be about 45 percent cheaper than a floating drum plant of comparable size. Deenbandhu plants are made entirely of brick masonry work with a spherical shaped gas holder at the top and a concave bottom. A typical design of Deenbandhu plant is shown in below

Figure: 2.5. Deenbandhu Model
Source: Google image, (2018)

35. The above designs are developed particularly for household use in developing countries and with durability as an important criterion. In many countries models have been promoted which have low cost as the most important norm. The most commonly used low cost plant is the Plastic Bag Digester The plastic bag digester consists of a trench (trench length has to be considerably greater than the width and depth) lined with a plastic tube. Because of the low investment cost this type of digester has been popular in south-east Asia, notably the south of Vietnam. The great weakness of this plant is its vulnerability, it is easily damaged by cattle and playing children. Also, the UV rays in sunlight make that the plastic gets brittle. Another disadvantage is the large ground surface which is needed for the plant which, unlike for the dome design, cannot be used for other purposes after the construction. An advantage is that this type of plant is easy to construct in areas with high water tables.

2.8 Factors should be considered while deciding bio digester
2.8.1 Investment
36. An ideal plant should be as low-cost as possible in terms of the initial investment and in long term operation and maintenance cost. The investment of biogas creation is exceedingly relying upon the substrate utilized. Effortlessly edible substrates, (for example, vitality crops) are more costly yet require less venture costs as vitality crops have high vitality thickness and quick creation of biogas, bringing about littler biogas reactors. Difficult substrates then again, are shoddy (frequently with a negative cost) yet require extensive venture costs. Realize that wet substrates create a lot of digestate. This digestate should be dispersed in the encompassing horticultural territory or should be cleaned to details of dischargeable water. The expenses of appropriation or water treatment are straightforwardly identified with the volume. The investment at the door of the farmland is exceptionally reliant on the nearby conditions.
37. In a few areas farmers will pay the natural carbon and nitrogen and phosphorous in the digestate. In different zones (where a nitrogen or potentially phosphate surplus exist, for example, in the Netherlands and Belgium, be that as it may, as a result likewise in the fringe territories of their neighboring nations: France and Germany), the agriculturists will really get a door charge for the circulation of digestate on their property. In these territories the option of yields may altogether add to the expenses of digestate circulation. The singular amount costs for biogas overhauling are around 0.2-0.31€/Nm3 CNG autonomous of the connected technique (Valorgas, 2012).
38. The investment costs are 2,700 €/(Nm3 /hr) raw gas and the operating and maintenance costs are 270 €/(Nm3 /hr) raw gas per year. The costs of upgrading are said to decrease with increasing scale to a value of 0.012 €/(kW.hr) at 2,000 Nm3 /hr. The lump sum costs may be calculated from the total cost of upgraded biogas production minus the cost of biogas production (0.063 €/(kW.hr) – 0.053 €/(kW.hr)) = 0.01 €/(kW.hr) (Zuijlen and Lensink, 2015).

2.8.2 Utilization of Local Materials
39. Use of easily available local materials should be emphasized in the construction of a biogas plant. This is an important consideration, particularly in the context of areas where transportation systems are often expensive. Furthermore, provision of service such as construction and repair work, can be hampered by the use of exotic materials. There are a few approaches to utilize the created biogas as energy source. The least demanding path is to consume it in a radiator to create warm. Be that as it may, since in Aquaponics the two vitality sources – power and warmth – are required, a little scale joined warmth and power plant (CHP) will be utilized to change over the biogas in these vitality sources. A CHP comprises of an ignition motor which is driving a generator for power creation. Through cooling circuits, fumes exhaust and warmth exchangers, the produced warm from the burning motor can be utilized for different purposes.
40. This cogeneration of power and warmth can be acknowledged with a few CHPs. There are the Otto-gas-motor, the stirling-motor, the touching off pillar motor, miniaturized scale gas turbines and energy components. The most widely recognized ones – Otto-gas-motor and the sterling motor are likewise accessible with bring down power (under 20 kW) and the innovation is available.
41. Points of interest are that biogas with just 20% methane substance can be utilized. Exceptional cleaning or redesigning isn’t required (Clean-Energy, 2015). The methane content in the biogas utilized for an otto-gas-motor would requirement for instance no less than 45%. It ought to likewise be dried and desulphurized.

2.8.3 Durability
42. Construction of a biogas plant requires certain degree of specialized skill which may not be easily available. A plant with a short life could also be cost effective but such a plant may not be reconstructed once its useful life ends. Especially in situation where people are yet to be motivated for the adoption of this technology and the necessary skill and materials are not readily available, it is necessary to construct plants that are more durable although this may require a higher initial investment. Furthermore, it is the existence of a service infrastructure an important consideration. If an adequate follow-up to a complaint on the functioning of a plant cannot be guaranteed, it will be better to opt for a more reliable but usually also more costly design.

2.8.4 Suitable for the Type of Inputs
43. The design should be compatible with the type of inputs, popularly known as feeding materials, that would be used. If plant materials such as rice straw, maize straw or similar agricultural wastes are to be used then the batch feeding design or discontinuous system should be used instead of a design for continuous or semi- continuous feeding. Other design selection and/or modification criteria are: Soil conditions and water table. Unstable soil conditions, such as in black cotton soil, as well as high water tables require a structure that is able to cope with these conditions. Conical or sphere-shaped floors are e.g. to be preferred in such conditions over flat bottoms. Gas consumption pattern is average of household. If the daily gas use is most commonly ended early in the evening, a relatively larger gas storage capacity of the plant will be needed to hold the gas that is generated overnight.

2.8.5 Cost effective energy source
44. While assessing biogas plants, there is a full-scale cost perspective there are a few reasons why value modifications for the biogas innovation are required. The generation of biogas makes outside economies. It implies that the biogas generation impacts the utility capacity of the buyer (better sterile and clean conditions) and the social welfare capacity of the general public (lessened wellbeing costs). Considering national wide consequences for vitality adjust, the biogas supply makes outer economies that adjust of installments to the economy (import substitution of petroleum products).
45. The outside diseconomies at that point ought to be incorporated, adding up to less pay of import obligations in view of substitution of exchanged fuel oil) by biogas. Biogas utilizes, supplanting ordinary powers like lamp oil or kindling, takes into account the preservation of condition. It in this way, expands its own particular incentive by the estimation of timberland spared or planted. The cost of provided vitality delivered by biogas contends with twisted costs on the national or provincial level of the vitality advertises. Monopolistic practices, which empower vitality providers to offer their vitality at a cost higher than the opposition value, still command the vitality advertise in numerous nations (Kafle, et.al., 2013).
46. A decentralized, economically self-sufficient unit in this manner, – under aggressive conditions – gives its vitality without advertise mutilations. Besides, other full scale financial advantages emerge when contrasting from one viewpoint the advantages of decentralized vitality age (enhanced power framework security) and the hindrances of unified vitality age: incremental expenses of interest in extra systems and the expenses of misfortunes on the transmission arrange, because of the separation of vitality clients, might be added to the advantages of decentralized vitality age from the large scale monetary perspective. Work serious decentralized biogas units, on the provincial level, enhance salary appropriation among levels of pay and lessen territorial aberrations, improving the allure of rustic life. Investors should go for completing the development of biogas plants with no transported in materials over the long term (Kafle, et.al., 2013).
2.9 Use of Biogas
47. The outputs of a biogas plant, the gas is valued for its use as a source of energy and the slurry for its fertilizing properties (soil nutrients). The energy content of biogas is most commonly transformed into heat energy for cooking and lighting. Other uses like fuel for combustion engines and for absorption fridges are less suitable for domestic biogas as they require large quantities of gas and/or purified gas at a constant pressure. Also, contrary to popular believe, it is also not feasible to compress biogas into a liquid form and store/transport it in gas cylinders (Wilson, 2002).
48. The biogas delivered is flexible. For the most part it is utilized as a part of joined warmth and power plant-units (CHP) on location. The power created is nourished into people in general framework or utilized nearby for self-utilization. The inside utilization of the biogas plant can be secured either by the power lattice or from the CHP. Notwithstanding the power created, a CHP likewise gives warm vitality from fumes and motor cooling. A part of the created CHP warm is utilized to warm up the digester. Notwithstanding, some warmth produced is for some other utilize accessible. Biogas can likewise be utilized as a part of kettle for producing low temperature warm to heat and drying hardware or for steam age. The condition is that the biogas quality meets the necessities of the evaporator.
49. The most well-known strategies for redesigning biogas are weight washing, weight swing adsorption, the amine scouring and the treatment by film innovation. A decentralized power age from biogas in plants with joined warmth and power units is more appealing when a vast piece of the created warmth can be utilized as a part of nearness of generation. In the pre-arranging period of a biogas plant all conceivable outcomes of biogas use should be in this manner be incorporated.

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction
50. This section includes the research methodology. This chapter is also elaborated the Hypothesis, Conceptual Framework, Operationalization, Statement of the Problem, Research Questions, Scope of the Research, Limitation included and the relevant literature that related to the concept of bio-gas implementation.
3.2 Hypothesis
51. A hypothesis is a provisional explanation about the relationship between at least two factors. It is a particular, testable forecast about what the researcher hope to occur in a research study. For instance, a research intended to take a look at the relationship between lack of sleep and test execution may have a theory that expresses. The research study is “Explore the potentials of utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army”.

H1: There is a relationship between investment and the potentials of utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army
H2: There is a relationship between utilization of local materials and the potentials of utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army
H3: There is a relationship between durability and the potentials of utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army
H4: There is a relationship between Suitable for the Type of Inputs and the potentials of utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army
H5: There is a relationship between Cost effective energy source and the potentials of utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army

3.3 Research Philosophy
52. Research philosophy is an imperative segment of research approach. Research philosophy is named ontology, epistemology and positivism. These philosophical methodologies empower to choose which approach should be received by the analyst and why, which is gotten from inquire about inquiries (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009).
53. The critical thoughts are available in research philosophy clarifies about the researcher’s view with respect to the world. These thoughts will decide investigate system and the strategies for that methodology. There are major different types of research philosophy defined by Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, (2009).

3.3.1 Ontology
54. Ontology depends on the idea of the real world. It is ordered based on objectivism and subjectivism. The main part of philosophy, objectivism depicts the position that social objects endure as a general rule outside to social on-screen characters. Furthermore, subjectivism is focused on the social wonders which are risen up out of the recognitions and outcomes of those social on-screen characters worried about their reality.

3.3.2 Epistemology
55. Epistemology is comprehended about the adequate information of a specific zone of study. It can be separated into two viewpoints; assets scientist and feeling specialist. The resource researcher manages the information from the viewpoint of normal researcher. Then again, the resource researcher is focused about the sentiments and states of mind of the specialists towards their directors. So the resource researcher includes the creating positivist rationality though the resource researcher is center around interpretivist reasoning. Epistemology is in this way delegated Positivism, Realism and Interpretivism in the area of research theory.

3.3.3 Positivism
56. The philosophical approach of regular researcher is seen in positivism as made by common researcher depends on obvious social element. Research strategy is drawn nearer based on data collection and hypothesis development. These hypotheses will be tried and affirmed which can be utilized for additionally examine. Another component of this rationality is that the positivist analyst takes after very organized procedure keeping in mind the end goal to encourage the hypothesis. Furthermore, positivism takes a shot at quantifiable perceptions and as needs be factual investigation is gotten.
57. In this research study is used positivism research philosophy and under this philosophy, quantitative approach is used for the data collection. Also the research study will develop the hypothesis and the observation of the research will be analyzed as quantitatively.

3.4 Conceptual Framework

Figure: 3.1. Conceptual framework of the study
Source: Developed by author, (2018)

3.5 Operationalization

Variables Indicators Level of measurement
Investment Financial resources and investment Likert Scale questionnaire
Costly
Fees
Cost effective
Utilization of Local materials Collected waste Likert Scale questionnaire
Recycling plant
Biogas plants are used
Handling waste
Durability Waste generation Likert Scale questionnaire
An environmentally friendly
Aware of the fact
Prevention, Reduction, Reuse
Suitable for the Type of Inputs Landfilling of waste Likert Scale questionnaire
Hazardous waste
Cheapest
Bio fertilizer

Cost effective energy source
Campaigning improves
Likert Scale questionnaire
Disposal and processing
Modern technology
Transforms
Utilizing bio gas Capital cost Likert Scale questionnaire
Gas and Electricity
Effectiveness
Life time
Figure:3.2. Operationalization of the study
Source: Developed by author, (2018)
3.6 Statement of the Problem
58. Even the literature proves that Sri Lanka having is long term experiences with the bio energy, the majority in the Sri Lanka have not used this system. Government of Sri Lanka or Bio Energy Association of Sri Lanka (BEASL) had not successfully promoted the bio mass during the last decade. But people who practice bio energy method had been encouraged and get benefits from the different Non-Governmental Organizations, which actively, participate in promoting bio energy.
59. Further, waste is defined as any unutilized raw material or products of a particular process intentionally thrown away for disposal. Unsystematic and unplanned waste management and disposal methods are the key influencing factors for the increase of environmental problems, this issue remain in the Sri Lanka Army as well.
60. The Waste management system used by the Sri Lanka Army causes a significant impact on the environment, the environmental condition of the uncontrolled dumpsites is extremely unhealthy and it causes severe environmental pollution. Open dumping grounds, foul door’s and air pollution are dangerously affecting the surroundings. In order to the above identified problem, Sri Lanka Army can introduce bio gas for cooking purpose. Biogas extends beyond protecting the climate with waste division to include benefits for agriculture and it can be reduced cooking fuel or Lp gas expenses. As well as it will be more profitable than Lp gas and simultaneously will answer the waste of the camps.

3.7 Research Questions
61. What are the main factors creating the influence when implementing utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army? In order to develop the main research question, the following questions are developed for this research study.
1. What is the level of awareness and attitude towards adopting biogas technology?
2. How does biogas compare in cost and benefits with other sources of cooking energy in the military camps?
3. What are challenges faces by military personals when introducing bio technology?
4. Investigate the level of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability?
5. What are the long term economically and environmental friendly solutions can be achieve with biogas technology, in the Sri Lanka Army?

3.8 Scope of the Research
62. The scope of the research study may be able to come up with more utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army. The using bio gas is an important concept for Sri Lanka Army. This research study is value to researchers and scholars as it forms a basis for further research. This research study will also give the benefits for other researchers who are doing the same concept.

3.9 Research tools
63. The primary research tool is conducting in person structured interviews for the selected sample. Later the interview details were combined into group responses and synthesis by giving weight age to every feature of the objectives which identified by research group.

3.10 Interview questions
64. Structured research questionnaire comprising of close ended statements to cover all the objectives was adhered during the survey. Moreover, Cronbach Alpha testing was carried out to determine the reliability of the prepared questionnaire. In addition to that open-ended questions were given during the interview as planned.

3.11 Population and sample
3.11.1 Selection of sample
65. A sample is a subgroup of a population that nominated to the research participants for the study, it is a segment of the total, nominated to contribute of the research (Polit ; Hungler 1999). A sample is a subset of a population (Sekaran, 2006). There are two types of sampling designs. Those are probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Probability sampling design was selected by the researcher, because, when elements in the population have a known chance of being chosen as subjects in the sample.
66. A sample of 100 members formed the military and non-military sample which was selected randomly using simple random sampling. As it discussed above, Therefore, Random (Probability) sampling method was used to design the sample in order to ensure that every member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen and to gain high degree of representativeness. simple and systematic types used during determination of each component as follow:
a. Military

(1) This sample included different ranks of Sri Lanka Army who took part cooking and administrative operations.

(2) Therefore, Systematic Random Sampling method was adopted as described at Annex A. Randomly select 70 as per the following ranks/appointment holders taken as an armed force sample as shown in the Table 3.1

b. Non-military

It includes intellectuals of government and non-governments who have been engaged in Bio gass process. The Directors of the Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority, Directors of janathakshan (GTE) Ltd, Arpico green gas unit Richard Pieries ; Co PLC, Households who use the bio energy List of users Annex D.

67. Samples which were subjected directly in detail to the operationalization as summarized below:

Composition of Military Sample
1. SF HQ (J) 10
2. SF HQ (W) 10
3. SF HQ (E) 10
4. SF HQ (KLN) 10
5. SF HQ (MLT) 10
6. SF HQ (West) 10
7. SF HQ (Central) 10
Total 70
Table 3.1: Sample form security force headquarters.

Composition on Non- Military Sample
1 House holds bio users 15
2 Directors of Sustainable Energy Authority 15
Total 30
Table 3.2: Sample form Non military sample.

3.12 Data Collection
68. According to Bryman (2008), the Strength of one method helps to overcome the weaknesses of another thereby achieving a cost benefits analysis balance. The research study is involved to collect the primary data that based on the quantitative approach of data collection and also the primary data will be collected through the survey questionnaire and the secondary data is collected from books, journals and articles.
69. The researcher interviewed the operation Engineer Janathakshan (GTE) Ltd, Green gas unit Richard Pieries ; Co PLC at non-military sample to facilitate the analysis, formulate recommendations and embark into conclusions. Answers from second and third samples helped in acquiring accurate information about the significance of the involvement of military logistics.

3.13 Limitation
70. The data is limited when collect the secondary hands documents. Due to the available information only, the research uses the data for this research study and also time is another limitation. Due to the particular time, the research has selected few staffs who are working at kitchen at Sri Lanka Army.

CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction
71. This chapter analyzes the primary data findings. The primary data of the research has been collected from the survey data. The research used the quantitative data approach and under the approach, the descriptive statistics were analyzed and this chapter also includes the graphical presentation of the data analysis. The researcher used the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software and MS Excel for the data analysis purpose.

4.2 Quantitative Approach of the Questionnaire
72. The quantitative questionnaires are the better method that can be used to test the hypothesis. A well-designed graphical presentation can successfully interconnect the data’s message in a language eagerly understood by almost everyone.

4.2.1 Demographic Factor Analysis
4.2.1.1 Gender
Male Female
79 21

Table: 4:1. Demographic factor analysis -Gender
Source: Survey data, (2018)

Figure: 4:1. Demographic factor analysis -Gender
73. The figure demonstrates the gender analysis of the participants. Due to the findings, male participation (79%) is high compared to the female participation (21%).

4.2.1.2 Age
Age group Below 30 30-39 40-49 50-55
No. of respondents 18 33 33 16

Table: 4:2. Demographic factor analysis -Age
Source: Survey data, (2018)

Figure: 4:2. Demographic factor analysis -Age
74. The figure categorized the participation by age group. 18% of the participants are age below 30 while 33% are between 30-39, 33% are between 40-49 and 16% are between 50-55.

4.2.2 Familiarity with the Biogas Technology
Yes No
60 40

Table: 4:3. Familiarity with the Biogas Technology
Source: Survey data, (2018)

Figure: 4:3. Familiarity with the Biogas Technology

75. The figure demonstrates that there are 60% of the participants who are familiar with bio gas technology and 40% of the participants who are not familiar with the bio gas technology.

4.2.3 Use of Bio Energy
Only cooking Lighting Slurry Other
20 51 28 1

Table: 4:4. Use of Bio Energy
Source: Survey data, (2018)

Figure: 4:4. Use of Bio Energy

76. The figure demonstrates that 20% of the participants who are using bio gas is only for the cooking purpose and 51% of the participants are using for lighting purposes. 28% of the participants are using for the slurry purposes while 1% of the participants are using bio gas for various other purposes.

4.2.4 Idea Generation of Biogas Technology
Source Own initiative NGO Government Other
No. of respondents 25 40 28 7

Table: 4:5. Idea Generation of Biogas Technology
Source: Survey data, (2018)

Figure: 4:5. Idea Generation of Biogas Technology
77. The figure demonstrates that 25% of the participants who generated the idea of bio gas technology by their own and 40% from NGOs. 28% of the participants who got the idea from government and 7% from various other sources.

4.2.5 Source of waste to use as substrate in the production of biogas
Source Own farm Buy from farmers Own Kitchen Industrial
No. of respondents 11 34 31 24

Table: 4:6. Source of waste to use as substrate in the production of biogas
Source: Survey data, (2018)

Figure: 4:6. Source of waste to use as substrate in the production of biogas

78. The figure demonstrates that 11% of the participants sources the waste from their own farm, 34% from the farmers, 31% from their own kitchen and 24% from factories.

4.2.6 Form of staff /labour working at biogas unit
Military Staff Civilian Staff Both Hired
8 36 28 28

Table: 4:7. Form of staff /labour working at biogas unit
Source: Survey data, (2018)

Figure: 4:7. Form of staff /labour working at biogas unit

79. The figure demonstrates that there are 8% of the respondents are using military staff at their biogas units while 36% use civilian staff and 28% are using both military and the civilians. Another 28% use hired staff for this purpose.

4.2.7 Training on biogas production and utilization
Yes No
70 30

Table: 4:8. Training on biogas production and utilization
Source: Survey data, (2018)

Figure: 4:8. Training on biogas production and utilization

80. The figure demonstrates that there are 70% of the participants who has received a formal training on biogas production and utilization and 30% of the participants have not received such training.

4.2.8 Ease of access to technical services
Easy access Not easy access
75 25

Table: 4:9. Ease of access to technical services Source: Survey data, (2018)

Figure: 4:9. Ease of access to technical services

81. Only 75% of the respondents get easy access to technical services while using the bio gas and 25% has found it’s difficult to access the technical services.

4.2.9 Need of payment for the technical services
Yes No
76 24

Table: 4:10. Need of payment for the technical services
Source: Survey data, (2018)

Figure: 4:10. Need of payment for the technical services

82. The figure demonstrates that there are 76% of the participants who paid for the technical services obtained while using the bio gas plants and 24% has got free of charge service.

4.2.10 Preference compared to other energy sources for cooking and lighting
Preferred Not preferred
71 29

Table: 4.11. Preference compared to other energy sources
Source: Survey data, (2018)

Figure: 4.11. Preference compared to other energy sources
83. 71% of the participants prefer using bio gas compared to other energy sources for cooking and lighting and 29% who are not preferred to use the bio gas.

4.3 Descriptive Statics Analysis for the Questionnaire
84. The research study’s survey questionnaire has been analyzed through SPSS and the resulting descriptive statics of the questionnaire is presented below.

4.3.1 Investment
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
I1 100 1 5 3.87 .971
I2 100 2 5 3.76 .668
I3 100 1 5 3.15 .925
I4 100 1 5 3.72 .780
I5 100 1 5 3.33 1.231
I6 100 1 5 3.33 1.231
Valid N (list wise) 100

Table: 4:.12. Descriptive statics of Investment
Source: Survey data, (2018)

85. The table shows that, the questionnaire descriptive statics. The investment questions minimum, maximum, mean and the standard deviation derived from the analysis.

4.3.2 Utilization of Local materials
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
U1 100 1 5 3.89 .963
U2 100 2 5 3.76 .668
U3 100 1 5 3.17 .933
U4 100 1 5 3.73 .777
U5 100 1 5 3.39 1.222
U6 100 1 5 3.42 1.216
Valid N (list wise) 100

Table: 4:13. Descriptive statics of Utilization of Local materials
Source: Survey data, (2018)
86. The table shows the suitability for the utilization of local materials questions minimum, maximum, mean and the standard deviation derived from the analysis.

4.3.3 Durability
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
D1 100 1 5 3.89 .963
D2 100 2 5 3.77 .633
D3 100 1 5 3.15 .925
D4 100 1 5 3.73 .777
D5 100 1 5 3.39 1.222
D6 100 1 5 3.41 1.215
Valid N (list wise) 100

Table: 4:14. Descriptive statics of Durability
Source: Survey data, (2018)

87. The table shows the suitability for the durability questions minimum, maximum, mean and the standard deviation derived from the analysis.

4.3.4 Suitable for the Type of Inputs
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
S1 100 1 5 3.89 .963
S2 100 2 5 3.77 .633
S3 100 1 5 3.20 .921
S4 100 1 5 3.72 .780
S5 100 1 5 3.37 1.220
S6 100 1 5 3.39 1.214
Valid N (list wise) 100

Table: 4:15. Descriptive statics of Suitable for the Type of Inputs
Source: Survey data, (2018)

88. The table shows that, the questionnaire descriptive statics. The Suitable for the Type of Inputs questions minimum, maximum, mean and the standard deviation derived from the analysis.
4.3.5 Cost Effective Energy Source
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
C1 100 1 5 3.88 .967
C2 100 2 5 3.76 .668
C3 100 1 5 3.19 .929
C4 100 1 5 3.72 .780
C5 100 1 5 3.39 1.222
C6 100 1 5 3.41 1.215
Valid N (list wise) 100

Table: 4:16. Descriptive statics of cost effective energy source
Source: Survey data, (2018)

89. The table shows cost effective energy source questions minimum, maximum, mean and the standard deviation derived from the analysis.

4.3.6 Utilizing Biogas
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
UBS1 100 1 5 3.95 .925
UBS2 100 2 5 3.70 .732
UBS3 100 1 5 3.26 .960
UBS4 100 2 5 3.76 .754
UBS5 100 1 5 3.44 1.157
UBS6 100 1 5 3.45 1.158
Valid N (list wise) 100

Table: 4:17. Descriptive statics of utilizing biogas
Source: Survey data, (2018)

90. The table shows that, the questionnaire descriptive statics on the utilization of bio gas questions minimum, maximum, mean and the standard deviation derived from the analysis.

4.4 Reliability Statics of Questionnaire
4.4.1 Investment
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.672 6

Table: 4:18. Reliability statics of Investment
Source: Survey data, (2018)

91. The survey findings exhibit that reliability statics of the questionnaire of investment. The findings show that Cronbach’s Alphas is .672. So, this is the acceptable level of the reliability.

4.4.2 Utilization of Local Materials
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.670 6

Table: 4:19 Reliability statics of Utilization of local materials
Source: Survey data, (2018)

92. The survey findings exhibit that reliability statics of the questionnaire of utilization of local materials. The findings show that Cronbach’s Alphas is .670. So, this is the acceptable level of the reliability.

4.4.3 Durability
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.680 6

Table: 4:20. Reliability statics of Durability
Source: Survey data, (2018)

93. The survey findings exhibit that reliability statics of the questionnaire of durability. The findings show that Cronbach’s Alphas is .680. So, this is the acceptable level of the reliability.
4.4.4 Suitable for the Type of Inputs
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.679 6

Table: 4:21. Reliability statics of Suitable for the Type of Inputs
Source: Survey data, (2018)
94. The survey findings exhibit that reliability statics of the questionnaire of suitable for the type of inputs. The findings show that Cronbach’s Alphas is .679. So, this is the acceptable level of the reliability.

4.4.5 Cost Effective Energy Source
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.672 6

Table: 4:22. Reliability statics of Cost effective energy source
Source: Survey data, (2018)

95. The survey findings exhibit that reliability statics of the questionnaire of cost effective energy source. The findings show that Cronbach’s Alphas is .672. So, this is the acceptable level of the reliability.

4.4.6 Utilizing Biogas
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.700 6

Table: 4.23. Reliability statics of utilizing bio gas
Source: Survey data, (2018)

96. The survey findings exhibit that reliability statics of the questionnaire of utilizing bio gas. The findings show that Cronbach’s Alphas is .700. So, this is the acceptable level of the reliability.

4.5 Correlation Analysis
97. Correlation analysis is a statistical evaluation method that is used for the study to identify the relationship between two variables. The correlation analysis has been driven from the independent and the dependent variable analysis. The positive correlation is, one variable increases concurrently with the other, that is high numerical values of one variable relate to the high numerical values of the other. The correlation is closer.1 and it shows that there is high positive relationship between two variables.

4.5.1 Investment
Investment Utilizing Bio Gas
Investment Pearson Correlation 1 .853**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 100 100
Utilizing Bio Gas Pearson Correlation .853** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 100 100
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table:4:24. Correlation analysis of Investment and Utilization of Bio Gas
Source: Survey data, (2018)

98. The SPSS analyses show the correlation between the independent and the dependent variables. The analysis exhibits that, there is a positive relationship between Investment and Utilization of Bio Gas. The correlation is .853. According this value defines that when investment increases, the utilization of Bio Gas will be increased significantly. Therefore, investment is the factors that make the greater impact on utilization of bio gas.

4.5.2 Utilization of Local Material
Utilization of Local Material Utilizing Bio Gas
Utilization Of Local Material Pearson Correlation 1 .858**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 100 100
Utilizing Bio Gas Pearson Correlation .858** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 100 100
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table:4:25. Correlation analysis of Utilization of Local Material and Utilization of Bio Gas
Source: Survey data, (2018)
99. The SPSS analyses show the correlation between the independent and the dependent variables. The analysis exhibits that, there is a positive relationship between Utilization of Local Material and Utilization of Bio Gas. The correlation is .858. According this value defines that when Utilization of Local Material increases, the utilization of Bio Gas will be increased significantly. Therefore, Utilization of Local Material is the factors that make the greater impact on utilization of bio gas.
4.5.3 Durability
Durability Utilizing Bio Gas
Durability Pearson Correlation 1 .861**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 100 100
Utilizing Bio Gas Pearson Correlation .861** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 100 100
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table:4.:26. Correlation analysis of Durability and Utilization of Bio Gas
Source: Survey data, (2018)
100. The SPSS analyses show the correlation between the independent and the dependent variables. The analysis exhibits that, there is a positive relationship between Durability and Utilization of Bio Gas. The correlation is .861. According this value defines that when Durability increases, the utilization of Bio Gas will be increased significantly. Therefore, Durability is the factors that make the greater impact on utilization of bio gas.

4.5.4 Suitable for the Type of Inputs
Suitable for the Type of Inputs Utilizing Bio Gas
Suitable For The Type Of Inputs Pearson Correlation 1 .856**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 100 100
Utilizing Bio Gas Pearson Correlation .856** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 100 100
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table:4:27. Correlation analysis of Suitable for the Type of Inputs and Utilization of Bio Gas
Source: Survey data, (2018)
101. The SPSS analyses show the correlation between the independent and the dependent variables. The analysis exhibits that, there is a positive relationship between Suitable for the Type of Inputs and Utilization of Bio Gas. The correlation is .856. According this value defines that when Suitable for the Type of Inputs increases, the utilization of Bio Gas will be increased significantly. Therefore, Suitable for the Type of Inputs is the factors that make the greater impact on utilization of bio gas.

4.5.5 Cost Effective Energy Source
Cost Effective Energy Source Utilizing Bio Gas
Cost Effective Energy Source Pearson Correlation 1 .852**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 100 100
Utilizing Bio Gas Pearson Correlation .852** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 100 100
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table:4:28. Correlation analysis of Cost Effective Energy Source and Utilization of Bio Gas
Source: Survey data, (2018)
102. 10The SPSS analyses show the correlation between the independent and the dependent variables. The analysis exhibits that, there is a positive relationship between Cost Effective Energy Source and Utilization of Bio Gas. The correlation is .852. According this value defines that when Cost Effective Energy Source increases, the utilization of Bio Gas will be increased significantly. Therefore, Suitable for the Type of Inputs is the factors that make the greater impact on utilization of bio gas.

CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND ARGUMENTS

5.1 Introduction
103. This chapter focuses to interpret the data under the quantitative approach. The research is “the potentials of utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army”. This chapter is further analyzed the reliability statics of the survey questionnaire, hypothesis testing and the literature findings.

5.2 Research Questions
104. The research study is focused on the following questions.
1. What is the level of awareness and attitude towards adopting biogas technology?
2. How does biogas compare in cost and benefits with other sources of cooking energy in the military camps?
3. What are challenges faces by military personals when introducing bio technology?
4. Investigate the level of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability?
5. What is the long term economically and environmental friendly solutions can be achieved with biogas technology, in the Sri Lanka Army?

105. Based on the research question, the findings show that there is factor affected when implement the utilization of bio gas. Especially, the research has been identified major five important factors such as Investment, Utilization of Local Material, Durability, Suitable for the Type of Inputs and Cost-Effective Energy Source.

5.3 Hypothesis Testing
H1: There is a relationship between Investment and Utilization of Bio Gas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army
106. According the SPSS analyses, there is high positive relationship between Investment and Utilization of Bio Gas. The correlation is .853. This shows that there is high positive correlation between Investment and Utilization of Bio Gas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army. The outcome shows that when investment increases that make positive influence on utilization of bio gas.
H2: There is a relationship between Utilization of Local Material and Utilization of Bio Gas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army
107. Due to the analysis, there is a positive relationship between there is high positive relationship between Utilization of Local Material and Utilization of Bio Gas. The correlation is .858. This shows that there is high positive correlation between Utilization of Local Material and Utilization of Bio Gas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army. The outcome shows that when Utilization of Bio Gas increases that make positive influence on utilization of bio gas.
H3: There is a relationship between Durability and Utilization of Bio Gas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army
108. Due to the analysis, there is a positive relationship between there is high positive relationship between Durability and Utilization of Bio Gas. The correlation is .861. This shows that there is high positive correlation between Durability and Utilization of Bio Gas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army. The outcome shows that when Durability increases that make positive influence on utilization of bio gas.
H4: There is a relationship between Suitable for The Type of Inputs and Utilization of Bio Gas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army
109. Due to the analysis, there is a positive relationship between there is high positive relationship between Suitable for the Type of Inputs and Utilization of Bio Gas. The correlation is .856. This shows that there is high positive correlation between Suitable for the Type of Inputs and Utilization of Bio Gas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army. The outcome shows that when Suitable for the Type of Inputs increases that make positive influence on utilization of bio gas.
H5: There is a relationship between Cost Effective Energy Source and Utilization of Bio Gas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army
110. Due to the analysis, there is a positive relationship between there is high positive relationship between Cost Effective Energy Source and Utilization of Bio Gas. The correlation is .852. This shows that there is high positive correlation between Cost Effective Energy Source and Utilization of Bio Gas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army. The outcome shows that when Cost Effective Energy Source increases that make positive influence on utilization of bio gas.

5.4 Literature Findings
111. The findings of the literature review show that, factors that make the impact on when implement the utilization of bio gas at kitchen in Sri Lanka army.

5.4.1 Investment
112. The investment of biogas creation is very relying upon the substrate utilized. Naturally edible substrates, (for example, vitality crops) are more costly yet require less venture costs as vitality crops have high vitality thickness and quick creation of biogas, bringing about littler biogas reactors. Difficult substrates then again, are shoddy (frequently with a negative cost) yet require extensive venture costs. Realize that wet substrates create a lot of digestate. This digestate should be dispersed in the encompassing horticultural territory or should be cleaned to details of dischargeable water. The expenditures of appropriation or water treatment are directly identified with the volume. The investment at the door of the farmland is exceptionally reliant on the nearby conditions (Valorgas, 2012).

5.4.2 Utilization of Local Materials
113. There are a few approaches to utilize the created biogas as energy source. The least demanding path is to consume it in a radiator to create warm. Be that as it may, since in Aquaponics the two vitality sources – power and warmth – are required, a little scale joined warmth and power plant (CHP) will be utilized to change over the biogas in these vitality sources. A CHP comprises of an ignition motor which is driving a generator for power creation. Through cooling circuits, fumes exhaust and warmth exchangers, the produced warm from the burning motor can be utilized for different purposes (Clean-Energy, 2015).

5.4.3 Durability
114. Construction of a biogas plant requires certain degree of specialized skill which may not be easily available. A plant with a short life could also be cost effective but such a plant may not be reconstructed once its useful life ends. Especially in situation where people are yet to be motivated for the adoption of this technology and the necessary skill and materials are not readily available, it is necessary to construct plants that are more durable although this may require a higher initial investment. Furthermore, it is the existence of a service infrastructure an important consideration.

5.4.4 Suitable for the Type of Inputs
115. The design should be compatible with the type of inputs, popularly known as feeding materials that would be used. If plant materials such as rice straw, maize straw or similar agricultural wastes are to be used then the batch feeding design or discontinuous system should be used instead of a design for continuous or semi- continuous feeding. Other design selection and/or modification criteria are: Soil conditions and water table

5.4.5 Cost Effective Energy Source
116. The outside diseconomies at that point ought to be incorporated, adding up to less pay of import obligations in view of substitution of exchanged fuel oil) by biogas. Biogas utilizes, supplanting ordinary powers like lamp oil or kindling, takes into account the preservation of condition. It in this way, expands its own particular incentive by the estimation of timberland spared or planted. The cost of provided vitality delivered by biogas contends with twisted costs on the national or provincial level of the vitality advertises. Monopolistic practices, which empower vitality providers to offer their vitality at a cost higher than the opposition value, still command the vitality advertise in numerous nations (Kafle, et.al., 2013).

5.4.6 Use of Biogas
117. The outputs of a biogas plant, the gas is valued for its use as a source of energy and the slurry for its fertilizing properties (soil nutrients). The energy content of biogas is most commonly transformed into heat energy for cooking and lighting. Other uses like fuel for combustion engines and for absorption fridges are less suitable for domestic biogas as they require large quantities of gas and/or purified gas at a constant pressure. Also, contrary to popular believe, it is also not feasible to compress biogas into a liquid form and store/transport it in gas cylinders (Wilson, 2002).

5.5 Key Personnel Interview Findings
a. Reference to media interview of Sunday times with Director Waste Management Authority Mr. Nalin Mannapperuma (22.11.2015)

(1) “Today when we look at waste matter disposal the bulk of it is dumped in the open and only 6 per cent of it is made into compost for bio-gas production. Only 4 per cent of the waste material is used for re-cycling purposes. According to the Master Plan 12 per cent of the waste will be recycled to turn into energy,” he said. The workshop was organized by the Ministry of Power and Energy of the government of Sri Lanka, SNV Netherlands Development Organization and the delegation of the European Union.

(2) Further, Mr. Manappperuma said that several problems have plagued the development of the bio gas sector as it has had to be done with care while dealing with microorganism cells. “We have provided assistance to hospitals and other institution to develop biogas technology. There are already about 20 institutions in the Western Province that use biogas technology. This method is being practiced widely in India,” he said. A national policy on the use of biogas and re-cycling technology was needed to develop this method countrywide, he noted, adding “we also provide financial assistance to develop bio-gas technology”.

b. Interview with CEO of Janathakshan GTE, Mr. Ranga Pallawala

(1) Biogas was introduced in Sri Lanka way back in 1974 and there has been a significant progress in Sri Lanka over the years. But there is less awareness on the use of biogas owing to technological knowhow. However, the use of biogas is now being spearheaded by working with the Provincial Councils and state institutions. Commercial Banks and development banks too have commenced loans for projects associated with bio-gas technology for preservation of the environment. Bio-gas technology is also used in many tourist hotels in the country to manage their solid waste disposal.

(2) When asked about the progress of the bio-gas sector in Sri Lanka over the years, he said initially it was confined to the animal husbandry sector where cow dung was used to generate bio-gas at household level but now it covers waste management and water treatment areas. Although the bio-gas sector was dormant in Sri Lanka with global climate change issues people looked for alternate energy sources. “We need to create awareness among people to develop bio-gas technology with regulatory framework from Municipalities, Provincial Councils and other local bodies,” he added.

c. Interview with Senior Strategy Officer for Renewable Energy, SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, Mr. Wim J. Van Nes

(1) Bio gas is excellent for cooking when small quantities of bio gas are produced. But to produce electricity on a larger scale with bio-gas more advanced techniques were required like in countries such as China and India and in Vietnam where such technology was used. Sri Lanka too has a niche market for developing such technology with different applications. Regional Coordinator for Asia Peter Drbohlav, replying to a question, said “What we have seen in Sri Lanka is that bio gas is promoted at provincial level in the Southern North, Eastern and Central Provinces where many programmes have been created”. He said waste management is an important component in Sri Lanka for the manufacture of bio gas.

118. Janathakshan, as the organization dedicated to carry out the legacy of Practical Action in Sri Lanka has over 25 years of experiences in the biogas sector in Sri Lanka. They have set up over 1000 biogas systems, providing training to over 200 masons and 200 technical officers in the country. During the research it was found out several commercial sector institutes are focusing on installing biogas generating plants to manage their waste issues.
119. During the interview with field Engineer Janathakshan (GTE) Ltd, Mr. Mahesh Weerasooriya B.sc Eng (Mech), AMIESL explain that, the bio gas plants which were constructed under his supervision help to solve the waste dumping problem in the several areas. These plants now effectively handle the solid waste dumping issue and provide energy for cooking requirements.
120. And also these premises helped to save considerable amount of money allocated to acquire LPG for cooking requirements. Such bio gas plants are already installed in Victoria Golf and Country Resort Digana (Figure5:1.), Jetwing lake side Dambulla and Negambo (Figure5:2.), Kaduwela (Figure 5:4) and those are fully operational condition.

Figure 5:1. Victoria Golf and Country Resort Digana Bio Gas plant

Figure 5:2. Jetwing lake side Dambulla Biogas Digester
(Hybrid version of Indian and Chinese digester designs available in South Asia)

Figure 5:3. Jetwing Lakeside Dambulla kitchen
121. Jetwing Lake houses a biomass boiler which produces 2000 kilograms of steam per hour, sustainably driving the operation of a 300 TR Vapour Absorption Chiller, which facilitates air conditioning across the premises. The chiller consumes less than one tenth the electricity of a conventional chiller. Steam generated from the biomass boiler is also used in the laundry, and for hot water generation during the cool nights of Dambulla.
122. With a dedicated effluent treatment plant, Jetwing Lake treats 100% of the wastewater generated across premises. The plant includes separate process flows for black and grey water, utilising biological treatment methods and gravity filtration; along with a separate process flow for laundry water with coagulation and oxidization, where it is reused as primary wash water.
123. In addition, Jetwing Lake also features an on-site Biogas Digester, which can accommodate up to 500 kilograms of daily organic waste. The digester is a hybrid version of Indian and Chinese digester designs available in South Asia, and improves on initial plants found across the Jetwing family by featuring further modifications to speed up the process – enabling complete digestion within two weeks. The digester, which includes a heating jacket with a dedicated solar array, not only produces a CH4-rich gas which is used in staff kitchen stoves to prepare meals, but also a sludge which is used as a soil enhancer in our gardens. (Jetwing Lake Dambulla sri lanka, 2018)
Figure 5:4. Kaduwela Bio plant
124. The Waste Management Unit in Kaduwela currently accommodates one ton of degradable solid waste a day, with the gas produced fed into a 5kW generator that supplements the electricity requirement of the Waste Collection Center.

125. In 2015, UNDP provided technical assistance to the Kaduwela Municipal Council to pilot the Solid Waste Management Project with a local partner, Janathakshan.
126. The municipality gets about 90 tons of garbage a day, of which 40 percent is non-degradable and sent to recycling and up-cycling initiatives. Of the balance, about 20-25 percent of waste is used for composting and the remainder is sent to landfills, which is now gradually being brought down by the biogas unit.
127. The use of Biogas in Sri Lankan domestic sector applications is still in its infant stage. Further, possibility of using biogas plants in residential areas for cooking and lighting has been demonstrated by Richard Pieries & Co PLC and certain individuals in the country. Therefore, researcher interviewed Mr. Shanuka Weerasooriya Field Eng Arpico Green Gas Unit.
128. The Arpico Green Gas Unit is a waste management unit, which is a good solution for the domestic organic waste (Annex F). It is an innovative way to go green responsibly while providing a solution to the problem of organic garbage disposal. It does this by obtaining green gas as an energy alternative and organic compost fertilizer to replace chemical fertilizer. Through the disposal of organic waste by this unit benefited as follows;
a. Preserve environment by orderly garbage disposal
b. Alternative energy for your cooking (Methane Gas)
c. 100% Organic Active Liquid Compost Fertilizer

129. Recommended Feeding Materials
a. Kitchen Food Waste (Rice & Curry, Vegetable cuttings, baked items etc)
b. Fruit waste
c. Green Waste (Grass, Green Leaves etc.)
d. Organic & biodegradable items (Coconut powder, tea powder etc)
Capacity of the plant Capital cost for Establishment
Rs Kitchen waste input per day
kg Green gas output per day
kg
500 L 45000.00 2-4 0.15
1000 L 68000.00 4-8 0.3
5000 L 347600.00 20-30 2

Table 5:1. Installation rates and Unit Performance summary

Figure 5:5. Arpico Green Gas Unit

5.6 Field Visit Findings
130. During the survey in military camps it was found that 5000L Arpico Green Gas Unit has installed in regimental offices’ mess Sri Lanka Light infantry at Panagoda. Certain individuals have taken interest to use bio plants to obtain gas for cooking purpose in their camps. The arpico green gas unit installed Officers’ Mess SLLI is shown below. (Figure 5:6.)

Figure 5:6. Arpico green gas unit Officers’ Mess SLLI Panagoda

Figure 5:7 Methane gas produced inside green gas unit at Officers’ mess SLLI

131. During the field survey researcher found several military establishments introduce Bio gas in their respective organizations, and some of systems defective and not functioning and some systems functioning without defects (Table 5:2.) The failure of a biogas digester system occurs when less than half of daily optimum biogas production is observed (Cheng et al., 2014). Such failure is as a result lack of maintenance and repair of the biogas system (Bond & Templeton, 2011). According to Cheng et al., (2014) faults occur in five subsystems of the biogas system.
These are:-
a. Structural components
b. Biogas utilization equipment
c. Piping system
d. Biogas production
e. Effluent disposal system

s/no Location of plant Good (functioning without defects) Fair (defective but functioning) Poor (defective and not functioning)
1 RHQ SLLI (Panagoda) ? – –
2 KDU (Rathmalana) ? – –
3 RHQ VIR (Boyagane) – – ?
4 SLMA (Diyathalawa) – – ?
5 RHQ SLAGSC (panagoda) – – ?

Table 5:2. Physical status of different type of bio gas plants in military establishments
Source: Survey data, (2018)

Operation Activity KDU (Rathmalana) RHQ SLLI (Panagoda)
Purpose Heating/boiling water Cooking
Feeding Daily Daily
Type of feed Kitchen waste Kitchen waste
Amount of waste 200-300kg 5-10kg
Amount of water 400-600 L 10-20 L
Feed timings 8.30 am
3.30 pm (week days) 4.30 pm
(every day)
Performance 24 hrs Once in three days (2 hrs)
Utilizes Around 700 students to Boiled water Around 50 Officers to one meal

Table 5:3. Frequency of different operational activities
Source: Survey data, (2018)

132. When consider about Table 5:3. It is shows KDU bio gas plant feeding around 200-300kg of kitchen waste during week days. Further it will produce 24hrs continues gas for a heating/boiling water, moreover, it will facilitate 700 students in point of boiling water for drinking and tea.

133. Nevertheless, when compare the 5000L green gas unit at RHQ SLLI panagoda, to produce 2kg gas, it is need 20-30 kg Kitchen waste. Reason behind this significant difference is, this system established at Officers’ mess SLLI and daily kitchen waste not exceed 5-6 kg. Because, maximum no of officers used to take 3 meals from the mess around 45 per day. Keeping in view of tank capacity and the kitchen waste tank will take minimum three days tofill required amount of kitchen waste for produce the gas. Therefore, it will not functioning 24hrs.
5.7 Financial Analysis and Findings

134. The financial analysis under this research is carried out to assess the viability of utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka Army. Data collected through primary sources were utilized for this purpose. Financial data in respect to expenditure incurred by Sri Lanka Army on energy (LP gas and firewood) were obtained through the Directorate of Supply and Transport of Sri Lanka Army Head Quarters. The request made in this regard is at Annex B while the respective information received is at Annex E. Further, the primary information with regard to installation and maintenance of a biogas plant were obtained during the interviews of Directors of Arpico Green Gas Unit of Richard Pieries ; Co PLC and Janathakshan (GTE) Ltd. Table 5.1 above demonstrates the findings of these interviews. In addition, certain rules of thumb were also taken into consideration when performing this financial analysis.

135. The average annual energy cost at all the kitchens of Sri Lanka Army is approximately Rs. 487 Mn. This total cost consists with 90% (Rs. 440 Mn) for LP gas and 10% (Rs. 47 Mn) for firewood. The Directorate of Supply and Transport of Sri Lanka Army has calculated that on average per person LP gas requirement per day is 0.088kg which is derived as the sum of the following.
– Gas requirement per person for a Breakfast 0.029
– Gas requirement per person for a Lunch 0.030
– Gas requirement per person for a Dinner 0.029

136. A comprehensive financial analysis done based on the information received from the Supply and Transport Directorate is given at Table 5:4.

137. When performing this analysis the basis for cost of establishing plants were taken as 5,000L capacity plant at a cost of Rs. 347,600 which provides an output of 2kg biogas daily with waste input of 20-30kgs. However, it is needed to be mindful that the cost of establishing plant might not increase as extreme relative to the plant capacity (for example when 5,000L capacity plant costs Rs. 347,600, a 10,000L capacity plant does not necessarily to be cost Rs. 695,200). However, due to non-availability of information and for the ease of comparison, the basis of cost were taken as such.

A B C D E F G H I J K
HQs Avg. annual cost of HQ (Rs.) Avg. Feeding strength per day No. of Battalions under comd Avg. annual cost per Bn (Rs.) Avg. heads per day per Bn Gas requirement per day per Bn (kg) Required plant capacity per Bn (L) Estimated cost of the plant (Rs.) Plant cost per annum (Rs.) Saving of gas cost per Bn (Rs.)
SF HQ (WEST) 91,828,519 25,000 41 2,239,720 610 54 134,146 9,325,854 1,554,309 685,411
SF HQ (W) 76,540,751 19,500 40 1,913,519 488 43 107,250 7,456,020 1,242,670 670,849
SF HQ (E) 68,041,192 23,000 42 1,620,028 548 48 120,476 8,375,505 1,395,917 224,111
SF HQ (J) 50,587,725 12,000 26 1,945,682 462 41 101,538 7,058,954 1,176,492 769,189
SF HQ (MLT) 45,361,203 9,500 27 1,680,045 352 31 77,407 5,381,363 896,894 783,151
SF HQ (KLN) 46,562,659 12,000 38 1,225,333 316 28 69,474 4,829,811 804,968 420,365
SF HQ (Centerl) 25,332,219 13,000 20 1,266,611 650 57 143,000 9,941,360 1,656,893 (390,282)
AHQ – ISD (Kelaniya) 42,500,360 10,000 26 1,634,629 385 34 84,615 5,882,462 980,410 654,219
Table 5:4. Comprehensive Financial Analysis

Explanatory Notes
B = Calculated based on data provided at Annex E E = B/D
F = C/D G = F*0.088
H = 5000/2*G I = 347600/5000*H
J = I/6 (6 is the minimum durability period of a plant) K = E

138. According to above table a saving of costs incurred on LP gas could be achieved in all HQs other than SF HQ (Centre). It is noteworthy that this HQ has commenced its operation in 2015 and the gas cost of this HQ for the years 2015 and 2017 are relatively low compared to other HQs. As mentioned earlier, the estimated cost of the plant (as given in column I) may be considerably low when actual construction of the plant is carried out.
139. Given the strength of the individual battalion (column F), the daily requirement of gas is comparatively high as indicated in column G. Accordingly, the capacity of the biogas plant is also become high, resulting more land requirement for the construction of the plant. On the other hand, the bio waste input requirement is also high. For example, for a battalion comes under SF HQ (KLN) requires on average 350Kgs of bio waste daily for the generation of daily required gas. This is the minimum required bio waste for a given battalion under one HQ and this figure become high for other HQs. If Sri Lanka Army considers adopting biogas technology in its kitchen, necessary arrangements needs to be taken to ensure this daily requirement of bio waste. Negotiations could be made with respective municipal councils to feed bio waste daily to the biogas plant.

140. Considering the very large land requirement in each individual camp and as an initial step, Sri Lanka Army could consider either Mullaitivu (MLT) or Kilinochchi (KLN) or camps comes under both HQs to run a pilot project of a biogas plant. If biogas plant is established in all 27 Battalions under Mullaitivu HQ, an annual saving of Rs. 21 Mn could be made compared to the current annual cost of Rs. 45 Mn. If the same is practiced in all Battalions under Kilinochchi HQ, an annual saving of Rs. 16 Mn could be made compared to annual average cost of Rs. 46 Mn. Sri Lanka Army should also be mindful of the initial capital requirement of average Rs. 5 Mn per Battalion before going for such decision.

5.8 SWOT Analysis and Findings

141. In order to examine environmental sustainability and economically friendly solutions this study also used SWOT analysis approach, which originated from the business management disciplines and has been widely applied to a broad array of disciplines. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats are abbreviated as SWOTs. It is evidently demonstrated that the SWOT analysis approach is a better tool for investigating problems from a strategic perspective. The present study strategically analyzes waste management system, taking Army camps in Colombo area as a case

142. The SWOT analysis of waste management system helps further understanding about both external and internal conditions that the Army camps located in Colombo would face when developing waste management strategies. Particularly, the internal conditions are related to the strengths and weaknesses and the external conditions refer to the opportunities and threats. Identified SWOTs are the results of the focused interviews with Officers who involved with administration, questionnaire distributions among the Officers, physical observations with field visits to Panagoda and some other camps around Colombo, review of governmental reports and municipal solid waste management related literature. These are discussed below in detail.

Figure. 5.8. Graphical presentation of SWOT Analysis

Strengths
Weaknesses
S1: Established location of the solid waste management
center in the army
S2: Regular waste collection
S3: Conducting strong awareness and training programmes
about promoting waste management in the army
S4: Waste taxation W1: Low management of waste dumping
W2: Inefficient food waste sorting
W3: Shortcomings in biogas manufacturing process
W4: Lack of recycling option for non-decaying waste
Opportunities Threats
O1: Installation of a biogas unit within solid
waste management center
O2: Obtaining external supports from government
and industrial associations
O3: Introducing waste separation system T1: Inadequate attention to promote research on environmental safeguard in the army
T2: Nullity waste standardization
T3: Leachate toxification

Table 5:5. Results of SWOT analysis on waste management systems in Army camps in Colombo

5.8.1 Strengths

143. Recognized information under strengths could be classified into four categories (shown in Table 5.5) which are based on a series of focused interviews with administrative officers concerned and a questionnaire distribution (Annex C) among officers based in army camps within the Colombo region. For the community consultation, 25 officers as a sample were used. Various societal representatives such as non-commission staffs and civil staffs (cleaners) were interviewed. The overall feedback of the community has been graphically represented in Figure. 5.9.

S1: Established location of the solid waste management centre in the army
144. The sewage treatment plant (aerobics systems) is located at army camp Panagoda. This centre has been placed in a place near the Panagoda camp and all camps at cantonment and a number of married quarters are situated within that area. Although, most residents of the military staff have accepted the sewage treatment plant system, some environmental and social issues such as leachate problems, spreading bad smell and flies have already been aggregated and the community around the centre is suffering from these consequences.

S2: Regular waste collection
145. Military camps in Colombo carrying on a systematic waste collection which creates elegant and healthy environmental conditions within their responsible areas. Each camp handles garbage collection using a time-table and cleaning chart, mainly responsible to collect organic food waste daily. The waste collection is conducted by both military and civil staff from 05.00 a.m. to 07.00 a.m. Every member of the cleaning staff has been deployed for cleaning and they are responsible for sweeping at least 30 minutes before the garbage collection vehicles arrive in the camp.

S3: Conducting strong awareness and training programmes about promoting waste management in the army
146. Currently, introduce 3R concept in the army camps in Colombo and awareness programs are included in the annual and weekly training programs. To make awareness among these in military societies, annual sessions are conducted such as selecting best camp with proper disposal systems. Moreover, education programmes are also maintained with the collaboration of Agricultural Officers to encourage organic gardening.

S4: Waste taxation
147. Though SL army establishments are not bound to pay a tax for waste like other private establishments, each camp must divide their waste into two categories as decaying and non-decaying garbage. Also they are expected to follow 9 instructions which are used by business society to avoid paying tax for waste.

1. Grading waste into two categories as decaying and non-decaying waste.
2. Collecting them in two separate bins.
3. Keeping two bins to put decaying and nondecaying garbage in the institution.
4. Collecting non-decaying waste and selling them to the Resource Center of the Urban Council.
5. Avoid putting waste on the road.
6. Avoid using lunch sheets.
7. Avoid directing wastewater from the kitchen and bathrooms into the main drain system.
8. Avoid selling cigarettes if there is no special space allocated for smoking.
9. Making aware all employees of the institution on this.
Figure 5:9. Feedback from community consultations on strengths

5.8.2 Weaknesses
148. Based on the interviews with the community in the army camps in Colombo and relevant administrative officers, non commission officers and civil staffs, following weaknesses were identified and they are discussed below.

W1: Low management of waste dumping
149. Each camp maintains an open dump sites close to the solid waste management for ultimate disposal of waste materials including cooking waste. This dump is situated in a low-lying land which eventually opens to an abandoned paddy field or marsh. As major discarded materials, such as lunch sheets, regiform, compact disks, laminating papers, building materials, aluminum etc., are dumped in this site, all camp heads are playing a vital role in environmental and social concerns.

W2: Inefficient food waste sorting
150. To remove unnecessary things from food waste materials, they are sorted further in the solid waste management system. In here, labourers are following the process of manual separation without considering any technical methodology. Furthermore, few labourers have been appointed to do this practice. As a result of this non-technical procedure, manufacturing bio mass highly comprises with heavy metals such as polythene materials, plastics and glasses (based on field observations). Due to these failures, they are still in trouble of producing and marketing bio mass as cooking energy.

W3: Shortcomings in biogas manufacturing process
151. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. But due to non-systematic and irregular collecting of garbage materials within the dump, it will be effect for mixture of gas produced by methanogenic bacteria while acting upon biodegradable materials in an anaerobic condition.

W4: Lack of recycling option for non-decaying waste
152. The disposal site of the solid waste management systems in the camps mainly consists of lunch sheets, polyethene and non-decaying materials. Still camps don’t have any option to manage this huge amount of daily collected lunch sheets in a systematic way. It can be a problem in near future due to permanent deposition of these nondecaying polythene materials in underground soil layers which will eventually damage the groundwater

5.8.3 Opportunities
153. Derived from consultations with the community in the army camps in Colombo and relevant administrative officers, non-commission officers and civil staffs, as well as review of governmental reports and municipal solid waste management related literatures, the following opportunities were identified and they are explained below.

O1: Installation of a biogas unit within solid waste management centre
154. Food waste is the abundant portion which accounts for 70% of total waste fractions in army camps in Colombo. Therefore, implementation of a biogas unit is a good opportunity to maximize the effectiveness within the system while minimizing the pollution status especially due to methane (CH4) emissions. Furthermore, it can be an advantageous solution for organic waste reduction as produce biogas may be used as an energy source for improving the efficiency of other activities in the solid waste management system.

O2: Obtaining external supports from government and industrial associations
155. Waste management problems have attracted wide attention from the government and related industry associations, which lays a concrete foundation for its further development. In this regard, there should be a good and the supporting funds and measures for waste management in the army camps.

O3: Introducing waste separation system
156. It is better, if army camps located in Colombo can introduce five bins for the waste separation This waste segregation is practically feasible and can exercise to enhance the efficiency level of grading and using for biogas plant Central Environmental Authority with the collaboration in Ministry of Environment and Renewable Energy has already implemented this five bin method in different project levels. In here, five coloured bins are used to sort common waste types as in Table 5:2.
Colour of the bin Collecting waste types
Green
Blue
black
Red
Yellow Organic waste
Paper
Polythene, plastics
Glass bottles
Metals

Table 5:3. Five bins waste separation

5.8.4 Threats
157. Based on the interviews with the community in the division and relevant stakeholders of government departments and universities, following threats were identified and they are discussed below.

T1: Inadequate attention to promote research on environmental safeguard in the army
158. On environmental safeguard it is generally acknowledged that research is important to driving the development of waste management. However, most of the research funds have been given to enhance the productivity of bio gas manufacturing process while the funds invested in environmental safeguard related research are very limited. As argued by some interviewed military members in the Colombo area and resource persons, further development of waste recycling and management requires continuous financial supports to carry out research in terms of effective waste management methods, Hence, lack of additional funds for conducting environment management and protection related research is also an important obstacle to waste management development in the army.

T2: Nullity waste standardization
159. Waste standardization is an important process for ensuring the product quality and for gaining high economic yield. Currently, army doesn’t follow such a mechanism to augment the sustainability of overall process. As per interviews of military persons, they suggested that, Low or null technologies together with economic and social difficulties often undermine the possibility to process waste safely, exposing people and the environment to severe risks.

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

6.1 Introduction
160. The research study has been conducted the quantitative approach. The analytical study exhibited that numerical values and statics. The primary and the secondary data have been used for the study. The research primary data was mainly collected from the survey questionnaire and the secondary data was collected from the books, journals, articles, etc. The survey questionnaire will be attached as an appendix.

6.2 Methodological approach of the research
161. There were two methodological approach used for the study. The primary data has been used the quantitative methodological approach and the secondary data has used books, journals and articles findings.
162. Using SPSS which refers (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software the data will be analyzed demonstrating through graphs and pie charts in chapter 6 (Priyatno, 2009).
163. The primary data questionnaire were distributed randomly with the minimum inconvenience to the respondents which consists of short 36 questions which won’t take more than five minutes to fill.

6.3 Research aims and objectives
164. “The aim and objectives of this study is to explore the potentials of utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army”. The above aim has been achieved due to the primary and the secondary findings.

6.3.1 Objectives of the research as follows:
1. To assess the level of army personals awareness and attitude towards biogas technology.
165. The primary data findings have been included the various questions that related to the usage of bio-gas. Due to the findings, there are more than 70% military officers who are familiar and awareness with bio-gas technology.
2. To evaluate the cost and benefits of biogas technology as compared to other sources use in the army for cooking prepuces.
166. The primary data and the secondary data findings have been concluded that cost and benefit still available when using the bio-gas. There are more than 75% military officers accepted that, cost and benefits applicable when use the bio-gas.
3. To discuss the challenges, face by military personals in order to introduce the biogas technology in military camps.
167. The primary data and the secondary data findings showed that there are challenges faced by when introduce the bio-gas technology. Still, there are military officers who are not familiar with the bio gas and also when implement the bio-gas technology that is required for investment. Therefore, challenges still applicable.
4. To investigate the level of energy efficiency and environmental sustainability.
168. Efficient utilization of biogas technology definitely has positive effects on the military economy as follows
a. Utilization of biogas reduces the consumption of commercial energy sources (LPG) which results in reduction of annual budget.
b. Valuable organic fertilizers can be obtained and this in turn increases agricultural production and also reduces the dependence on chemical fertilizer.
c. Biogas generation is one of the cheapest methods of producing energy on the spot from readily available resources.
d. Cooking with biogas is much faster and more efficient than cooking with firewood in camps (10% issue firewood for daily cooking), thus reducing the drudgery of Cooking staffs lives and sparing them time for developmental activities.
5. To identify the long term economically and environmental friendly solutions can be achieving with biogas technology, in the Sri Lanka Army.
169. Biogas systems designed to process animal and human excreta are expected to contribute to a cleaner and healthier environment. Publish data indicates that digestion time of 14 days at 35 degrees Celsius brings about effective destruction (99.9% destruction rate) of enteric viruses. However, the destruction rate of round worms and hook worms is 9.0% which is also high. In this context, biogas production provides public health benefits superior to any other treatment in managing the military health environment in developing countries like Sri Lanka.
170. Improve camp sanitation due to systematic collection and processing of animal dung and human excreta, this also leads to reduction in water borne diseases caused by lack of sewers and human excreta.
6.4 Recommendation for future forecast
171. The research findings were based on the primary and the secondary data findings. Due to the findings, there are following recommendation proposed for the study;
1. The study recommends that durability is an important factor that makes the success for potentials of utilizing biogas at kitchen in the Sri Lanka army. Therefore, durability should be considered by the military officers.
2. The study also recommends investment make the success for utilizing bio-gas. Therefore, the top-level management of Sri Lanka army should make the proper financial plan to invest the money for the utilizing bio-gas.
3. There are various countries used the bio-gas technology. Therefore, the military officers who are in the top level of the management who should analyze and study about the other countries bio-gas process and that should be interlinked with the Sri Lankan concern.
4. The research study is also recommended that bio-gas is an environmental friendly usage, therefore it has to be given the benefit for the military. In this regard, the top level management does the needful to implement the biogas technology successfully.
6.5 Suggestions for Further Research
172. The research study has been carried out in in Sri Lanka military officers. The study focused on the factors that make the impact on utilizing the bio-gas at kitchen in Sri Lanka army. The researcher recommends that another study be done on challenges facing bio-gas implementation technology.