1.1 Problem Background
One of active transport modes that remains employed although there has been drop in popularity is walking which could contribute to health and environmental benefits compared to other transportations. This travel mode will help in reducing traffic congestion problem. However, pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users because each trip they make will expose them to risk and danger. An interaction between pedestrians and vehicles usually occurs because pedestrian tends to ignore the rules while crossing a road.
According to statistics provided by World Health Organization (WHO) on Road Traffic Injury Prevention, in 2015, almost 1.2 million people die each year due to road traffic injuries, millions more experience serious injuries which lead to long-term adverse health consequences (Figure 1.1). Other than that, it is reported that pedestrian constitutes of 22% of pedestrians which is intolerably high (Figure 1.2). Currently, it is estimated that road traffic injuries to be the ninth leading cause of death across all age groups in global, and are predicted to become the seventh leading cause of death by 2030 (Global health estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2014).
Figure 1.1: Top 10 Causes of death among people aged 15-29 years, 2012 (Global health estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2014).
Figure 1.2: Road Traffic Death By Type of Road User By WHO Region.
In Malaysia, it is shown by statistics that the three highest percentage of road users’ death due to road traffic injuries are 62% which is motorcyclists and followed by 4 wheeled cars and pedestrians with percentage of 24 and 7 respectively (PDRM) as shown in Figure 1.3.
Figure 1.3: Death by Road User Category (PDRM)
1.2 Problem Statement
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of United States of America stated in the report that over three-fourth of the pedestrians were killed at non-intersections and less than one-fourth were killed at intersections. As a vulnerable road user, pedestrians are exposed to risk compared to other users especially when crossing road.
One of facilities provided for pedestrian crossing the road is pedestrian bridge. They provide maximum security during the crossing to pedestrian. Besides that, it is high cost and requires extensive time to implement. However, the pedestrian bridge is often ignored by pedestrians when crossing the road even the bridge is in good condition and comfortable to be used of because they tend to choose the shortest way to reach desired location. There were also studies stated that pedestrians safety depends on their characteristics like gender, age, willingness to use provided facilities and they found that adult and women that commit to rules is a low-risk group.
A study stated that pedestrians tend to shorten their journey and take risk especially on the road that have central refuge or median due to longer waiting time and hastily to continue the other half of their journey (Hamid, 2001). In addition, a study carried out by Sisiopiku and Akin(2003) states that improper design and location of signalized intersections influenced pedestrians behaviour especially when the travel distance for pedestrians become more distant to desired destination.
This study aims to identify the factor that influenced pedestrian preferences on using facilities provided and behavior while crossing road through questionnaire distribution and video recording.
1.3 Objectives of Study
There are two (2) objectives have been discussed and outlined;
i. To identify the factor that influenced pedestrian preferences for different types of facilities provided behavior while crossing road
ii. To identify pedestrians behavior while crossing road on different types of facilities
1.4 Scope of Study
This study will be conducted at Johor Bahru, which is one of the most developed city in Johor. The study area will focused on urban and high attraction areas which have a high pedestrian activities such as commercial centers area and school area. There are three main sites have been selected which are, Aeon Taman Universiti (Site 1), Johor Bahru City Square (Site 2) and Galleria @ Kotaraya (Site 3). Pedestrian facilities available at each study area are shown in Table 1.
Site 1 Site 2 Site 3
This study focused on the status of compliance of the pedestrians while using the pedestrian facilities, preferences on different types of facilities and behavior of pedestrians while crossing the road with consideration of gender, age group, characteristics (individual, partner or group), and if they are carrying loads or facing an obstacle while crossing.
1.5 Importance of Study
This study aims to create awareness on pedestrian risk while crossing the road. This study will estimates the suitability of the facilities provided and the information can be used to enhance pedestrian facilities for user satisfactory.
This study will allow a further study on development of safety program for pedestrians by understanding the behavior and factor that influenced the behavior to mitigate the problem that occurred due to pedestrians’ behavior and reduce the statistic of crashes involving pedestrian.