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TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc526885206 h 2Physical impairment PAGEREF _Toc526885207 h 2Overview of Physical impairment PAGEREF _Toc526885208 h 2Challenges for Physical impairment PAGEREF _Toc526885209 h 2Specific impairment PAGEREF _Toc526885210 h 2Challenges for specific PAGEREF _Toc526885211 h 2Support- learner teacher support material PAGEREF _Toc526885212 h 2Specific support PAGEREF _Toc526885213 h 2specialized equipment PAGEREF _Toc526885214 h 2specialized equipment specific PAGEREF _Toc526885215 h 3Intellectual impairment PAGEREF _Toc526885216 h 3Overview of Intellectual impairment PAGEREF _Toc526885217 h 3Challenges for intellectual impairments PAGEREF _Toc526885218 h 3Specific impairment PAGEREF _Toc526885219 h 3Challenges for specific PAGEREF _Toc526885220 h 3Support- learner teacher support material PAGEREF _Toc526885221 h 3Specific support PAGEREF _Toc526885222 h 3specialized equipment PAGEREF _Toc526885223 h 4specialized equipment specific PAGEREF _Toc526885224 h 4Neurological impairment PAGEREF _Toc526885225 h 4Overview of neurological impairment PAGEREF _Toc526885226 h 4Challenges for neurological impairment PAGEREF _Toc526885227 h 4Specific impairment PAGEREF _Toc526885228 h 4Challenges for specific PAGEREF _Toc526885229 h 4Support- learner teacher support material PAGEREF _Toc526885230 h 4Specific support PAGEREF _Toc526885231 h 5specialized equipment PAGEREF _Toc526885232 h 5specialized equipment specific PAGEREF _Toc526885233 h 5Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc526885234 h 5Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc526885235 h 6
Overview of Physical impairmentAn impairment is a condition in which a part of a person’s body is damaged or is not working properly. They need assistance to be able to perform CITATION Col18 l 7177 (Collins English Dictionary, 2018). The physical impairment can exist in many degrees. The cause could be illness, heredity or an accident (Landsberg, Kruger, Swart 2016).
Challenges for Physical impairmentLearners often face the challenge that they don’t belong, due to not looking the other learners as they have wheelchairs or walking devices. Learners with muscular dystrophy struggle with low self-esteem and socializing as they feel they cannot do certain tasks by themselves. The learners often need help doing everyday tasks such as opening a door. Due to low physical strength they struggle to move so they will not be able to go from class to class quickly or even sitting in their chairsCITATION Lan l 7177 (Landsberg, et al., 2016).
Muscular dystrophy is a disease which disadvantages the way the learners learn. Muscular dystrophy makes the learners weaker as they lose muscle mass. Duchenne muscular dystrophy being the most common and is cause by a defective gene.
Challenges for specificDue to physical impairment they are unable to play sport. May not be able to go on school camp or if they can they will need assistance CITATION Min15 l 7177 (Ministry of education, 2015).
Support- learner teacher support materialDue to the learners needing a high level of assistance, the classroom should have a teacher and a teachers assistant so she is able to go help them with the smaller day to day things like opening the door while the teacher carries on teaching the lesson. Class pupil size being smaller might help as the teacher can the focus on the learners more as individuals, she will have more time to help each learner.
Specific supportA buddy system- help open their lunch box or even a door. Occupational therapy, make them excited to go there, Ask the occupational therapist questions to see how you as the teacher can help. Concessions for when they need to write tasks such as a scribe to write for them or extra time if takes them a bit longer to write CITATION Lan l 7177 (Landsberg, et al., 2016). Give them opportunities to be involved in the school environment like a cultural activity or score keeper for a specific sport.
All the resources in the school need to be made to accommodate children with physical impairments like being in a wheelchair, this allows for them to feel more welcome and less of a burden. Raised toilet seats and rails in the bathrooms so if they are strong enough they can go themselves.
specialized equipment specificTables should be high enough for the wheelchair to fit under the desk and enough space for them to move around the classroom. Allow for light weight keyboards if they struggle to write, this way they can do their own work, but it is neater and faster to type CITATION Lan l 7177 (Landsberg, et al., 2016). The learner should be allowed to have a guide dog/service dog. The dog can pick up items off the floor, assist with opening and closing doors , bark on command if something goes wrong or find a closely related person if learner needs assistance CITATION Gla18 l 7177 (Evans, 2018).
Intellectual impairmentOverview of Intellectual impairmentLimitations such as reasoning and learning, and difficulty carrying out the functions of daily life CITATION Ame16 l 7177 (American Heritage, 2016). This effects social skills which is your self-esteem and intrapersonal skills and practical skills which are everyday skills like safety and routine. CITATION Lan l 7177 (Landsberg, et al., 2016)Challenges for intellectual impairmentsLearners with intellectual impairments may have language delays due to violence or injury to the brain or a slow growth. Poor nutrition due to lack of funds, this will affect growth of the brain. Poor medical care, if care is lacking or non-existant you could get infections or other illnesses CITATION Lan l 7177 (Landsberg, et al., 2016).
Fragile X Syndrome is a mutation of the FMR1 gene which is found in the x chromosome. It is a genetic inherited disease. This protein plays a role in the nervous system CITATION Rup15 l 7177 (Gupta, 2015)Challenges for specificLearners with Fragile X Syndrome are often overwhelmed, and they struggle with change for no reason. The learners will sometimes have anxiety issues as they struggle to communicate their feelings. Learners will be okay during the day and then when they go home they might have involuntary actions such as spitting at their mother. Developing relationships is hard for them as they have poor eye contact and have many language delays. Sensory issues are a huge challenge for them as they are sensitive to sound, light, different tastes and textures.
Support- learner teacher support materialCollaboration between parents, teachers and therapists is very important. There needs to be more special need courses or workshops for the teachers to go on to learn about these impairments and the children who are in there class.
Specific supportThere is a three-step cycle which we need to give the learners, so they can learn to cope with their impairment and have a more successful day in learning. Firstly routine, due to anxiety and the dislike to change having a routine will support them. Schedules with pictures or words so they know when activities start or finish. Secondly is sensory which the teachers schedule for the individual as each learner is different and the program will affect their function every day at school. Thirdly language in case they are having a day where they don’t want to be involved we can use dialogues and stories, so they don’t realize they are learning even if they are distant.CITATION Sar12 l 7177 (Scharfenaker & Stackhouse, 2012) Speech and occupational therapy for extra support, more one on one time to help with language and physical problems he learner may suffer withCITATION Tar18 l 7177 (Tarleton & Saul, 2017).
Assistive equipment in class to help them stay relaxed in class. Big calenders and clocks so the learns know what time it is and what is happening that day, this may help them have less anxiety. More visual apparatus in class like Videos and posters rather than just telling them instructions. CITATION Rup15 l 7177 (Gupta, 2015)specialized equipment specificAs learners with fragile X syndrome become anxious easily we need specialized noise reduction head-phones and quiet areas to limit distractions and help with their sensitivity to sounds. Dimming lights to help with their sensitivity to lights CITATION Rup15 l 7177 (Gupta, 2015)Neurological impairment
Overview of neurological impairmentAny damage to, or deficiency of, the nervous system. CITATION Seg12 l 7177 (Segen’s Medical Dictionary, 2012) impairment involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems.
Challenges for neurological impairmentSpecific impairment
Foetal Alcohol Syndrome is a result of when the mother drinks large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy. Characteristics consist of: mental retardation which ranges from mild to severe, facial and cardiovascular abnormalities, low weight when born. (Miller,Cuttone, Israel 1981)
Challenges for specificLearners with neurological impairments struggle with concentrating so they struggle to sit and write tests, difficulty with sequencing, difficulty with memory, difficulty understanding relationships and weak generalizing skills. Socially they struggle to make friends as they are stubborn, and they struggle to predict others.
Support- learner teacher support materialThe most important thing for the teachers is to connect with the parents and know your learners. Teachers need to do continuous assessments and they need to try keep them informal maybe by speaking than writing, this will allow them to be more relaxed and less anxious. Use concrete reinforcements or reminders in the class to help change behaviour. Allow the child to think for themselves and problem solve. Do not do everything for them as they then feel they cannot do anything CITATION Jul96 l 7177 (Conry, 1996). Rhythmic techniques to make sure you have their attention.
Specific supportThey are at exorbitant costs but they are a high importance (Weeks ; Erradu, 2013). Technology- multi model, this will allow the students to retain the information and stay interested. Teachers can use smart boards to show stories. Build on previous knowledge or use what they are intrested in but make it concrete so they are hands on and involved. CITATION Jul96 l 7177 (Conry, 1996)specialized equipment
Sensory objects for stimulation, making the blood flow, keeping concentration and allowing for him to concentrate on that rather than the sounds going on around him. Timers so they know their time restraints, keep them focused. Teachers assistant to help the learner who needs help, so teacher can carry on with the lesson. CITATION Jul96 l 7177 (Conry, 1996)specialized equipment specificPersonal digital assistant to remind them when certain tasks are due or important dates in the term. Writing tools and spelling checkers to help build their confidence that can do it by themselves, promote independence. Recorder so they can record what the teacher says in class and play it when they get home, this will help them remember what happened in class and how they are going to do the specific task. Highlighters so they can remember where to start and where to stop. CITATION Eli15 l 7177 (Gromisch, 2015)Conclusion
BIBLIOGRAPHY American Heritage, 2016. Dictionary of English Language. Online Available at: https://www.thefreedictionary.com/intellectual+disabilityAccessed 15 September 2018.
Collins English Dictionary, 2018. Collins English Dictionary. Online Available at: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/physical-impairmentAccessed 15 September 2018.
Conry, J., 1996. Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effects. Online Available at: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/kindergarten-to-grade-12/teach/teaching-tools/inclusive/fetal-alcohol-syndrome.pdfAccessed 7 October 2018.
Evans, G., 2018. South African Guide-Dogs Association. Online Available at: https://guidedog.org.za/Accessed 6 October 2018.
Gromisch, E., 2015. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Assistive Technological Devices for FAS Students. Online Available at: https://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-neurological-disorders/123797-overview-of-assistive-technologies-for-students-with-fetal-alcohol-syndrome/Accessed 5 October 2018.
Gupta, R., 2015. Fragile X Syndrome. Online Available at: https://kidshealth.org/NCChildrens/en/parents/fxs-factsheet.htmlAccessed 6 October 2018.
Landsberg, E., Kruger, D. ; Swart, E., 2016. Addressing Barriers to Learning: A South African Perspective. third ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
Miller, M., Cuttone, J. ; Israel, J., 1981. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
Ministry of education, 2015. Physical Disabilities. Online Available at: http://www.inclusive.tki.org.nz/assets/inclusive-education/MOE-publications/MOESE0042Physicaldisabilities-booklet.pdfAccessed 30 September 2018.
Scharfenaker, S. ; Stackhouse, T. M., 2012. National Fragile X Foundation. Online Available at: https://fragilex.org/2012/fragile-xtras/strategies-for-day-to-day-life/Accessed 6 October 2018.
Segen’s Medical Dictionary, 2012. Free dictionary. Online Available at: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/neurologic+impairmentAccessed 15 September 2018.
Tarleton, J. C. & Saul, R. A., 2017. Fragile X Syndrome. Online Available at: https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/fragile-x-syndrome/Accessed 7 October 2018.
Weeks, F. & Erradu, J., 2013. THE INTELLECTUALLY IMPAIRED FOUNDATION-PHASE LEARNER – HOW CAN THE TEACHER SUPPORT THESE LEARNERS?. Online Available at: http://www.nwu.ac.za/sites/www.nwu.ac.za/files/files/SAeDUC/1.Erradu.pdfAccessed 10 September 2018.