According to Simon Monk in his book of Programming Arduino: Getting Started with Sketches, Arduino is a microcontroller platform that ideas and imagination can work possible with the use of this software and the electronics components. This is a good choice in preparing and creating projects related to electronics. It allows to connect the electronics parts by mixing or composting the program through Arduino software. Controlling is one of the ability of this software. By inputting a program, it can control things such as turn off or on of the lights and motors or to sense other things like temperature. Arduino is sometimes called as physical computing. This is because it can be connected to the laptop or computer and can use as a border to control electronic components from the laptop or computer. (Monk, 2012)
According to (Banzi & Shiloh, 2015) in the book of Make: Getting Started with Arduino by Massimo Banzi and Michael Shiloh, the Arduino software is also known as the Integrated Development Environment (IDE). Arduino IDE is based on the Processing language that was established to assist the user to develop computer art. Arduino was born to teach Interaction Design. Their definition for this is: Interaction Design is the design of any interactive experience. And the specific field of Interaction Design involved with Arduino is Physical Computing or Physical Interaction Design. It uses electronics to prototype latest things for the users. It contains the design of interactive objects that can communicate with humans by using sensors and actuators controlled as the program inputted in the software to the microcontroller. According to (Arduino, 2018), Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino boards are able to read inputs – light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message – and turn it into an output – activating a motor, turning on the LED, publishing something online. The user can tell the board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board.
According to (Sihombing, Karina, Tarigan, & Syarif, 2017), Automated Hydroponics Nutrition Plants Systems Using Arduino Uno Microcontroller Based on Android with the use of Arduino as a Microcontroller, Arduino has the ability to automatically control the flow of nutrient solution. The microcontroller can also have the ability to send the data of the needed information from the plant to the smartphone of the owner. In this study, the Arduino is effective to use as a microcontroller in controlling the system in the operation of the project.
According to (Buechley, Eisenberg, Catchen, & Crockett, 2008), the LilyPad Arduino: Using Computational Textiles to Investigate Engagement, Aesthetics, and Diversity in Computer Science Education, Arduino IDE is part of a larger combined software/hardware platform designed to introduce novices to physical computing ; the complete platform includes an Arduino hardware board in addition to the software. The Arduino IDE allows the users to write programs, in C or Processing, that control an Arduino board in this case, the LilyPad Arduino.