A PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
A PROJECT PROPOSAL ONREWARD MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A CASE NIGERIA PRISON SERVICE EBONYI STATE.
PRESENTED BYEZAKA NNEKA PRECIOUSFUNAI/BSC/14/0711A PROJECT PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTANCY, BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, BANKING AND FINANCE, FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY NDUFU ALIKE, IKWO, EBONYI STATE. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELORS OF SCIENCE (BSC) DEGREE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION. MAY, 2018.CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 RESEARCH FOCUSOne of the leading challenges in organizations has been implementing effective human capital strategies to enhance their performance. Employees, technically known as human resources in modern organizations, are rightly considered as the most important assets. Most businesses now have the line in their promotional activities saying “Our employees are our most important asset”.
Modern organizations need to take care of their assets and when it comes to employees then taking care means satisfying them by fulfilling their wants, both financial and nonfinancial (Yasmeen, Farooq and Asghar, 2013). The effectiveness of an employee is the key factor for the employer, because the profit the company or organisation makes depends on the employees’ productiveness. Some of the ways that employees can get effective are when they are committed and motivated; these can be determined by the way and manner which reward is managed. Reward Management is an easily understandable concept in theory, but how its practical application results often difficult.
The author, in fact, points up how frequently the company creates a Reward System hoping to reward a specific behavior, but ending up rewarding another one. (kerr, 1995)In the global world of today, for any organisation to have competitive edge amidst her competitors, there must be in place a formidable reward strategy to attract and motivate people to join the firm (Adeoye and Elegunde, 2014). However, investing money in the productivity of your employees is useless if the leaders do not understand how to recognize and reward those who are under them.
In addition to money, most people love receiving large amounts of praise and recognition for their accomplishments (Yasmeen, Farooq and Asghar, 2013).The need for organizations to develop a programme that will facilitate a performance-enhancing system leading to the best management and development of employees and thus increase their competitive advantage has made the links between human resource management and organisational performance a prominent issue in the field of human resource management across the core functional areas of human resource practices. These practices range from staffing, performance appraisals, training and development, manpower planning, workers management participation and reward management.
Notably, the relationship between reward management and performance has been visible in the management literature. It is generally believed that if there is proper management of reward, this will give employees incentive to work harder, which will benefit organization; individuals can be motivated to perform and thus have a resultant positive effect on the organisational performance (Tsai, 2005).Rewards play an important role in the success of the organisation. Rewards motivate employees to do work hard. People are motivated to get intrinsic rewards.
All employees are motivated by rewards. So if we want to get a success in competitive environment than we must need to achieve high performance of employees. Some people are motivated by extrinsic rewards such as increase in pay, promotions and bonus. Employees who are motivated by extrinsic rewards are less motivated. In this study subject area is HRM that focus on rewards system and organization performance in the banking sector.
If employees are motivated they will assure organizational success. Reward for the extra ordinary work is very important so that employees remain motivated to do work more efficiently (Yasmeen, Farooq and Asghar, 2013).Reward management is a global phenomenon that determines the hiring and retention of employees to attain the objectives of an organisation as well as that of an individual employee which is also used as a means of control and is the basis of involvement of individuals (Greckhamer, 2011; Xavier, 2014).
Cox, Brown and Reilly (2010) found that the North American reward strategy has greatly influenced the reward system in many parts of Europe especially UK. Nigeria being part of the global world, reward management also plays a vital role in motivating employees to work harder in order to accomplish the set goals of the organisation (Idemobi, Onyeizugbe and Akpunonu, 2011; Odunlade, 2012).Human beings are the most important component of an organization and without understanding their nature and behaviour, it may be very difficult to design an organization and formulate appropriate management strategies to achieve organizational goals.However, in studying human beings in an organizational setting, we need to focus on the question “do organization really act or do human beings in them”? Ajabo R.T (1998:33).In answering this questions, we need to look at the psychological forces motivating the actions of individuals in an organization, because as organization works towards achieving its overriding goals, human beings in it direct their actions towards achieving their individual goals that motivated their entry into the organization.
In otherworld, the psychological forces motivating the actions of individual in an organization is quite different from the intentions of the organizational action. Organization act as collectivities directing their actions towards an overriding goals but human beings act as individuals who are motivated by certain psychological factors.Moreso, we often ask ourselves these question “why do people behave the way they do? The answer we get points at motivation which is a term popularly used to refer to the cause of behaviour, because psychologists are aware that many aspects of human behaviors are determined by motivation, they confined the concept of motivation as those factors which energize and give direction to behaviour. Usually, a motivated person will engage in an activity more vigorously and more efficiently than a not motivated person.
Apart from activating a person, motivation tends to direct or focus on behaviours, for instance, a thirsty person is always ready to work for water to drink.Motivation and it’s impact on workers productivity and performance has attracted much attention among researchers, practitioners and students of organizational behaviour and it has always been stressed that motivation is a tool for productivity and lack of it affects workers morale and performance. Hence, employers of labour in fast growing economies believes that motivation is imperative if productivity is to be increased and job satisfaction enhanced.
In other words, there is a significant relationship between motivation and productivity, because motivation is a tool that initiates guides and maintain goals oriented behaviour. The word motivation is derived from the word motive which is input or desire that moves one towards a goal. A motive is also an inner state that directs a person to seek to satisfy a felt need.
In our country Nigeria, the positive instrument in the motivation of labour is money, some management thinks that by increasing the workers pay wage, they have gone a long way to achieve industrial peace, harmony, low labour turnover, increase in productivity, employee’s loyalty, commitment and dedication on duty. It is imperative to note that Nigerian workers do not only want increase in pay, they also want to be recognized, enjoy the work they do, be proud of their work and be identified with it. In the past, Nigerian workers might be satisfied, with basic necessities of life and cared less about the future, but in recent times, they have.*.been exposed to the good-things of life, desire a better future and are willing to work hard to get them. Motivation could be channeled towards the wrong direction by management concentration on good payment and allowances only.
A good motivational factor could be inform of provision of transport facilities for workers who experience difficulty in getting to work place,, housing allowance, medical services, good pension scheme, good social insurance policies etc. these will help the workers and at the same time induce productivity. 1.2 RESEARCH RATIONALEThe most critical responsibility of any organization such as the Nigerian prison service is to ensure the retention of a motivated work force. The only way of accomplishing this is through a good pay system, good working condition, adequate motivational scheme and effective management technique which will impact and improve positively on workers performance.
Regrettably, there have been records of absenteeism of workers, lack of commitment to duties by employees, low productivity of workers, workers strike, idleness, poor supervision by their employers, lack of human relation and employees showing Lukewarm attitude towards their job. The Nigeria prison service is faced with the condition or problem of ensuring productivity through motivation of workers, some of the factors militating against the efficiency and productivity of workers in the Nigerian prison service Ebonyi include:-I. inadequate motivational schemeii. Poor management/leadershipiii.
Problems of motivationIv. non-reforming of the prisonersresearch aim How does lack of motivational scheme affects workers performance in an organization?To what extent is leadership a bane to workers efficiency in the Nigerian prison serviWhat are the problems associated with staff motivation in the Nigerian civil service?How does the non-reforming of prisoners affect the efficiency of the service. Formulation of research objectivesA research is purposeful and goal oriented. It is in recognition of this fact, that this research is set to achieve the main objective of assessing the impact of motivation on staff performance in the civil service and other specific objectives which include;To determine and examine how lack of motivation affects workers performance in an organization. To examine and determine how leadership is a bane to workers efficiency in the Nigerian prison service Enugu. To identify and profer solutions to the problems associated with staff motivation in the Nigeria civil service.THE STRUCTURE OF DISSERTATIONThe findings of this study will help provide information on the reward management and organizational performance in the Nigeria prison services.
This will help the management of prison in Nigeria to design and implement effective reward management policies that are performance oriented. It is expected that this can be achieved when recommendations that will be made in this study will be adopted and/or adapted to suit the peculiar needs of each organization in the Nigeria prison services.The findings will also be of immense benefit to the academia. It will serve as a veritable source of literature on the subject of reward management and organizational performance. Hence, lecturers, researchers and students alike, will find this study very beneficial to them.
Finally, the findings from this study shall be of immense benefit to human resource practitioners and consultants. It will expose them to the utilization of reward management as a strategy for better management of organizational human resource, with a view to ensuring the maximisation of employee potentials. CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEWMany students, scholars and practitioners of organizational behaviour have written on motivation and how it impacts on workers performance. This is in recognition of the fact that proper motivation enhances good performance, which in turn leads to increase productivity to the sustenance of national economic growth and development. Productivity is the key to economic growth and development of a nation.
Good performance and high productivity are the hallmark of economic growth and development, whereas poor performance and low productivity are retardance to a country’s economic growth and development. 2.1 The Nature of MotivationAccording to Nwachukwu (2000), one of the major problems confronting every management in any organization is the issue of motivating the employees to perform assigned task to meet a required standard. He therefore defined motivation as that emerging force that induces, compels and maintains behaviour. Sambo. A.
(1988), for employees to perform efficiently in any organization, they have to be motivated. In line with this, he defined performance as ability times motivation P(AXM), he stated that, in this performance equation, it is usually assumed that the ability of employees is given, this assumption is justifiable since every entrant into the organization are screened through various text before entry. Similarly, Sambo says that motivation is a situational and colloquial measure in any management; therefore, it is important for managers of organization to motivate their workers in order to get the best from them, since motivation according to Sambo equation of performance is the variable through which management can influence workers performance.Similarly Eyre (2003), perceived motivation as the energizing force that induces or compel and maintain behaviour. From every definition, we understand the fact that human behaviour is motivated towards goal achievement.
According to Donaldio (1992: 40), motivation is the act of stimulating some one to action by creating a safe environment in which their motivation can be unleashed and through providing a reason for incentive for people to produce positive result for the achievement of organizational goals.According to Knootz et al (1992), motivation is a general concept applying to the entire class of drives, desired needs wishes and similar forces. Equally to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy these desires and induce the employees to act in a desired manner.However, in every organizational set up, the motivational process is concerned with how behaviors gets started, energized, sustained, directed, stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is the people working to satisfy needs and effort towards goals which provide the means of satisfy such needs.
Thus, the harder people work the higher they get motivated. Motivation is a process by which behavior is mobilized and sustained in the interest of meeting individual needs and achieving organizational objectives.Finally, understanding the nature of motivation is an important managerial skill, because motivation is the set of forces that causes people to choose certain behaviours from among the many alternatives open to them. Motivation is also important because of its significance as a determinant of performance and its intangible nature.2.
2 Theories of MotivationThe main task of every management or administration is the coordination of men and materials for the achievement of an organizational goal. This can be attained or achieved through a proper motivation of all employees in an organization, that is to say that motivation is not a distinctive process but a reference to another context of an organization.However, the importance of motivation as an instrument for increasing staff performance and productivity in modern organization has been a critical issue since early 20th century. The persistent researches undertaken by students and researchers on these subject has led to the formulation of various management and motivational theories, these theories are usually based on the belief that individuals seeks only pressures and try as much as possible to minimize displeasure. Interestingly, the best known and most influential of these theories is that of Abraham Maslow (1943), whose theory of motivation is based on clinical observation and logic, he provided five classification of human need, which includes;PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS: – The physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival, if these requirements are not met, the human body can not function properly, and will ultimately fail.
Physiological needs are thought to be the most important, they should be met first. Air, water, shelter and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals including humans.SAFETY NEEDS: – With their physical needs relatively satisfied. The individuals safety needs takes precedence and dominate behaviour. In the absence of physical safety due to war, natural disaster, family violence, child abuse etc, people may experience post-traumatic stress, disorder or trans generational trauma. In the absence of economic safety due to economic crisis and lack of work opportunities these safety needs manifest themselves in ways such as a preference for job security, grievance procedure for protecting a worker against threat, these need also include need for protection against danger and deprivation of rights.SOCIAL NEEDS: – This is also known as belongingness and love need.
This need concerns the human need for social belongingness and social needs. Needs in this category could be, affection and a sense of belonging to groups. It also includes the need for friendship and acceptance in the society.ESTEEM NEEDS: – this is a desire for reputation and prestige, social status, fame glory, dominance, recognition attention, importance, dignity and appreciation.
Humans will therefore be motivated to get these needs covered, which will potentially motivate them especially in a job context.SELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDS:- when all other needs are satisfied, human will potentially pursue self actualization needs. This need is the highest of all needs and is seen as the final stage of human need accomplishment.The hierarchy of needs model is very popular to diagnose human motivation, but it may not be generally applicable to a non-western mindset. People coming from other parts of the world may not be motivated by the same factors, or may not have the same needs. This problem was elaborated by Nevis (1983), who conducted an analysis of the Chinese workforce.
This analysis concluded that Chinese people may have a different hierarchy of needs than most western and American employees. This hierarchy of needs is .of oftentimes used to describe employee satisfaction and motivation, but it can potentially also describe motivational factors within consumer purchase processes.
Self Actualization NeedEsteem Need Social Need Safety Need Physiological Need Morgan T.C and King R.A (1966) model of motivational path way.Maslow argued that people in an organization are motivated to work by a desire to satisfy a set of integral need. He said that, when one need is satisfied, the individual is motivated by the next need.
Maslow hierarchy of needs has been criticized for its failure to provide any empirical evidence. The theory has not actually received a great deal of empirical validation and the original word of Maslow did not include any actual behavioural evidence to support the theory. The fact is that the model is difficult to test, moreover, the need categories are vague and clearly over lap one another and the back step hierarchy is not a universal characteristic.However, most scholars, student and practitioners of organizational behaviour agree on it’s relevance, because no matter how human needs are categorized, there are important in the understanding of human behaviour within an organizational setting.Another human relation theorist, MC Gregor D. (1960). In his work “the human side of enterprises”, advanced two beliefs about human behaviour that could be held by different managers, this divergent views of managers conforms to their perceptions of the nature of human beings.
He used two sets of assumptions made by managers about their employees. The first assumption he summarized in what he calls “theory x” which views man on the following principles:-An average human being has an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it, if he can.Because of these human characteristic of dislike of work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to get them put fort adequate effort towards the advancement of organizational objective. An average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, and has relatively little ambition and want security above all.The assumption of workers under this principle or concept of managements is that they posses potentials that is generally untapped by most working environment. “Theory Y” has the following sets of assumptions:-The expenditure of physical and mental effort in a work is as natural as play or rest.
External control and threat of punishment are not the best means of bringing out the best effort needed for the achievement of organizational objectives; rather people will exercise self direction, control and determination towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives if they are motivated.Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement, the most important of such reward is to satisfy the ego and self actualization needs as a direct product of efforts directed towards organizational objective. An average human being learns under proper condition, not only to accept but also to seek responsibilities. The capability to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity as the solution to organizational problems is normally distributed in the population.Under the condition of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of an average human being is only partially utilized. MC Gregors theory presents its tents of participation and concern for workers moral.
He encouraged managers to delegate the authority of decision making, enrich and enlarge jobs by making themselves repetitive as the wrap to motivate employees to higher productivity. Critic of the theories X and Y opined that the theories do not tally with our traditional life pattern.Moreso, Fredrick Hertzberg (1996), motivation theory in his own studies, established two factors which presence do not increase workers satisfaction on a job, but their absence may lead to dissection and low productivity among employees. Such extrinsic job conditions are environmental factors which employees have limited influence, they include interpersonal relation, company policy, administration, supervision and working condition. These are called hygience factors or dissatisfies.Hertzberg also noted other job content factors which he called motivators. He added that workers performance can also be improved by means of adjustment in such intrinsic factors as the work itself, reorganization, achievement, responsibility and advancement, these he called satisfactions.
The significance of Hertzberg’s two factors there is that management will not only rely on intrinsic reward for motivating employees.Although, researchers using Hertzberg’s method have often supported that two factors theory, it has also been subjected to a high degree of criticism, for instance, his method of gathering data is questionable, critics argued that his questioning method tended to attribute good result to their effort and blame other people for poor and unfavourable result. This critics beliefs may have influenced Hertzberg’s feelings.
However, his theory in so many ways has gross over simplification at various aspects of other motivational theories clearly shown in it. It has made a major contribution in focusing attention on job redesign for the purpose of making the work more intrinsically satisfying.Victor Vroom (1964) in his own contribution advanced the expectance valence theory which states that individual workers believes that working hard will lead to salary increment, he will intensify his effort and work hard in other to increase his salary in other words, people are motivated to work towards achieving some goals to the extent that they expect that certain action on their part will help them achieve the organizational goal. The expectancy valence theory has two outcomes, the first level outcome, the first level outcome include good performance and bad performance whereas the second level outcome include pay increase and promotion. The significance of this theory is that a manager takes cognizance of the relationship between the first and second level outcomes and uses this to motivate his subordinates. Critics said that the valence theory “is difficult to research and apply in practice”.According to Koontz et al (1912) and Olatunde Okolo (1979) who researched into Vroom’s instrumentality model to the Nigerian situation found out that instruments does not exist between perceived reward and hard work, about 49% of 405 workers interviewed opined that people were promoted mostly for being the favorite of their bosses.
Ejiofor P. N. O (1981) persisted that generally in Nigeria, there is a broken link between reward due to bad management, corruption, nepotism, favoritism and indiscipline on the part of the bosses. Many motivation theorist and managers believes that there is a direct relationship between employees motivation in the organizational and increased productivity at work. A feeling of job satisfaction motivates employees to go to work and remain with the organization. It is also believed that a satisfied employee contributes to increased productivity as he puts his best. Satisfaction is an outcome of the rewards employee received in exchange for their contribution to the organization.
Smith et al (1969) in explaining the effect of morale on the level of productivity of an employee on the job described, the term as an attitude of satisfaction, with or desired to contrive in a willingness to strive for the goals of a particular organization, the high morale of the employee is important as plant productivity and efficiency of operation in attaining necessary output standards. High morale is prerequisite to avoid industrial conflict. Another motivation theorist P.T.
young (1961) sees motivation specially as the process of arousing action, sustaining the action in progress and regulating the pattern of activity. Also Gardener Murphy (1947) considers motivation as the general name for the fact that an organization act is partly determined by its own nature or internal structure. On the other hand, Mailer NRF. (1949) use the term motivation to characterize the process by which the expression is influenced by consequence to which such behaviour leads.According to Hebb O.
O (1949) the chief problem that the psychologists are concerned with when they speak on motivation as not being only a arousal of activity but also it patterning and directive is in it’s nature, further in his own term, he wrote the term motivation as:-a. The existence of an organization phase sequenceb. It’s direction or contentc. It’s persistence in a given direction or stability of content this means that motivation is not a distinctive process, but a reference in another context, to the same process to which Sight refers it also mean that the working normal adult always has some motivation. Hebb later re-examined the question, and in an excellent example of self correction on the basis of further evidence and analysis, reversed himself separating the arousal respect of sensory events. Only the later are motivational concept without a function it cannot exist arousal is synonymous with a general drive state. The drive is an energizer but not guide and again drive is a process, which provides the energy of movement but like the engine of an automobile, does not determine which of the involvement will be.
According to Onyehalu A.S (1988), motivation, entails a serious consideration of the goods and motivate the producer who observes human behaviour it is essentially an external urge, drive or tension that tire an organization into action. These urge or drive are needs which pushes one towards achieving a goal in other words, needs serve as the basis of motivation. Morgan C.T and King R.A (1966) considered motivation as a cycle phenomenon where motivation leads the organism to perform and instrumental action which in turn leads to the attainment of goals and the achievement of at least temporary relief and satisfaction.
Motive (needs) Instrument actionReliefSatisfactionGoalMorgan T.C and King R.A (1966) model of motivational path way.Kirt Patrick KS (1970) observed that a need arises when desire to achieve and acquire something compels a person to act or fill in certain ways and forms that satisfaction is higher more complex needs.Henry (1938) like Maslow proposed a hierarchical theory of human need. His theory is very comprehensive and has two broad divisions known as the viscerogenic needs these needs over wise called biological or physiological needs correspond with the physiological needs of Maslow’s theory, they are primary needs that satisfy hunger, thirst and sleep as well as the need to respire and excrete waste- product. This viscerogenic needs can be categorized into two parts: Need for material things, such as need for feeding, drinking and breathing in oxygen for respiration.
Need to remove undesirable and harmful substance, like the need for defection urination, perspiration and removal of carbon dioxide.2.3 Brief History of Nigerian Civil ServiceThe Nigerian civil service has it’s origin in organizations established by the British in the colonial era.
Nigeria gained full independence in October 1960 under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary government and a substantial measure of self-government for the country’s three regions. Since then, various panels have studied and made recommendations for reforming of the civil service, including the Morgan commission of 1963, the Adebo commission of 1971 and the Udoji commission of 1972- 74. A major change occurred with the adoption in 1979 constitution modeled on that of the United States. The 1988 civil service reorganization decree promulgated by General Ibrahim Babangida had a major impact on the structure and efficiency of the civil service.
The later report of the Ayida panel made recommendations to reverse some of the past innovations and to return to a more efficient civil service of earlier years.More so, the service has been undergoing gradual and systematic reforms and restructuring since May 29, 1999 after decades of military rule. However, the civil service is still considered stagnant and inefficient, and attempts made in the past by panels have had little effect. In August 2009 the head of the civil service Stephen Osagiede Oronsaye proposed reforms where permanent secretaries and directors would spend a maximum of eight years in office. The reform approved by President Umaru Yar’ Adua would result in massive retirement of permanent secretaries and directors, many of whom are from the North.
Stephen Oronsaye said. That his goal is for the Nigerian civil service to be among the best organized and managed in the world. Oronsaye retried in November, 2010 at the statutory age of 60 and was succeeded by Oladapo Afolabi who is still working on that direction. 2.
4 A Brief History of the Nigerian Prison ServiceNigeria had a dual prison system for more than a half century until the consolidation of the federal and local prisons in 1968. The Nigerian prison service, a department of the ministry of internal affairs, was headed by a director responsible for administering nearly 400 facilities, including regular prisons, special penal institutions and Lockups. All these facilities since 1975 came under federal control each state had its own prison headquarters under the supervision of an assistant director of prisons and the prisons themselves depending on type, size, and inmate population were variously under a chief superintendents, superintendent or assistant superintendentIn 1989, the prison staffs were reported to be 18,000 an apparent decrease from the 23,000 level in 1983, the average daily prison population in 1976 was nearly 26,000, a 25 percent increase from 1975. Ten years later, Nigeria’s prison population was about 54,000. Lagos state accounted for the largest number about 6,400. Anambra, Borno and Kaduna housed more than 4,000 each, Kwara, Niger and Ondo with fever than 1,000 each, had the smallest inmate population.
By 1989 the prison population had increase to 58,000. Prison admission increased steadily from about 130,000 in 1980 to more than 206,000 in 1984 the most common offenses were theft, assault, traffic violations, and unlawful possession, which together accounted for 53 percent of prison admission between 1982 and 1984. Theses represented the largest single category of offenders, accounting for between 37 and 46 percent of prison admissions to prisons in Kaduna, Lagos, Borno, Kano, Plateau, Gongola and Benue exceeded 10,000 in 1983. This figure did not reflect the geographical distribution of crimes. However, because more than 10,000 prisoners each were from Anambra, Benue, and Borno cross River, Gongola, Imo, Kaduna, Kano and Sokoto. People between the ages of twenty six and fifty consistently constituted the largest category of prisoners, ranging between 53 and 78 percent between 1980 and 1984, in 1984 Christians and Muslims accounted for 45 and 37 percent of prison admissions, respectively, and women for almost 4 percent in the same year, only 32 percent of prisoners admitted were convicted whereas the rest were on remand and awaiting trial among those convicted, about three-four served terms of less than two years, while 59 percent were first- time offenders and 41 percent were recidivist.
Foreigners constituted an unknown proportion; in 1989 for example about 2,000 aliens from other West African states were held in Kanuna’s federal prisons for illegal emerald mining. Although prison policy called for provision of legal, religious, educational, vocational and social welfare services, Nigeria’s prison system as in most third world countries was grossly inadequate. There was no systematic classification of prisoners, so that young and suspects for minor offenses most of whom were partial detainees and first time offenders incarcerated fro extended periods and eventually released upon acquittal were intermixed with dangerous and deranged criminals or repeat offenders despite ever- increasing prison admissions and an inmate population more than double the prison system’s capacity, after a development project allocation of N50 million in 1983, capital expenditures for prisons between 1985 and 1988 ranged only between N3 million and Nil.6 million. Overall, by the late 1980s the overcrowding rate of the prison systems exceeded 200 percent, with 58, 000 inmate housed in facilities designed to accommodate 28,000 in some prison it was much worse although the government had announced a prison construction program, little progress was evident and condition were projected to worsen by the year 2000, Nigeria’s prison population was expected to be almost 700,000. Apparently unable to deal with the prison crisis systematically, the government resorted to periodic amnesties to reduce the inmate population, usually on the occasion of a regime anniversary or a national holiday. General Buhari freed 2,500 prisoners, including 144 political detainees, in early 1985 the APR directed state governors to release old, sick, under aged and handicapped prisoners on Independence Day in 1989, and the government granted general amnesty in 1990 to more than 5,000 inmate who had served three-four of their sentences, and has been jailed for minor offenses with terms that did not exceed one year or who had served at least ten years of a life sentence.
The criminal justice system was so backlogged that at least three-five of the country’s prison population consisted of pretrial detainees rather than convicts. Reform and rehabilitation programs were nominal and the prisons were aptly dubbed “colleges for criminals” or breeding grounds for crime- for example in the late 1980s the majority of the 2,000 inmates awaiting trial at Ikoyi spent nine years in detention for minor offenses which on conviction would have carried prison terms of less than two years. The egregious conditions at the Kirikiri Maximum-security facility were highlighted when Chief Ebenezer Babatope’s 1989 prison memoir, inside Kirikiri was published. In mid 1990 the government was considering anadvisory committee recommendation to separate detainees from prisoners.Most prisons had no toilet facilities and cells lacked water, medical facilities were severally limited, food which represented 80 percent of annual prison expenditure was inadequate, despite a prison agricultural program designed to produce local food stuffs for the commercial market.
Malnutrition and disease were therefore rampant. In March 1990, the minister of justice said that the prisoners feeding allowance had been increased from N 1.5m to N 5m and that health and other problem were being studied. Mistreatment of inmates was common, abuse frequent and torture occasional.
In may 1987 at Benin prison, armed police killed twenty four inmates rioting over food supplies and in 1988 a secret ten-year-old detention camp on ota Oko Island, off Lagos, was exposed and nearly 300, prisoners died of natural causes in 1984 and 79 committed suicide, a dramatic increase from the average of 12 suicides per year between 1980 and 1983. Ikoyi alone recorded more than 300 deaths in 1988 and 42 deaths in the first three months of 1989-in June 1989, the civil liberties organization fired suit on behalf of 1,000 detainees held without trial at Ikoyi, charging the government with mistreatment and urging that the 113 year old prison be closed.2.5 Employee Satisfaction and Increased ProductivityEmployee satisfaction, engagement and overall happiness has proven time and time again to be a surefire way to foster or motivate employees to do more for their organizations.
They are more productive try harder and are more loyal to their organization, ensuring long term employee satisfaction is a key to an organizations success and reducing disruptive tendencies like frequent turnover.However, the following are ways to ensure employee satisfaction in an organization:a. Hire the right person for the right Job: It is imperative to ensure that an organization puts serious thought and time into the hiring process, because this can save a lot of headaches later on, placing a qualified, motivated prospect in a position where he has the appropriate background and breadth of experience is of key importance. An employee who is either under-employed or over-employed will not find satisfaction and meaning in his or her job therefore ensuring that the right prospect is hired the first time will make any transition easier on all employees involved. A person who is satisfied with his job and position in an organization is motivated to enhance performance.
b. Foster a Culture of Appreciation: When employees feel appreciated both by their organization and by their peers, they are motivated to maintain in high level of work both to impress management and maintain good standing among peers it is also the duty of the employer to show appreciation to his employees for who they are and the work they do. Using small spot rewards when an employee goes above and beyond their job description can go a long way in motivating them for greater performance in future. Rewards can include an extra afternoon off, a unique career development opportunity like workshop or training session a small domination gift card, extra-pay etc.c. Employees/Workforce Engagement: Engaging employees in creating organization culture and making decision give them a sense of belonging and recognition which spur them up for increased productivity.
Employees that don’t find their work interesting and don’t feel they are contributing to the mission of the firm will not be engaged. For employees to be satisfied, they must feel like they are part of something bigger than just what their individual work tasks are. Creating a constant feedback loop to employees is a way of creating an environment that will keep employees satisfied and fulfilled.d. Positive work Environment: An upbeat and conducive environment or work place is a necessity.
If the work place is not positive, you cannot expect the workers to do well, encouraging one another, avoiding micro management, giving positive feedback and ensuring criticism is constructive are all ways to keep the environment a place where employees can survive. Moreso, providing modern office equipments such as computers and other electronic devices which makes work easier and fast is also of up most importance in ensuring workers satisfaction.e. Provide Competitive Benefits: Fair wages are important but competitive benefits are also critical to keeping your work force satisfied. If your benefits package is thin, employees may look for other opportunities with firms that are more generous.
Beyond insurance, benefits such as flex time, paid holidays and personal days are important factors for employees satisfaction. f. Employee Orientation: One of the best ways to have satisfied employees is to make sure they are pleased from the get go, offering a through orientation will ensure expectation are realistic and that new staffs don’t come in with rose coloured glasses that will quickly fade, proper on boarding encourages positive attitude and reduce turnover. g. Develop Skills: every one needs something to work towards, stagnation is unfulfilling employees have more potential than their current level of functionality.
Encouraging employees to fulfill that potential will increase engagement and satisfaction whether its training opportunities, mentoring online courses or external training encourages staffs to always be improving their skills. 2.6 Motivation Tools and Technique.Motivation is the sure way to enhance workers satisfaction, in other wards, for employees to be satisfied they need to be motivated and for them to be properly motivated managers of organization needs to adopt the best motivation tools or technique that best fit such employees. The following are motivational tools and techniques that can be adopted by managers.
1. Job Enrichment: Job enrichment emphasized the need to make a job more challenging and meaningful. A job is enlarge when additional elements are added to the vertical job content, job enrichment is consistent with the motivational factors of Hurberg two factor theory of motivation.According to Flippo, a job can be enlarge by:-Introducing workers more latitude in decision making, Giving workers a feeling of personal responsibility.Ensuring that workers see how their effort contributes to organization progress.
Giving workers feedback on their determinants Involving workers in external and internal changes in the work environment.2. Job Enlargement: According to Ogunwonji (1982), a job is enlarged when additional elements are added to the Horizontal job content, thereby lengthening the work cycle which will require additional skills and provide a greater sense of accomplishment and task identity. He argued that job enlargement is useful to staffs whose energies are not fully utilized on one job, but possess the potentials to handle more tasks which would be beneficial to the company as productivity increases.3.
Promotion: according to Ubeku (1975), employees want to see a change for the better in their work place, for example, a clerk would like to become a senior clerk and a sales man a senior salesman.Promotion brings along with it, not more money but a work of recognition of the individuals performance. Consequently, in order to justify this recognition, the promoted employee puts in more effort in his work.Ubeku (1975) concluded that promotion puts a new life in the individual and activates his knowledge, skills etc and consequently, he strives harder to be more effective in his new job, thereby making the motivating effect of promotion high.4.
Authority and Accountability: Ubeku (1975) believes that one of the major factors in motivating a job holder is to give him increase authority and hold him responsible and accountable for result. According to him, the situations will posse a challenge to which the job holder will react.2.7 Situational Approach to MotivationA situational approach to motivation implies that one theory or technique to motivation can not be applied to all kinds of situations; this is because people are different and has different needs. These has prompted Koontz.
O. Dennel and Rich (1980) to conclude that what managers do as to induce individual effort to accomplish organizational objectives must be clearly taken into account because of the difference in individuals, group and organization.The application of motivation techniques should therefore be based on precutting situations:-It was found that retrenchment threats fear and underestimation of fellow workers.Majority view shows that retrenchment threats to sudden resignation of appointments Majority opinion has it that the term of external management consultants expert.
2.8 Causes of low productivity in the Nigerian prison serviceBase on the research carried out, the causes of low productivity in the Nigeria prison service Enugu are as follows:-1. Employment of non-professionals: there are many graduates that have their paper qualification, but there are only few that knows what they studied in school.
During recruitment the commission will select those who are not qualified to do the work and once the right people are not selected, it will affect the productivity of the service.2. Lack of Training: In the Nigeria prison service, there is lack of seminar, workshop and conference, where staff will be taught the best techniques on how to discharge their duties, these lack of training makes the workers to lack ideas to do these job effectively because this is a means of exposing them to know the job they are doing well.3.
Lack of organizational relationship: there is lack of organizational relationship between the employers and the employees, the employers do not relate well with the employees, in the Nigeria prison service. The employers do not help the employees to execute their job very well. The managers do not look at what their subordinates are doing whether what they do is right or wrong is non-of their business what they know is that at the end of the month they will collect their salaries.
2.8.1 Problems of motivation in the Nigerian prison serviceMotivation in the Nigerian prison service is associated with the following problem:Inadequate motivational facilities such as money, training facilities etc impinges on managers’ ability to motivate their staff.Motivations of workers are based on nepotistic and affective consideration instead of merit.Promotions are based on the bosses’ favorites instead of individuals’ hard work and commitment to duties.There are no rewards for excellent workers who go extra mails in ensuring the achievement of organizational objectives.
Workers are not recruited based on individual qualifications but on whom you know and where you come from. 2.9 Improving Motivation in the Nigeria Prison ServiceThere are many ways of improving motivation in the Nigerian prison service. For personnel managers to motivate their workers to achieve high productivity in their work, the managers should adopt the following means;There should increase the workers salary to motive them to work and also award the best workers that performed well.The managers should dismiss any worker who does not take his/her work seriously or is not regular in office.The workers should also be disciplined and any body who disobey or miss behaves should be suspended.There should be promotion of workers who work very hard so as to boast the other workers morale.
There should be job security to enable workers do their work with all their mined and without any fear.2.9.1 Critique of Review of the Related LiteratureSo much literature abounds in the area of reward management in the Nigeria prison and across the globe.
The researcher identified quite a number of these gaps which she hopes to close with her investigation on reward management and organizational performance in the Nigerian prison service. The researcher does not claim to have all the knowledge on the subject of study, which is why she has reviewed the works of great scholars on reward management; she has also modeled her work based on that of these researchers with unavoidable differences with the intention of bridging the gaps in time frame, economic background, the study focus and geographical location. The researcher therefore intends to close the following gap in the Literature:Time FrameSome of the works in reward management were conducted in a different time frame; in a couple of years ago in the past with a little less significant technological advancement as in the present.
The researcher hopes to conduct her research to close the time gap in similar studies conducted in the past. Some of the studies that were recent were not conducted with focus in the prison service.Economic BackgroundMost of these studies were conducted in a more superior or/and inferior economy than that of the researcher (Nigeria), the researcher also intends to see what the result will be like in a country with a different economic background such as Nigeria.
In agreement with Agwu (2013), the researcher observes that despite the fact that Reward Management has received so much research attention lately, majority, if not all of these studies have dwelt more on either developed, first world countries or on more superior economies with little done about the more inferior economies of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs); this is amongst the reasons why the researcher decided to embark on this study Geographical Location:Only a few of these studies were conducted in Nigeria, those that were carried out in Nigeria focused on other parts rather than prison service. The researcher therefore intend to close up the gap and bring the study to Nigeria, especially in the prison service. 2.9.2 Research Questions The following research questions were used for this study:What is the nature of the relationship between reward management and employee commitment?What is the extent of the relationship between intrinsic reward and extrinsic reward?What types of reward reduce employee turnover?What is the impact of empowerment on employees’ productivity?How does organization-sponsored staff training affect prison service?2.9.3 Research HypothesesThe following hypotheses were raised for analysis:There is a positive relationship between reward management and employee commitmentThere is a significant relationship between intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewardsAppreciation, recognition, staff promotion, empowerment, bonuses, fringe benefit and pay raise reduce employee turnover.
Empowerment significantly affect employees’ productivity Organisation-sponsored staff training positively affect bank’s return on investment2.9.4 Summary of Review of Related LiteratureThe review of related Literature comprises:Conceptual Framework: on the conceptual Framework, the concept of Reward was reviewed under the following sub headings: meaning of rewards, types of rewards, Objectives of Reward Benefits of Reward, Concept of Reward Strategy, Total Reward Approach, Difficulties in the Development of Reward Strategies, Reward Strategy Trend in Nigeria, Concept of Reward Management, Methods of Rewards Management, Concept of Organisational Performance, Reward and Performance.Theoretical Framework: Theoretical review consists of some fundamental theories of Motivation: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg’s Two Factor Model, Expectancy Theory, Goal Theory and Equity Theory, Expectancy Theory of MotivationEmpirical Review: the empirical review examines the empirical works of scholars on reward management which contributed facts that supported this study.CHAPTER THREERESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY3.1 Research DesignIt is imperative to mention here, that the research design serve as a framework for collecting data which are relevant for a study.
Obodoeze (1996) defined research design as a term used to describe a number of decisions which need to be taken regarding the collection of the data before the data is collected. This is used for the purpose of obtaining data that enables the researcher answer research question.There are different types of research design but the one adopted by the researcher is the survey research. This can be done through the use of questionnaire or oral interview. Survey research is the systematic gathering of information from respondents for the purpose of understanding or predicting some aspect of the population of interest.
3.2 Research Methodologylyiogwe (2002) defined research methodology as the systematic process or procedure designed for generating, collecting and analyzing the data required for solving a specific research problem or for the purpose of a successful completion of such a research. It is also important in terms of helping a researcher to evaluate the findings and conclusion. This research study was conducted based on a combination of two methods of researches, which are descriptive and analytical research which helps in studying and examining the various units and department of the Nigerian prison service Abakaliki with motivation and it impact on workers performance as the focal focus.3.3 Area of the StudyThe study centres on the impact of motivation on staff performance in the civil service a case of the Nigerian prison, therefore all workers of the Nigerian prison service Abakaliki are deemed relevant to the study.
3.4 Sources of Data CollectionThere are two sources the researcher used to collect this data; there are primary and secondary sources of data collection. The application of both data collection technique was adopted by the researcher so as to make the research findings as reliable as possible.Primary Source of DataThe primary sources of data comprises the questionnaire which the researcher sent out to the 267 respondents, moreso, the researcher collected some data from personnel interviews, which she conducted.Secondary source of dataSecondary sources of data collection are source of datacollection which is not originally collected; rather it came from other sources, which are not raw.
The researcher got some data for this study from the following sources :-i. Newspapersii. Magazinesiii. Internetiv.
Journalsv. periodicalsvi. Seminar and workshop papersvii. Dictionaries3.5 Population of the StudyThe population of this study comprises of all the civil servants in the different departments that make up the Nigerian prison service Abakaliki.
The sample population was divided into two, the trained (educated) and the untrained (uneducated) staffs of the service, the total population studied in this research work is the entire staff population of the study is 800 (eight hundred) The various department/offices in the Nigerian prison service Abakaliki with their number of staffDepartments/offices Number of staffThe welfare department 95The record office 110The agricultural unit 170The master yard office 120The in-charge station office 140The main office (administration unit) 165Total 800Source: Ezaka field work 20183.6 Sample size and Sampling TechniqueThe population of staff studied was put at (800) eight hundred. To determine the sample size, the Yaro Yamani formula Was adopted by the researcher.
According to Yaro Yamani (1964: 280), to determine a Sample size from a population.n = n(1 + Ne)2WhereN= sample sizeN= population size (800)E= acceptable error limit (0.05)1= constantN = 800 1 + 800(0.05)2 N = 800 1 + 800(0.0025) N = 800 1+2= 267N= 267Distribution of questionnaire to different department offices of The Nigerian prison serviceDepartments/offices Number of staffThe welfare unit 52The record office 40The agricultural unit 47The master yard office 38The in-charge station office 40The main office 50Total 267Source: Ezaka fieldwork 2018.
The researcher felt that the sample is sufficient for the effective conduct of this research work, the table below shows the description of the population.Workers/staff Population Percentage”Trained statf 150 56%Untrained staff 117 44%Total 267 100%Source: Ezaka field work 2018.The sampling technique adopted by the researcher in the course of writing this work is based on stratified random sampling technique. The sampling technique was choosen by the researcher to enable her study the civil servants from the six departments of the Nigerian prison service Abakaliki. 3.7 DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENTThe investigation conducted in this study comprised mainly the use of questionnaire and interview.The questionnaire was purely developed by the researcher after going through past records and works in the service.
The questionnaire copies were distributed to respondents by hand. The application method was used to ensure that questionnaire reached the appropriate respondents, who compiled and made their responses clear before submitting those copies back to the researcher.3.8 VALIDITY Validity is to identify whether the developed instrument agree with the research question in other to do some amendment so that there will be no form of subdivisions when it is distributed te the respondents.To ascertain the validity of the instrument used, the researcher sent the questionnaire to some expert in the field who ensure its validity because of their knowledge and experience. The inputs of these experts enabled the researcher to be sure of the questions in the instrument (questionnaire).
Questionnaire was used to get the opinion of the employees of the Nigerian prison service. 3.8.1 Reliability of the instrumentReliability refers to the ability of an instrument to produce the same consistent result over time when applied to the same sample.
(Good and Hart, 1952): Black and champion (1976). The researcher employed the stratified random sampling technique whereby the researcher administered and allows the respondents to choose from series of answers. Hence, this consistency of the result collected from the selected stratified random sampling made the researcher to conclude that the instrument was reliable. 3.9 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSISThese deals with the type of statistical tools applied in analyzing the research data. The data collected from the research questionnaire responses were presented in percentages to interpret the frequency of responses and these responses frequencies were put into tables. The responses were carefully concentrated in tables as follows.
XN x 1001Where x = Observed value and N = Total observationMoreso, the data were analyzed using the statistical summarization technique chi-square (x2) method for empirical testing of the hypothesis that guided the study.The formula is given as(x2) (chi-square) = (0-E)2EWhere O = Observation frequency E = Expected frequency.CHAPTER FOURDATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS4.1 Presentation and Analysis of DataThe data analysis and research findings are discussed and analyzed under these heading. The source of the analyzed data is the administered questionnaire. In analyzing the data collected in carrying out this research and interpreting the hypothesis so far deduce, the researcher made use of tables and percentages. In using this method, a number of tables were used in analyzing the responses to the questionnaire the frequency of every option in each of the questions determined and the percentage calculated and compared based on the total number of responses, whereby the responses with greater hypothesis were accepted but where it is lesser than it is rejected, this method helped to improve the validity and invalidity of the hypothesis.
Section A: of the questionnaire contained the personal data of the respondents, touching on sex, marital status, age etc Table 1: distribution of respondents by sexSex Responses PercentageMale 137 51%Females 130 49%Total 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.From the above table, it can be seen that there are more male respondents than female, the total number of male respondents is 137 which represent 51% and 130 which represented 49% for female respondents Table 2: Distribution of respondents by age.Age Responses PercentageBelow 30 years 129 48%30 years and above 138 52%Total 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.
The table above reveals that 48% or 129 of the respondents are between O to 29 years of age while 138 or 52% of the respondents are of the age of 30 and above.Table 3: Distribution of respondents by educational qualificationQualification Responses PercentageDegree and above 140 52%Below degree 127 48%Total 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.The above table clearly shows that 52% or 140 of the respondents are graduates at least while 127 or 48% of the respondents have not obtained university education certificate. Table 4: distribution of respondents by marital status.
Marital status Responses PercentageSingle 130 49%Married 137 51%Total 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.From the above table it can be seen that 137 represents the number of married people in the service with 51% while 130 persons are single with 49%. SECTION B: Data analysisThe presentation and analysis of data is based on the responses gotten from the questionnaires distributed and collected from the staff of Nigerian prison service Enugu.Questionl: The motivational scheme available to workers at the Nigerian prison service Enugu is adequate to increase its Workers performance.
Table 5: The level of motivational scheme available to workers at the service.Responses Number of respondents PercentageAgreed 67 25.1%Strongly agreed NILL -Disagreed 150 56.2%Strongly disagreed 50 18.7%Total 267 100%Source: A wo ma’s field work 2014.
The table above reveals that 67 or 25% of the respondents accepted that the available motivational scheme in the Nigerian prison service Enugu is adequate to increase the workers efficiency and performance while 150 or 56% of the respondents disagreed as well as 50 or 19% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the same opinion.Question 2: There is a positive relationship between leadership and good performance in the Nigerian prison service.Table 6: the measure of relationship between leadership and performanceResponses Number of respondents PercentageAgree 120 44.9%Strongly agreed Nill -Disagreed 130 48.7%Strongly Disagreed 17 6.4 % Total 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.
The table above shows that 131 or 49% of the respondents agreed that there are positive relationship between leadership and good performance in the Nigerian prison service Enugu while 136 or 51% of the respondents disagreed that there is a positive relationship between leadership and good performance in the Nigerian prison service Enugu. Questions 3: poor leadership is a bane on the efficiency of the Nigerian prison service. Table 7: the effect of leadership on efficiency.Responses Number of Responses PercentageAgreed 140 52.
4%Strongly agreed Nill -Disagreed 127 47.6%Strongly disagreed Nill -Total 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.The above table point out that 140 or 52% of the respondents agreed that poor leadership is a bane on the Nigerian prison service productivity while 127 or 48% of the respondent disagreed with the motion.Question 4: Nigerian prison service managers/leaders are appointed based on competence. Table 8: level of meritocracy in the appointment of managers.Responses Number of Responses PercentageAgreed 120 44.9%Strongly agreed Nill Disagreed 140 52.
4%Strongly disagreed 7 2.6%Total 257 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.The table above clearly shows that 120 persons or 40% of the respondent agreed that managers of the Nigerian prison service are appointed based on competence while 140 or 55% of the respondent disagreed with the motion as well as 7 or 5% who strongly disagreed with the same opinion.Question 5: the Nigeria prison service managers are appointed based on tribal considerations.Table 9: level of affectivism in the appointment of managers.
Responses Number of respondents PercentageAgreed 140 52.4%Strongly agreed Nill -Disagreed 127 47.6%Strongly disagree Nill -Total 267 100%Source: – Awoma’s field work 2014.The above table shows that 140 or 52% of the respondents agreed that the appointment of managers in the Nigerian prison service is based on tribal considerations while 127 or 48 of the respondents disagreed with the motion Question 6: the Nigerian prison service managers follow due process in carrying out the operations of the service. Table 10: level of mediocrity in the discharge of duties.
Responses Number of respondents PercentageAgreed 110 41.2%Strongly agreed Nill -Disagreed 140 52.4%Strongly disagreed 17 6.4%Total 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.
From the above table, it is clear that 110 or 35% of the respondents agreed that managers of the Nigerian prison service follow due process in carrying out the operations of the service while 140 or 55% disagreed and 17 or 10% of the respondent strongly disagreed with the motion.Question 7: the Nigerian prison service managers under take unnecessary ventures that are irrelevant to the success of the service.Table 11: measures of irrelevant undertaking in the service.Responses Number of respondents PercentageAgreed 130 48.7%Strongly agreed 10 3.
7%Disagreed 107 40.1%Strongly disagreed Mill -Total 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.The above table shows that 150 or 60% of the respondents agreed that managers of the Nigerian prison service undertake unnecessary ventures that are irrelevant to the operation of the service 10% or 5% strongly agreed while 107 or 35% disagreed with the motion.Question 8: Poor motivations of staff contribute to workers inefficiency. Items 8, 9, 10 11 and 12 of the questionnaire directly addressed this issue.
Statement item 8: lack of motivation of staff contributes to the inefficiency of the Nigerian prison service Enugu Statement item 9: the Nigerian prison service managers motivate excellent workers/staff.Statement item 10: Nigeria prison services workers are given regular and enough training.Statement item 11: the Nigerian prison service workers are given regular incentives such as housing allowance, transport allowance etc.Statement item 12: Nigerian prison service workers are given incentives commensurate to their jobs.Table 12: effect of motivation on workers efficiency.
Responses Number of respondents PercentageAgreed 147 55.1%Strongly agreed 20 7.5%Disagreed 100 37.5Disagreed Nill Total 267 100%Source: Ezaka’s field work 2014.
The above table points at that 147 or 68% agreed that poor motivation of staff contribute to their inefficiency, 20 or 5% strongly agreed on the same opinion whereas 100 or 27% disagreed with the motion.Question 13: Motivation of staff in the Nigeria prison service is associated with numerous problems. Items 13, 14, 15 and 16 of the questionnaire directly address the issueStatement item 13: staff motivation in the Nigerian prison service is faced with a lot of problem.Statement item 14: managers of the Nigerian prison service lack motivational skills and technique.Statement item 15: managers of the Nigerian prison service are affective in motivating their staff.
Statement item 16: the Nigerian prison service lack the required resources for staff motivation.Table 13: measures of problems associated with staff motivation.Responses Number of respondents PercentageAgreed 147 55.
1%Strongly agreed 20 7.5%Disagreed 100 37.5%Strongly disagreed Nill -Total 267 100%Source: Ezaka’s field work 2018.From the above table, we can see that 147 or 55% of respondents agreed that motivation of staff in the Nigerian prison service is faced with numerous problems while 120 or45% disagreed with the motion.Question 17: Prisoners at the Nigerian prison service are reformed at the completion of a jail term.
Items 17, 18, 19 and 20 of the questionnaire directly address this issue.Statement item 17: prisoners at the Nigerian prison service are reformed at the completion of a jail termStatement item 18: necessary equipment are provided for Prisoners for skill acquisition at the Nigeria prison service.Statement item 19: the Nigerian prison service workers are Equipped with the necessary things it takes to reform the Prisoners.Statement item 20: the Nigerian prison service workers are trained on how to relate with prisoners. Table l4: levels of prisoners reform in the service.
Responses Number of respondents PercentageAgreed 100 37.5%Strongly agreed Nill -Disagreed 160 59.9%Strongly Disagreed 7 2.
6%Total 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.From the above table, we can see that 100 or 38% agreed that prisoners at the Nigerian prison service are reformed at the completion of jail term while 160 or 60% disagreed with the motion and 7 or 2% of the respondent strongly disagreed with the same opinion.4.2 Test of HypothesesThe hypotheses in this work were tested with chi-square which made use of the decision rule. The decision rule states that when the degree of freedom or critical value is greater or less than calculated value, the null hypothesis is accepted or rejected respectively. HO1: The motivational scheme available to workers at the Nigerian prison service Enugu is not adequate to increase workers performance. HA1: The motivational scheme available to workers at the Nigerian prison service Enugu is adequate to increase workers performance.
This hypothesis was tested with respect to table of the questionnaire distribution which states: that the motivational scheme available to workers at the Nigerian prison service Enugu is adequate to increase workers performance.The statistical tool used was the “chi-square” using the contingency table previously calculated through the use of the simple percentage.The formula for chi-square is given as: X2 = implies chi-square (O-E)2 EWhereX2 = chi-squareE = summation0 = observed frequency E = expected frequency.Contingency tableResponses Number of respondent PercentageAgreed 67 25.1%Strongly agreed 150 56.2%Strongly disagreed 50 18.
7%Total 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.To restate the hypothesisH01:The motivational scheme available to workers in the Nigeria prison service Abakaliki is not adequate to increase workers performance.HA1: The motivational scheme available to workers in the Nigeria prison service Abakaliki is adequate to increase workers performance.Expected frequency (E) = 267 4= 66.75Chi-square computationOption Expected frequency O – E (O – e)2 (O-E)2E67 1 66/75 025 0.0625 0.0009150 66.
75 83.25 6930.6 103.83 50 66.75 -16.75 280.56 4.
2031 Total 267 108.0Source: Ezaka’s field work 2018Therefore, the calculated chi-square value= 108.0. To compute the degree of freedom (DF) or critical value,DF = (R-I) (c-I)WhereR= number of rows which is 4C= number of columns which is 2? DF (4-1) (2-1)= (3) (1)= 3x1DF = 3The researcher assumed 95% level of confidence and 5% level of significance at 95% level of confidence and 5% level of significance, the degree of freedom (DF) at 3= 78 which is approximately = 7.82 Decision ruleIf the calculated chi-square (x2) value is greeter than the critical value, that is, degree of freedom at 3 the null hypothesis is rejected while the alternative hypothesis is accepted and vice versa.
ConclusionFrom the above computation since the calculated chi-square (x2) value (108.0) is greeter than the chi-square critical value (7.82) the null hypothesis is hereby accepted and the alternative hypothesis rejected.
The researcher concludes that the motivational scheme available to worker in the Nigerian prison service Enugu is not adequate to increase workers performance.H02: that there is no positive relationship between leadership and good performance in the Nigerian prison service Enugu.HA2.- that there is a positive relationship between leadership and good performance in the Nigerian prison service Enugu.This hypothesis was tested with respect to table (2) of the questionnaire distribution, which states that: “that there is a positive relationship between effort and reward in the Nigerian prison service Enugu” using the contingency table previously calculated through the use of simple percentage. The formula for chi-square is given as X2 = implies chi-square (O-E)2 EWhereX2 = chi-squareE = summationO = observed frequency E= expected frequency Contingency tableResponse Number of respondents PercentageAgreed 120 44.9%Strongly agreed Nill -Disagreed 130 48.
7%Strongly disagreed 17 6.4%Total 270 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work, 2014.To restate the hypothesisH02: that there is no positive relationship between effort and reward in the Nigeria prison service Abakaliki.HA2: that there is a positive relationship between effort and reward in the Nigerian prison service Enugu.Expected frequency (E) = 267 = 66.75 4Chi-square computationOption Expected frequency O-E(O-e)2(O-e)e120 66.75 53.
25 2835.6 42.481Nill – – – -130 66.75 63.25 4000.6 59.
9341766.75-49.75 2474.1 37.080Total 267 267 139.49Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.
Therefore calculated chi-square value = 139.49 To compute the degree of freedom (DF) or critical value, DF- (R-l) (C-l) Where,R= number of rows which is 4C= number of columns which is 2? DF = (4-1) (2-1)= (3) (1)= 3×1 DF = 3The researcher assumed 95% level of confidence and 5% level of significance at 95% level of confidence and 5% level of significance, the degree of freedom (DF) at 3 = 78 which is approximately = 7.82Decision ruleIf the calculated chi-square (X2) value is greater than the critical value, that is degree of freedom at 3, the null hypothesis is accepted and vice versa ConclusionFrom the above computation, since the calculated chi-square (x2) value (139.5) is greeter than the chi-square critical value (7.82), the null hypothesis is hereby accepted and the alternative hypothesis rejected.The researcher concludes that there is no positive relationship between effort and reward in the Nigeria prison service Enugu.Ho3: that there are no problems associated with staff motivation in the Nigeria prison service.
HA3: that there are problems associated with staff motivation in the Nigerian prison service.The above hypothesis was tested with respect to table (9) of the questionnaire distribution which states “motivation of staff in the Nigerian prison service is associated with numerous problems”.The formula for chi-square is given as:-X2 = implies chi-square (O-E)2 EWhereX2 = Chi-squareE= SummationO= Observed frequency E= Expected frequencyContingency tableResponse Number of respondents PercentageAgreed 147 55.1%Strongly agreed 20 7.5%Disagreed 100 37.5%Strongly disagreed Nill -Total 267 100%Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.
To restate hypothesisHo3: that there are no problems associated with state motivation in the Nigeria prison serviceHAs: that there are problems associated with staff motivation in the Nigeria prison service.Expected frequency (e) = 267- 66.75 4Chi-square computationOption Expected frequency O-E (O-e)2 (O-e)e147 66.75 80.25 6440.
1 96.48120 66.75 – 46.75 2185.6 32.743100 66.
75 33.25 1105.6 16.
563- – – – -Total 267 267 145.79Source: Awoma’s field work 2014.Therefore, calculated chi-square value= 145.8 to compute the degree of freedom (DF) or critical value DF= (R-l) (C-l)WhereR= number of roues which is 4C= number of columns which is 2:. DF = (4-1) (2-1)= (3) (1)= 3×1= 3The researcher assumed 95% level of confidence and 5% level of significance at 95% level of confidence and 5% level of significance, the degree of freedom (DF) at 3 = 7.8 which is approximately = 7.82 Decision ruleIf the calculated chi-square (X2) value is greater than the critical values, the null hypothesis is rejected while the alternative hypothesis is accepted and vice versa.
ConclusionFrom the above computation, since the calculated chi-square (X2) value (145.8) is greeter than the chi-square critical value (7.82), the null hypothesis is hereby rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted.The researcher therefore, concludes that there are problems associated with staff motivation in the Nigeria prison service.4.
3 Summary of findingsArising from the analysis of data, the researcher made the following findings:-Motivation is an important and vital tool for effective utilization of human resources in an organization. Also, effective utilization of human resources of an organization goes a long way in achieving the organizational goals.The researcher also discovered that poor management/leadership is mainly responsible for the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the Nigerian prison service.
It is also the discovery of the researcher, that lack of motivation of staff is responsible for the poor performance of civil servants in the Nigerian civil service.The researcher found out that inadequate motivational scheme in the civil service hampers the effective utilization of human potentials in the service.It was discovered from this research work that proper motivation of staff increases and enhance the productivity potential of the civil servantThe study finally revealed other issues such as lack of facilities, misplacement of trained staff, poor industrial relation and poor reward for excellent work as factor that hinders the successful operation of the Nigerian prison service.CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 SummaryMotivation is the most effective way of increasing workers performance and productivity. A motivated worker is a satisfied worker. But when a worker is not satisfied, he or she cannot put his/her effort in improving the organization.
This is one of the major factors that is lacking in the Nigerian prison service that has slow down its effectiveness and efficiency, their workers are not being motivated and this is killing the service slowly. Motivation can be in form of promotion, allowance, appreciation etc. When salaries are delayed staff that have no financial claim cannot perform satisfactorily. Therefore, motivation should be the most important of all activities because it helps to increase productivity and efficiency.
However, when a leader is not performing his duties properly his subordinates will do as follows. Therefore, it is the duty of the management to make sure that they lead by example, but due to the fact that they are not qualified to be there, they lead the commission to its downfall.Furthermore, the problem of corruption and mismanagement of the service resources is a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the fabrics of the Nigerian prison service.
Corrupt practices seen in the service right from the management down to the lower staff is retarding the smooth running of the services as resources which are to be used in putting the service to standard is being diverted into private pocket against the interest of the service.Finally, from the findings or the interpretation made in this research work, the researcher was able to find out that leadership remains the bane of the Nigerian prison service Enugu inefficiency; the leaders in the commission are mostly concern about their individual wellbeing, paying little or not attention to the success of the service. They tend to be adding to the problems of the service as they make people or staff of the service unhappy, most times, the leaders fails to pay workers salary and sometimes delay the salary payment until half of the month, all these hampers and demoralize the workers and slow the performance of the workers.5.2 CONCLUSIONHaving studied the Nigerian prison service and discovered the Fragile nature of the service, the researcher was able to Conclude that the service employers do not motivate their Workers well to enhance and achieve high productivity. The Nigerian prison service Enugu like other organization has to put into consideration the welfare and confortability of their Employees by way of paying their salaries as in when due, Paying their allowances, providing modern working tools to Make their work easier, provide better working environment Etc. to ginger them to work so effectively for the betterment of The service.
Moreso, the employers should pay some attention and interest in providing and protecting their workers needs and safety in Other to enable them achieves a high productivity and also assures them of job satisfaction and safety.Finally, according to the findings, the major causes of inefficiency in the Nigerian prison service, includes:-Lack of motivation of staff, lack of facilities, congestion and leadership is in the hands of mediocre. If the findings resulting from this research are not dealt with, the Nigerian prison service will be lagging behind in delivering its services. 5.3 RecommendationsTo ensure a brighter future for the Nigerian prison service. Many things needs to be done properly, they include:Employees of the Nigerian prison service should be given constant training in order to know how to discharge their duties satisfactory.
This is very vital as a way of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the service.The staff should be motivated by providing them with fringe benefits and allowances, because when a staff is given all the necessary things needed for his/her confortability, things like housing allowance, transport allowance, health allowance etc. the worker will definitely put in more effort to his work, which will improve productivity.The relationship between the employees and employers of the Nigerian prison service should be improved in order to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the service.
Workers should sometimes be allowed to participate in decision making, so that they will have a sense of belonging in the organization.Recruitment in the Nigeria prison service should be base on merit, there should be no nepotism and godfatherism form of employment of workers and paper qualification should be on merit.The Nigerian prison service should provide modern working equipments/machine such as computers to workers to make their work easier.The Nigerian prison service Abakaliki should be provided with more facilities such as cars needed to convey inmates to court whenever the need arises.The problem of congestion should be tackled by making the Nigerian justices system more flexible and fast, the cause of this congestion is the protracted number of persons awaiting trial, because if inmates are taken to court and tried at when due the problem of congestion will be solved.
Moreso, more prison yard should be built to help solve the congestion problem.The operation of the Nigerian prison service should be made scientific, the system should be computerized for faster delivery of adequate service.Finally, every organization should adopt or practice all theseUniversalism avoid particularismNeutrality avoid affectivismSpecification avoid diffusenessAchievement avoid ascriptionAll these things should be put into consideration by the service and, the employers because when all these are done properly, there will be high productivity and improved performance of the service.BIBIOGRAPHYAfrican Journal of Political Science and Administrative Studies Published by The Department of Political Science and Public Administration Ebonyi state University.
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Enugu.APPENDIX I RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIREDepartment of Pubic Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. PMB 053, Abakaliki Ebonyi State.Dear respondent,I am a final year Student of Public Administration Department in Ebonyi state university, Abakaliki.
I am conducting a research on “The impact of motivation on staff performance in the civil services. A case of Nigerian prison service Enugu” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) Degree in Public Administration.I would be grateful if you assist me fill the attached questionnaire to enable me carry out this research successfully.I assure you that your response will be treated as highly confidential and used solely for this academic purpose.Thanks for your co-operation.Yours faithfully,Awoma Osita Ukamaka.APPENDIX IINote: please fill the gap and tick (V) in the appropriate box where applicable.Questionnaire schedulesSection A: personal Data of Respondent sex: ( a) male ( ) (b) female ( ).Age: (a) below 30 years ( ) (b) 30 years and above ( ) Marital status: (a) single ( ) (b) married ( ) Educational qualification (a) degree and above ( ) (b) Below degree ( )Section B: Research questionsThe motivational scheme available to workers at the Nigerian prison Enugu is adequate to increase workers performance (a) agree ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )There is a positive relationship between leadership and good performances in the Nigerian prison service Enugu. (a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )Leadership is a bane of the Nigeria prison service? (a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )The Nigerian prison service Enugu managers/leader are appointed based on competence? (a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )The Nigerian prison service managers are appointed base on tribal consideration(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )The Nigerian prison service Enugu managers follows due process in carrying out the operations of the service(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )The Nigerian prison service Enugu managers under take unnecessary ventures that are irrelevant to the success of the service.(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )Lack of motivation of staff contributes to the inefficiency of the Nigerian prison service Enugu(a) Agreed1 ( |ffef disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( }The Nigerian prison service manager’s motivation excellent workers/staff.(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )The Nigerian prison service workers are given regular and enough training.(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )The Nigerian prison service workers are given regular incentives such as housing allowance, transport allowance etc (a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )The Nigerian prison service workers are given incentives commensurate to their jobs.(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )Staff motivation in the Nigerian prison service is associated or faced with numerous problems.(a) Agreed ( ) (ib) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )Managers of the Nigerian prison service lack motivational skills and technique(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )Manager of the Nigerian prison service are affective in motivating their staff.(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )Managers of the Nigerian prison service are neutral in motivating their staff(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )Prisoners at the Nigerian prison service are reformed at the completion of their jail term.(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )Necessary equipments are provided for prisoners for skill acquisition at the Nigerian prison service.(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )The Nigerian prison service worker are equip with what it takes to reform the prisoners.(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )The Nigerian prison service workers are trained on how to relate with prisoners.(a) Agreed ( ) (b) disagreed ( ) (c) strongly agreed ( ) (d) strongly disagreed ( )