Graduated School of Management
Comparison of open source operating system and close source operating system
In case of Smart Phones
Information Technology Management
Professor : Yukihiko NAKATA
Noorzai Ahmad Yama
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc530640305 h 3Background PAGEREF _Toc530640306 h 3Objective PAGEREF _Toc530640307 h 4Graphics Representation from Statista.com PAGEREF _Toc530640308 h 5Closed Sourced Operating System PAGEREF _Toc530640309 h 6iOS Users PAGEREF _Toc530640310 h 6iOS Operating System PAGEREF _Toc530640311 h 6Pros and Cons of iOS PAGEREF _Toc530640312 h 7Open Source Operating Systems PAGEREF _Toc530640313 h 7User of Android PAGEREF _Toc530640314 h 8Android Operating System PAGEREF _Toc530640315 h 8Pros and Cons of Android OS PAGEREF _Toc530640316 h 9Similarities’ and Differences of Android and iOS PAGEREF _Toc530640317 h 10Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc530640318 h 11References PAGEREF _Toc530640319 h 12
Since invention of computer, here are huge changes in society and nature which make it easy a bunch of jobs, increase the productivity growth of each process and activities of daily life and its effective and efficient for each single activities moreover, emergence of information technology cause for too many positive changes for examples the rapid increase in amount of data, convert of analog system to digital system furthermore, store a big volume data in organize form that can easily make a variety of reports and analysis.Overall , Information technology is the base or foundation for too many innovation in today modern world .
After emergence of internet world completely get shaped in new face it’s the backbone of the information technology improvement and the main cause of today amazing and wonderful modern world, internet have great impact both socially and technically, socially impact of internet is to interconnect world to share their knowledge, skills, experience , build personal relationship, save time and money , find jobs, familiarize with different cultures , improve education sector and much more business opportunities overall , convert the vast and huge world to a small village internet is the main cause for today globalization. Technically, create internet communication which is cheaper than phone call, electronic business, electronic banking , electronic education, send and receive large volume data in short period of time . Consequently although Information technology greatly simplify and better our lives however it’s have a set of problems as well like most concern about security and privacy but everything in life have challenges’ luckily, there are too many organization, government and private sectors effort and policies and individual commitment to address such challenges they did a lot, they are doing and they will be do,it’s not very big concern to think about it, its manageable and controllable compare to cons information technology have too much pros and advantages.
Information technology is combinations of two parts software and hardware , instruction of data or operating system (OS) is software and wires , transistors and circuits are in one package is hardware , computer is the main device of information technology , smart phone, tablet ,biotechnological devices , scanner, printer , copier , servers and so on are the devices of information technology
Operating system is soul for computer, its intermediary between computer programs and hardware , operating system have three main tasks, manage the computer resource, allow user to communicate with computer programs, execute service for computer programs. Early computers hadn’t operating system after 10 years computers had operating system but only dedicate for one task like calculator machine after scientist efforts and a lot of improvements currently, there are multi tasks operating system in market in differ functionalities, generally there are two types of operating system open source and close source operating system
Closed source operating system also called proprietary system software which issued under license agreement to authorized users with limitation according cost for specific period of time the source of the operating system is not published to the users to look and change it the most common and dominant company of computer closed operating system is Microsoft and apple company product IOS operating system for smart phones are examples of closed operating system and the other hand open source operating system is free software everyone can download ,install , use , modify and enhance the software without any cost limitation and restrictions . Linux company operating system is open source for computers and android operating system product of google for smart phones both open and closed source operating system have their own pros and cons.
Today phone are quite different from previous one it’s make the users many jobs easier but still the user looking for the more convenient from different aspect currently, the android and iOS are the key actors in mobile industry, these two companies have most share of market and these two companies create many jobs in open market regarding business through android and iOS to develop their own application and make money. The truth is iPhones use iOS and Samsung and some other companies us Android as their operating system for smart phones , each of them have their good and bad points, I am not going to tell you which one is the best or which one is not, both of them are good because everyone have their own preferences .
The main objective this report to compare open source and close source operating system in case study of Smartphone operating system Android and iOS and which mobile operating system is market winner and why? ,today modern world , almost all economic and social activities cover by information technology and every user have to pay licenses fee to technology vendors because they are using their services actually , people need the technology to increase their production growth in other hand government , companies , organizations and people try to find the alternatives ways in each aspects and section of life to save the money toward economic growth So , in technology industry open source lunch and emerge it freely for every one therefore , in this report attempt to find the answer for the question “which mobile operating system have more usage for smart phone business?” moreover, glance to comparison of open source operating system and closed source operating system .
Graphics Representation from Statista.comThe data illustrate from Statista.com the world mobile operating system share , in terms of consumers from 2009 to second quarter of 2018 , which the 88% sold to consumers by android while the Apple have only 11.9 % market share which show s a huge difference.
Closed Sourced Operating SystemClosed soured operating system is also called propriety software its non free software which is provide to user under license agreement the code either never share to users and publish publically for learn and modification purpose and the source are copy right only vendor can modify for further development and improvement and try to maintain their brand name for commercial intention .
Microsoft and Apple is the famous companies for closed sourced operating system ,both companies have operating system for computer and smart phones , apple use iOS as operating system for their smart phones hardware management its Unix based operating system .
iOS have a great market in developing country as US, Europe, ,brazil and other for many reasons the main reason is culture and economic situations the GDP of developed country is high and the iOS is expensive compare to other manufacture companies of mobile industry however, they can afforded furthermore, the interface of iOS products are easy and friendly , the design is very attractive with different necessary functions , Apple have a very good brand image in market this also have influence on Apple customers that they purchased and used in furthermore, the Apple company have loyal customer , young generation is use as fashion like the iPhone have Apple watch ,camera is available in high pixel , its faster than other mobile manufacturers and finally it have Apple pay services for its user and it’s very easy to use,
iOS Operating System
iOS operating system used in Apple product iPhone, iPads and iTouch, the abbreviation stand for (i) mean iPhone and (OS) is operating system moreover, its initial release in 29-June-2007 and currently available in 40 languages.
From technical perspective iOS formerly use only CSS,HTML and Java Script but after some time the code break out and people use for many third party software then apple change their idea and lunch iOS SDK(Software Development Toolkit) for public in 2010 and the name of SDK is Allan.
The iOS SDK consist all require tools for development ,like design , debug and deployment of mobile application and web application in other hand in the back end three library are very important and play vital and key roles for development of iOS applications, Xcode is use for developing application in back end , interface builder is for assembling User interface and iOS simulator use for testing of application furthermore, for development of iOS applications SDK require Intel Mac Operating system 10.6.6 version or later version , more than 10 GB free memory of hard disk in and apple id as register apple developer moreover , programming with iOS is easy to learn and develope an application the interface and environment of SDK is user friendly however its require much practice of programming and iOS university program have some limitation regarding deployment of application , the iOS university i only allow 200 register devices ,when you want to test your application the testing device must be base on the list of iOS university program(Apple 2012)
Creation and setting up the environment for development of iOS, its quiet expensive however, the software are somehow free but hardware requirement is last costly thus , hardware of apple are expensive , all devices of apple are good for development but for convenient development the iMac desktop is specially design for development of iOS application and its more expensive last but not the least , iOS application also require Mac computer having Intel processor and virtual iPhone from store likewise, you have to purchase for testing you application
Pros and Cons of iOSDuring short period of time Apple become very famous and achieve good brand image in market specially it’s become popular for different innovation them made in last ten year , the use of iPhone is very simple even who don’t know how to use the learn very easily , Apple provide the best privacy and security to their customers and all user are fully satisfy regarding personal data , the Apple products are strong enough , it look very attractive however , Apple have some negative factors and disadvantages such as , all products are expensive , different charges about services , closed source it’s a very big headache for developers and business, OS of iOS is incompatibility with other devices
Open Source Operating SystemsOpen source operating system is software provide to any user freely with whole source code under license to study , modify , improve , developed and provide likewise to another to repeat the same process of by adding new feature or re-correct the part which not working properly , every person can maintain for better result .
The Google ,Red hat and IBM is famous vendors is famous for open source software both for computes and smart phones , the andriod is google product for smart phones it isnt only use by Google many firms and indiviual use this software as smart phones operating system big firms such as, Samsung, Huawei, Xiaomi, Oppo, Motorola, LG, Vivo, Lenovo, Sony ,HTC and etc.
User of Android
Android have many users in Asia and Africa , android have high level segmentation and variety products that have every one choice furthermore ,easy to use and maintain and its cheap compare to iPhone and most part and people of world are poor and can’t afford the expensive smart phone , as world have different culture and languages so android available more than hundred languages so , many user of android are non English speaker every one with other famous languages can use their mobile in their own languages and android focus it to decrease the prices and increase the number of languages
other reason open source software because it helps them become better programmers. Because open source code is publicly accessible, students can easily study it as they learn to make better software. Students can also share their work with others, inviting comment and critique, as they develop their skills.
Android Operating System
Android Operating System used by many mobile manufacturers such as , Samsung, Huawei, Xiaomi, Oppo, Motorola, LG, Vivo, Lenovo, Sony ,HTC. Initial release in 23-Sept-2008 by Google and currently available more than hundred languages .
From technical perspective , all android applications are programmed and developed in java , xml and eclipse IDE moreover, all devices of android have predefine necessary applications like , calendar , email , contact , browser and so on . the main factor of android framework is (APIs) Application program interface which is the package of different protocols, programming tools and routines that all programming standards and regulations’ are defined to how the component of android interact with each other .
Android consist of seven important libraries which carry out important different jobs in application development the system C Library, is responsible to connect and bring the Linux services , the Media Library, responsible for all media activities like video, image , audio and it related jobs and for database use the SQLite Library and so on .
Linux Kernel is the intermediary between software and hardware moreover, one of the main task of Linux kernel is the overall security of android operating system moreover the IDE (Integrated Development Environment ) work by eclipse , this IDE allow user to communicate and developed the android application trough eclipse and regarding the hardware requirement for the android operating system its require 600 MB free space of hard disk and less than 512 MB RAM (Random Access Memory ).
Pros and Cons of Android OSAndroid operating system , the most positive point of Android OS it is open source which is more convenient and efficient for business and individual developers moreover , this operating system have available more than hundred languages the people or nationalities who are not professional in English they can also easily use android operating system and beside of open source its free of cost available in market for free and most of today world business entities think about how to reduce the expenses in technology and other aspect of business so , many business entities chose android for their business for the reason of free of cost furthermore , the operating system have the feature of external expandable storage in devices and last but not the least ,all devices of android application is cheap compare to Apple however , android have some cons, the security and privacy is good enough but ,not that much secure as Apple , the source code of the operating system is heavy some time it cause to warm up or hot the device main board which emerge some problems in hardware and software in additions, for 3D game development some time need for third party applications and devices .
Similarities’ and Differences of Android and iOSComparison/Mobile OS Android iOS
Similarities Core Applications are pre- installed((email, calendar, messaging, Camera and so on)
Support social media third party software
Core Application are pre-installed(email, calendar, messaging, Camera and so on )
Support social media third party software
Differences Open Source
Developed by Google
Initial-Lunch: Sept, 23, 2008
Transaction to computer is easy
Available in 34 languages
Use Objective-Orient for programming
Only Apple Use
Version updated soon
for testing of applications purchase more devices
Most use in developed Countries
Developed by Apple
Initial Lunch: June 29, 2007
Transaction to computer is hare need for iTunes
Available in more than 100 Languages
Use Java and XML for programming
Many Manufactures Use
Version updated late
for testing of applications no need to purchase extra devices
Most use in developing countries
After studying many journals ,books ,online websites and observing the data to write this report about comparison open source and close source operating system in case study of smart phones , find Android is the winner of market because , its open source and free moreover , android have many other positive features but the main success features are open source and free because, today modern world need technology to increase in their quality , productivity rate and increase their brand image in other hand the big companies have alot of expenses in order to decrease their expenses and increase the profitability of the companies all of them think about increase productivity rat and cheap effective technology so , many national bank , huge enterprise , firms and individual entities save millions of money using open source operating system in both term computers and Smartphone however, close source have also good market but only in developed country who can afford the fee of closed source companies the close source have a good assistance and support system which its not appear that much in open source operating system .
Overall , Apple and Android are two main dominators of today smart phones market but the Android is the winner of this market by having 88% of market share in term of the end user or consumers .