-32385bottomXavier CotegahM1L (Paris)
Date : 14 Juin 2018
[email protected] CotegahM1L (Paris)
Date : 14 Juin 2018
[email protected] that we are facing in the hospitality industry in Mauritius today.00Challengers that we are facing in the hospitality industry in Mauritius today.
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516702361 h 3Hospitality in Mauritius PAGEREF _Toc516702362 h 4Challengers PAGEREF _Toc516702363 h 51.Media – The new Technology Imperative PAGEREF _Toc516702364 h 52.The Demanding Customer PAGEREF _Toc516702365 h 63.Labour Shortages PAGEREF _Toc516702366 h 74.HRD is a challenge but is key to organisational success PAGEREF _Toc516702367 h 75.Marketing Challenges PAGEREF _Toc516702368 h 86.Destination management challenges PAGEREF _Toc516702369 h 8Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc516702370 h 10Reference PAGEREF _Toc516702371 h 11Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc516702372 h 12
Ruud Reuland, Janet Choudry, and Ans Fagel (1985) viewed hospitality in restaurants and hotels as a process involving provider or employee, receiver or guest, and transfer of three elements: product (meal or bed), behavior of employees and environment of restaurant or hotel. Receivers bring physiological, social and psychological needs and expectations to the transaction. Hepple, J., Kipps, M., & Thompson, J. (1990) examined the concept of hospitality as applied to hospital patients. They identified four characteristics of hospitality in its modern sense;
It is conferred by a host on a guest who is away from home
It is interactive, involving the coming together of a provider and receiver
It is comprised of a blend of both tangible and intangible factors
The host provides for the guest’s security, his psychological and his physiological comfort.
They operationalized as “feeling at home,” and identified ten factors as measures of this feeling, including friendly staff, admissions procedure, information regarding daily routine, plain cooking and menu choice, privacy, comfortable furniture, recreational facilities and attractive decor. Only some of these, such as menu choice, cooking, privacy, furniture and decor concern a home-like setting.
The idea of hospitality dates from ancient times (Durant 1935, 1939, White 1970, Smith 1974, Gray and Liguori 1980, Heal 1990). Travel was extremely dangerous, and to be without shelter for the night could mean death by exposure to the elements or wild animals, or robbery and murder at the hands of highwaymen. Many societies developed an ethic of hospitality to allow a degree of safety of travelers; without that, there could be no travel and no trade. Thus hospitality was not merely the provision of shelter and food — the satisfaction of physiological need, but also some degree of safety — psychological comfort in the assurance that one’s host was bound by a code of hospitality that ensured that a guest in his house would not be robbed or suffer bodily harm. At the same time, the guest was under an obligation not to do harm to the host. 4 In some societies, the host’s obligation was expanded to include not just the assurance of safety, but also the provision of comfort, ease, and welcome. Sometimes, this relationship was extended to include the giving of lavish gifts or even the favors of the host’s wife. White (1970) observed that the harder the physical conditions, the greater the obligation to hospitality, two examples being that of Arab hospitality in the desert, and Arctic hospitality of the Eskimos.Hospitality in MauritiusIn Mauritius, the first hotel was the Park Hotel in 1952 so as to accommodate the crew members coming at that time. Then came the Mauritius Hotel, the first beach hotel, built in 1954 at Le Morne followed by Le Chaland, another beach hotel in 1961.But the real development of tourism took place soon after Mauritius got its independence from the British. In early 1970`s the creation of Trou aux Biches Hotel by the Mauritius Hotels, the setting up of the Saint Geran Hotel by the Southern Sun Hotels as well as the Merville Beach Hotel by the ex-British Colons who wanted to come back here during the winter months of England. The Mauritius Hotel is now the Beachcomber group and the Southern Sun Hotels is the Sun International Resorts Limited.
The hospitality industry in Mauritius has developed rapidly during the past 25 years. The coastal regions as well as the interior part of the island are constantly changing with the construction of the hotels and the increasing number of vehicles being used for the tourism industry. In 2007, the tourism industry was considered the third pillar of the economy after Sugar and Textile, and currently it plays a vital role in the economic growth of the country. The undoubted fall of 35% in the price of sugar and the removal of preference agreement with the EU market, has earmarked the tourism industry as the main industry capable of boosting the Mauritian economy. In July 2008, according to the last bulletin published by the Central Statistical Office (CSO), Mauritius welcomed 81,169 tourists as compared to 77,225 in 2007, registering a 5.1% growth over the same period a year ago.
But after two decades of impressive growth, the need for responsible corporate governance has been felt in the country as the attitudes; mentality and knowledge of those working in that industry have not evolved at the same pace in terms of social responsibility and environmental awareness. Impacts of this rapid and somehow unplanned development are being experienced in the environment at large. Involvement of all stakeholders contribute towards sustainable development of the hospitality sector.
Media – The new Technology ImperativeInteracting with customers has become much more complex due to the plethora of communications media available. Social Media (SM) is at the forefront of a revolution in customer engagement. Savvy Hoteliers and their Marketing teams increasingly look to SM as both an opportunity – to reach and recruit customers. But also, as a threat. Negative reviews and online criticism live forever in the digital world.
In a 2010 Global web index report, 30% of Chinese bloggers said they post reviews of products and services they’ve experienced at least monthly. But the staggering thing is this. Readers of these rate an anonymously posted review 3x times more credible than the opinion of a stranger in a bar. So now online strangers are 3 times more believable than face-to-face strangers! The power of the written web word is imbued with newspaper-like authority. The implications are clear. Monitor SM and manage negative feedback early-on using proactive outreach and problem-solving teams.
Dell’s Listening Command Center is an example of active SM monitoring. It tracks over 22,000 Dell related topics using Social Media in 11 languages. The early results are impressive (30% reduction in negative comments). Dell staff reach-out directly online to those expressing frustration or negative comments –and try to help them. Often a poor experience can be turned around simply, thus creating a very rapid public online positive from an otherwise lingering negative.
Hotels have the same opportunity – to monitor and reach out to customers with problems and frustrations or those leaving negative comments. But how to take advantage of SM monitoring without creating another silo of technology and the staff to drive it?
The problem until now is the technology to do this has been separate. Products and 3rd parties exist to conduct SM monitoring but to be successful they should be linked in real time to those who can solve problems on the spot.
SM monitoring needs to be integrated with the customer contact center where experienced staff with access to databases, records and booking systems can quickly solve a complaint and create a WOW! experience.
The Demanding CustomerA huge generational shift is taking place in today’s guest community: as the Baby Boomers retire,their successors are bringing new expectations concerning Technology. In particular, anyone bornsince 1980 has enjoyed a life-long association with real-time (“instant”) communications. They wantit now – and they want it right first time.
In fact one study found 73% of Gen Y Guests leave after one poor experience, and 85% of those alsotell others about it – either physically or online or both. (Source: Benchmark Research, Convergys,Customer Focus Inc.) A returning guest only costs about 20% to sell again compared to a new guest. (source: “Leading on the Edge of Chaos”, Emmett C. Murphy and Mark A. Murphy)
For Hotels the impact is clear. Guests more than ever have:
Heightened expectations for service velocity and quality location”
A desire to be recognized and rewarded website
Need their gadgets and tech toys
Some Hotels are exploring news ways to deliver service Technology, Movenpick Hotels and Resorts, when interviewed by Enterprise Innovation in 2010 stated he saw ‘digital profiling’ as a key initiative to increasing the Guest experience.
Digital Profiling involves being able to store and use individual Guest preferences to automatically configure a room to predefined temperature and other attributes. Returning Guests could even have their own swipe card to self-check in and out and their room configuration would be set even as they approached it.
RFID is also being mooted as a potential way to enhance customer satisfaction by location based recognition (VIP Guest approaches Restaurant, staff alerted in advance to deliver exceptional experience).
Individually, any one of these developments would have a major impact on the Hotel Technical infrastructure.
Collectively, they represent a significant shift in today’s Hospitality environment. Adapting to the new Demanding Guest is the primary challenge facing IT Hospitality today.
Labour ShortagesLabour shortages and their impact on the industry in almost every geographic location are consistently among the most difficult challenges noted by hoters. In many communities, hospitality expansion is limited not by capital, but rather by human resources. A shrinking labor force is the number one challenge facing the global hospitality industry, according to the International Society of Hospitality Consultants, which recently convened to brainstorm world issues and rank them according to importance.
The problem of attracting and retaining qualified workers, once an issue only in an isolated number of markets, is increasingly becoming a global challenge. Demography, wage levels, failure to adequately address worker satisfaction and a reputation for long hours and low pay are all cited as contributing factors. Creative hospitality professionals have begun to develop innovative strategies for capturing and keeping high quality workers.
HRD is a challenge but is key to organisational successThe first theme relates to the perception that HRD is a challenging task. Line managers reveal the constant need for innovative training practices in order to keep pace with changingninternational standards. HRD is the solution to operational work place problems, as evidenced in the quote below:
Training is the primary challenge in the food and beverage department. We constantly need to update staff skills as international culinary standards change and guests’ preferences and tastes change. This help to create an organisational culture that provide a high priority in providing quality service to the guest. We need to constantly invest in the people. (Bar and Restaurant Manager)
HRD is also seen as a major contributing factor to organisational success, highlighting its strategic role in the organisation. This is not surprising, given the fundamental function of HRM practices is staff development and training for better organisational performance (Davies et al., 2001). For example, one manager mentioned:
Training is very important for our department in the sense that it enables employees to understand guests and other employees. This enables them to improve their knowledge, skill, attitude and better communicate with others. All hotels are different in the way they treat customers and through training we are able to be better and move towards success of the hotel. (Front-office Manager)
Marketing ChallengesAs new technologies invade the marketing place, hospitality firms need to carefully consider how technology investments might assist them to be more efficient. In so doing, they must consider using a variety of tools to reach out and develop relationships with consumers. They will have to listen carefully to consumers and also create opportunities so that positive word of mouth recommendations and other positive experiences with brands are shared. Blogs and travel web sites are changing the way consumers access information and express their feedback. Consumers feel free to voice their feelings and as consumers now check blogs to get feedback about the services/products before making investments, these information sources are widely used. In view of this, firms have to be careful in offering good experience as the multiplicative effect of both good and negative is enormous. The capabilities of social media in terms of grouping people is enormous and more research is required to assess its impact on the businesses. The telecom revolution and mobile devices are also having a business impact. Many international chains have developed mobile applications for reservations and e-check ins. Smart phones are changing the way consumers are accessing information and hospitality firms will have to look at ways of deploying these technologies to reach out to more tech savvy guests.
Destination management challengesBhat and Gaur (2012) examined how to manage diverse stakeholders in the context of destination marketing. Though the study has looked at stakeholder cooperation for a country. Different stakeholders have to be mapped so as to better understand how to gain their cooporation and support.
The authors found that cooperation seems to be important in terms of taking a more long-term strategic perspective on destination marketing and probably needs to involve all stakeholders if it is to be effective. By working together, knowledge transfer is more likely to occur, and stakeholders are in turn, more likely to develop an appreciation of the full extent of the interdependencies in the tourism network and their respective roles in destination marketing.
The findings from this study pose many questions for the managers of NTOs.
Key questions include:
Who should be considered as destination marketing stakeholders in a country?
Cooperation in destination marketing is seen as very important by stakeholders. How important is destination cooperation for Indian stakeholders?
A key finding from some country is that expectations of involvement in the cooperative process are not uniform among stakeholders. There were stakeholders who were happy with the DMO making all destination marketing decisions whereas others wanted an input into formulating the destination objectives and marketing strategies. Do stakeholders in India have different expectations of the extent that they wish to be involved in destination marketing?
What is the NTO’s approach to cooperation with stakeholders?
Answers to the above questions will assist the NTOs of a country to devise an appropriate strategy of involvement for different stakeholders leading to greater support in delivering on destination promises. Coordination mechanisms in a country is therefore more complex on account of these diversity aspects. Clearly, the destination management strategy needs to be inclusive as different agencies play different roles in the overall experience.
ConclusionThe hospitality industry is growing globally, and it offers huge opportunity for the creation of employment and contribution to the economic growth of a country. The challenges across various functional and strategic areas as delineated in earlier sections have to be addressed and a holistic perspective needs to be taken up. In so doing, the government, hospitality firms and the education sector needs to be aligned in order to bring about the desired changes. Piecemeal solutions will not yield effective change.
In order to support its continuous growth, the Mauritian Tourism and Hospitality industry needs well-trained staff with full knowledge of their product while respecting the socio-economic and cultural environment in which the Mauritian tourism product is evolving. It is really important to maintain a high standard of efficiency and service so as to meet the requirements of an increasingly competitive and sophisticated global market.
Managers are asked to abide by local and EU legislation especially on labour laws, health and safety, human rights and the environment. A great deal can be done when developing a hotel property in order to make both the development process and the eventual operation more environmentally sustainable
ReferenceIntro: Carol A. King, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck NJ, International Journal of Hospitality Management September 1995 Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222115684_What_is_hospitality. (Accessed 22 October 2017)
Challenges: 1 and 2. Asia Tech Directions, 29 April 2011, The Top 4 Challenges Facing Hospitality Today
3. WANG Jin-zhao and WANG Jing, 20 December 2009, Canadian Research ; Development Center of Sciences and Cultures, CHALLENGES CONFRONTING THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY
4. Girish Prayaga and Sameer Hosany, 26 Jun 2013, Current Issues in Tourism
5 and 6. Vinnie Jauhari, 2012, Summing up key challenges faced by the hospitality industry in India
Conclusion: Vinnie Jauhari, 2012, Summing up key challenges faced by the hospitality industry in India
BibliographyHospitality in Mauritius and conclusion: UKEssays. November 2013. Analysis of Hospitality Industry in Mauritius. online. Available from: https://www.ukessays.com/dissertation/examples/tourism/analysis-of-hospitality-industry-in-mauritius.php?vref=1 Accessed 13 June 2018.