2292351354660Sustainable Design ComponentApplication of Theory case study 9410036300Sustainable Design ComponentApplication of Theory case study center23002311409410012100 36950654915683By

2292351354660Sustainable Design ComponentApplication of Theory case study
9410036300Sustainable Design ComponentApplication of Theory case study
center23002311409410012100
36950654915683By,
Prachi Patel – 101995314
Yash Patel – 102223427
Mayurkumar Chauhan – 102008925
020000By,
Prachi Patel – 101995314
Yash Patel – 102223427
Mayurkumar Chauhan – 102008925
17919706985000Swinburne University
John st, Hawthorn Voc 3125
4000020000Swinburne University
John st, Hawthorn Voc 3125

Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1. Introduction: PAGEREF _Toc528265666 h 22. Proposed sustainability strategy: PAGEREF _Toc528265667 h 32.1. Selected product or services characteristics PAGEREF _Toc528265668 h 32.2. Complete product or service lifecycle by identifying if and how the existing materials could be substituted with minimum one alternative requirement PAGEREF _Toc528265669 h 52.3. Evaluating how the material substitution would be effective in improving sustainability of selected product or services: PAGEREF _Toc528265670 h 103. Conclusion: PAGEREF _Toc528265671 h 11References PAGEREF _Toc528265672 h 12

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1. Introduction:This report focuses on the principles of sustainability and product design. This research report comprises of a sustainability strategy that has been formulated for a car manufacturing company, Renault Australia. Renault Megane has been chosen as the product because it is one of the prime sellers for Renault in Australia CITATION Ren181 l 1033 (Renault.com.au, 2018). The body of the car has been made of steel, and through this report, alternative material like carbon fibre and its applications to enhance the sustainability performance of the car has been suggested. This research report also consists of characteristics of the products, product lifecycle and arguments related to the product’s sustainability performance.

2. Proposed sustainability strategy:2.1. Selected product or services characteristics

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Renault Megane . Source: CITATION Ren181 l 1033 (Renault.com.au, 2018).

The automobile manufacturing industry has been selected in which Renault has been considered as a prominent leader in terms of delivering quality materials and high design vehicles globally Renault Australia has offered different car range in the form of Hatch, Sport, SUV, Wagon, Commercial and Sedan. Renault Megane comes under Hatch back option and has been one of the top sellers for the Renault. Renault Megane is a GT variant 1.6L Turbo which is composed of 4G wagon steel body composite CITATION Ren18 l 1033 (Renault.com.au, 2018). The kerb weight (unladen) is 1392 kg, and the actual lifespan of this model is 12 to 13 years or runs 165,000-200,000 miles before it goes for scrapping. It also offers personalised driver modes, parking assistance system, adaptive cruise control, advanced emergency braking system (AEBS) and intuitive multimedia and sat-nav features.

Renault contributes 3.5 % of the automobile market share of the entire world, and this has been justified by their surpassing of net income of more than € 5.2 billion in global automobile sales in 2017 CITATION Tel187 l 1033 (Telegraph.co.uk, 2018). But in Australia Renault only enjoys 1 % of the Australian automobile market but the company is aiming to increase its sales volume by thrice to match with their global market share. The stakeholders of Renault automobile manufacturer are shareholders, employees, management, community members, consumers and unions. Renault has been focussing on their corporate and social responsibility duties and has been a prominent source in maintaining sustainability in their operation. Renault has focussed on shifting on high gear and ramped up their operations to offer innovative solutions and high – performance regarding sustainable mobility and inclusion CITATION Gro18 l 1033 (Group.renault.com, 2018). Their corporate social responsibility (CSR) rests on three pillars: quality of life and diversity at work, social entrepreneurship and training and education.
Renault has been adopting a voluntary environmental strategy with its stakeholders to cope up with the environmental challenges. Renault has mitigated its carbon footprint by 3 % every year during the period of 2010 – 16, and in this process, they have eventually set up a process of mitigating their carbon footprint by 25 % by 2022 as compared to the value of 2010 CITATION Gro181 l 1033 (Group.renault.com, 2018). In order to achieve this sustainability operation, the company must ensure changes in their operations. The car manufactured by this company generally uses steel as the primary material while structuring the body. The strategy proposed is that they must change the material of the body to carbon fibre so that car consumes less oil and also has the added benefits of being lightweight. A new plastic material (a type of carbon fibre) has been developed which conducts electricity and would allow Renault to assemble the parts at a lower cost CITATION Eur18 l 1033 (Europe.autonews.com, 2018). The less consumption of oil has been the point of focal centre as less consumption would mean less emission of carbon gases and less impact of greenhouse gases emission. With this carbon fibre initiative, the company should be able to decrease its material cost and less impact on environment.

2.2. Complete product or service lifecycle by identifying if and how the existing materials could be substituted with minimum one alternative requirement
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Automobile life cycle. Source: CITATION Ahm17 l 16393 (Ahmadi, et al., 2017)The product life cycle of an automobile encompasses the stages involved in manufacturing the product with the help of available raw materials and assembling the parts to make the automobile CITATION Fuj14 l 16393 (Fujimoto, 2014). The product lifecycle of Renault Megane has been taken as a reference to evaluate its product lifecycle and asses what existing manufacturing materials of the automobile could be substituted to reduce the cost and increase the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. The need for development of the vehicle is assessed in the first stage of product development lifecycle based on the needs of the consumers CITATION Dhi14 l 16393 (Dhingra ; Das, 2014). And the concept is developed on the basis of requirements of the consumers according to which the vehicle is made.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Materials used in the car.

The process of manufacturing the components of the vehicle begins by gathering the requisite recycled materials and essential components CITATION Oak14 l 16393 (Oakil, et al., 2014). The individual parts and components of the vehicle are manufactured individually in the factory and are finally assembled together to provide shape to the vehicle.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Raw materials.

The vehicles are manufactured with the help of mostly recycled components and have an average lifespan of 14 years. After the manufacture, the car is sent to the showrooms and expo for display to the customers and sold to them.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Assembled vehicle ready for sale.

The vehicles then take on the road and complete their journey up to 200,000 miles in its entire lifetime CITATION Ahm17 l 16393 (Ahmadi, et al., 2017). Throughout the span of operation, the vehicle is subjected to maintenance and support as a part of its life cycle and is also provided upgrades to add more features and change some old ones like stereo system.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: Recycling process.

A vehicle generally passed up to 5 owners in its entire lifetime. The vehicles are then scrapped, and the essential materials which can be used to manufacture the subsequent cars are extracted during scrapping and are recycled CITATION Ell16 l 16393 (Ellingsen, et al., 2016). The components of the vehicles are broken down at the recycling plant, and the recyclable materials like metal, plastic, glass and upholsteries are sent to the factories along with the other raw materials. The materials used in the manufacturing of the components and body of the vehicles have a significant impact upon its performance and value. The usage of heavy metals and components during the process of manufacturing often results in an increased weight of the vehicle after assembling and results in poor performance. This is because heavy vehicles consume more fuel and this also increases the operational cost of the purchasers.
Most of the raw material of the vehicles are recycled like auto glass, batteries, and tyres. The used engine oil can also be cleaned and reused along with the oil fitters. Transmission and engines of the old vehicles are also recycled and used in the manufacturing process of new vehicles. Scrap metals and rims of the cars along with the handles decommissioned and melted to provide shape to new rims. Water pumps of the old vehicles are also used to in the new vehicles after refurbishing them along with the starters and alternators.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7: Weight saved.
52070196359700Usage of heavy components during the process of manufacturing also increases the carbon footprint of the vehicles and increases the consumption of fuel thereby reducing its efficiency CITATION Che16 l 16393 (Chen ; Kockelman, 2016). Sustainability of the automobiles depends upon the material components which are used in the process of manufacturing. The primary metal used for the body of the car is stainless steel which is durable but very heavy in nature. The existing selection of steel for the manufacturing of automotive parts is required to be substituted as it increases the overall weight of the vehicles and decreases its fuel efficiency and mileage. Usage of carbon fibre as a substitute of steel in the process of manufacturing the vehicles would add more tensile strength to the vehicles and also reduce the overall weight of the automobiles significantly.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8: Mass comparison.
Sustainability of the vehicle would improve ads significantly it would require much lesser fuel to cover the same distance and would also be beneficial for the environment as it would emit fewer pollutants in the process of catalytic combustion CITATION Huo15 l 16393 (Huo, et al., 2015). Replacement of the metal panels in the cars with carbon fibre provides the advantage of added strength to weight ratio CITATION Zha161 l 16393 (Zhao, et al., 2016). This is because carbon fibre is more than ten times stronger in comparison to steel and is five times lighter in weight. Integration of carbon fibre as a substitute of steel in during the manufacturing process of the vehicles provides it with a distinctive appearance and provides more -531680046900fatigue properties to it CITATION Zha16 l 16393 (Zhao, et al., 2016). The heat tolerance and resistance of the material is also better than steel, and this is likely to extend the lifespan of the vehicle and reduce the requirement of maintenance.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10: Weight comparison.

Therefore, it is inferred that the substitution of steel with carbon fibre during the manufacturing of automobiles is sustainable as it reduces the overall weight of the automobiles and makes it more fuel efficient. This, in turn, reduces the pollution emission of the vehicle and adds more tensile strength and heat resistance to it and provide more overall value to the consumers CITATION Bat18 l 16393 (Batabyal, et al., 2018). Improved fuel efficiency of the vehicles due to reduced weight would result in the lesser consumption of fossil fuels and produce lesser emissions which are harmful to the environment.
2.3. Evaluating how the material substitution would be effective in improving sustainability of selected product or services:With the substitution of steel with carbon fibre in the automobile industry, the consumption of oil would ramp down because of the low weight and high strength of carbon fibre. Carbon fibre is used in the body parts as the materials than it would significantly drop down the weight of the car CITATION Tth17 l 1033 (Theguardian.com, 2017). With less weight of the car when carbon fibre is used as a material as compared to steel, aluminium or high strength steel, the car also needs less quantity of fuel. The less quantity of the fuel consumed leads to less influence on environment. From a sustainability perspective, carbon fibre should be able to change the entire scenario of production of cars and aeroplanes, fuel consumption, sustainability operations CITATION Men18 l 1033 (Meng, et al., 2018). On the other hand, the biggest problem lies with the production process of carbon fibre. Carbon fibre composites are prepared from glueing the carbon fibre together with polymer resins CITATION Lad16 l 1033 (Ladani, et al., 2016). As the long strands of carbon fibres are heated to an energy level of 14 times the energy required for steel, 1/3rd of the heated material normally lost during the trimming process of the finished carbon fibre in order to drag it to the desired shape. The other problem with this carbon fibre is the unwanted carbon fibre goes to the landfill and in turn, comes out as an excess waste for landfill. As suggested by the report from green – alliance, carbon fibre has been selected as the novel materials which could create waste problems in the near future CITATION Gre17 l 1033 (Green-alliance.org.uk, 2017). It is due to the fact that carbon fibre cannot be melted like High strength steel, aluminium etc. so it is very difficult to recycle.

3. Conclusion:
This report outlines the significance of carbon fibre as the material to be used in the automobile industry. With the application of this material, the vehicles would be lightweight and the consumption of oil would be less. This eventually leads to a lesser impact on the environment as compared to the other materials like Aluminium and High strength steel. It is also found that the incorporation of carbon fibre in the process of manufacturing is sustainable as it produces lessens the overall weight of the vehicles and thereby reducing their fuel consumption in the process. Usage of carbon fibre as a replacement for steel is beneficial as it adds more tensile strength and reduces the overall weight of the vehicle at the same time. This proves to be more economical in terms of fuel efficiency and sustainable for the environment.
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Batabyal, A., Nayak, R. ; Tripathy, S., 2018. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Glass Fibre and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite. Journal of Communication Engineering ; Systems, 8(2), pp. 66-74.

Chen, T. ; Kockelman, K., 2016. Carsharing’s life-cycle impacts on energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Issue 47, pp. 276-284.

Dhingra, R. & Das, S., 2014. Life cycle energy and environmental evaluation of downsized vs. lightweight material automotive engines. Journal of cleaner production, Issue 85, pp. 347-358.

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