1A. During this century, information and communication technologies have been a vital part of successful businesses. Being a business professional in an airplane manufacturing plant I find Information and communication technologies are improving our businesses. Many of my employers believe that it is impossible to do business without the use of technology, that’s how dependent we are on technology. Going beyond the scale of the business, we can see how responsibilities has decrease relative to the use of technology. IS/IT for this reason was designed to improve the needs of all employees which has set us ahead of our competitors. Our Airplane manufactory, employees typically make work-related decisions based on IS/IT with consideration on how these decisions will affect our other departments. In general, they involve transaction systems such as point-of-sale or warehouse systems that record inventory. Operational managers, such as supervisors, use IS/IT designed to achieve short-term goals and gains. They can use systems that show the productivity of employees or the profitability of certain changes they have made to this production. Managers have a head start and use information systems that host a wider range of information to make more tactical decisions. These decisions generally indicate a more compelling objective than those of operational managers and often require more information from the data systems to achieve these objectives. With the use of IS/IT our managers are no longer concerned about how to improve annual profits.
1B. Accounting and finance work in many ways, such as a process and behavior aspects of strategy execution, as well as performance management and monitoring. This is important for accountants as well as for employees or consultants; as many of them focus on helping their organizations achieve goals, objectives and strategies, using a variety of approaches, tools and techniques. Financial and performance management is essential to sustainable success and is universal for all organizations, regardless of size, type and location. Strategies and plans must be based on quantitative and qualitative information and a solid understanding of the external competitive environment, including clients, as well as the internal performance of the organization. Financial and performance management covers these central aspects of management and improves the performance of the organization. It includes understanding the links between non-financial or non-financial factors and financial results, as well as ensuring that operational activities are carried out efficiently and effectively.
1C. Cross-functional information systems are integrated combinations of business information
systems that share information resources across the functional units of an organization.
Integrated systems allow you to use the same data for multiple applications. information output
from a function, it can easily become a data entry into another function. One integrated the database must be maintained. Many organizations use information technology develop integrated cross-functional business systems that exceed the limits of business functions to redefine and improve vital business processes throughout companies. These organizations view multifunctional enterprise systems as a strategic means of use IS/IT to share information resources and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes, helping e-commerce achieve its strategic objectives. Systems that improve a company’s relationship with its customers have such a high failure rate because employers may not have an adequate understanding of the system. This is insufficient preparation, which means that employers may not have adequate or adequate training for the new process and it may be difficult to adapt to the new change.
2A. The MIS management information system, in general, refers to a computer system that provides managers with the tools they need to effectively organize, evaluate and manage the services of an organization. Decision making can also be categorized into three categories depending on the level at which they occur. Strategic decisions set the course of the organization. Tactical decisions are decisions about how things will be done. Finally, business decisions are decisions employees make every day to manage the organization. For example, do not forget the restaurant that usually offers a free dessert when a complaint from a customer is received. The restaurant owner made the strategic decision to have excellent customer service. The restaurant manager implemented the free desserts policy to handle customer complaints, which is a tactical decision. In addition, the restaurant’s servers make daily individual decisions to assess whether each claim received by the customer.
2B. (DSS) decision support system is a computerized information system used to support decision-making in an organization or a business. A DSS lets users sift through and analyze massive reams of data and compile information that can be used to solve problems and make better decisions. Perceived concepts, based on the role of MIS and DSS in decision-making, particularly with emphasis on MIS and DSS that provide information services for middle and senior managers in decision-making, are integrated. MIS and DSS differ in certain aspects, MIS stands for Management Information Systems (MIS) while DSS stands for Decision Support Systems (decision support systems). It is interesting to note that MIS is a type of link that facilitates communication between managers of various disciplines in a company or organization. In general, it plays a very important role in building communication between companies. DSS, on the other hand, is an improvement of the MIS concept. It is true that the two differ in their approach. DSS focuses more on leadership. It is the top management of a company that offers an innovative vision. On the other hand, MIS focuses more on collected information and information from different parties. Experts in management behavior say that DSS focuses more on the decision-making process.
2C. Difference between an unstructured, semi-structured, and structured decision.
Unstructured decisions occur at higher levels – novel, important and non-routine
Semi-structured decisions occur at both lower and higher levels – only part of the problem has a clear-cut answer provided by an accepted procedure
Structured decisions occur at lower levels – repetitive and routine
Businesses need to know what decisions to make and maintain the interest of all interested parties. Decision-making is a choice between two or more lines of action or alternative objects, considering the advantages and disadvantages of the information in support of each. Decision-making is a commitment to action, a discrete and concrete phenomenon guided by rationality. IS/IT can help you make good decisions by providing accurate, up-to-date information and performing analytical functions. You need to make sure that the management information system you choose can work with the information formats available in your company and have the necessary functionality. Appropriate management systems can structure the master data available in your company’s operations and records into reports to guide them the processes.
2D. An important function of MIS is to provide the right information in the right format at the same time. In summary, a MIS provides managers with information, usually in reports, that supports effective decision-making and provides feedback on day-to-day operations. DSS is an information system intended to be used by a manager or, in general, by a group of managers at any level of organization to decide in the process of resolving a semi-structured decision. Decision support systems also help managers negotiate between organizational units by standardizing process mechanisms and providing a common conceptual basis for decision making. Business leaders at all levels of an organization, Assistant Managers, depend on the reports generated by these systems to help them assess the day-to-day business or problems they face, make decisions, and track progress. MIS reporting is used by companies of all sizes.
3A. There is nothing more important than protecting the devices in your business. In addition to applying the passcodes, to company phone and Computer. There are three other security measures that a company should take into consideration; which is antivirus protection, data loss prevention and application control. This security management slips data when devices are lost or stolen. An antivirus prevention for your devices, you must apply a custom application control level. If applications are available to employees on the internal network, they should be able to access them off-site using VPN or e-mail software. A successful program allows users to be productive outside of scheduled work hours, giving them the ability to do what they like to do when they are not working. An important fact is to make sure that it is executable and allow the IT department to implement the software remotely, if immediate closure is required.
3B. The best way a security plan information needs to be disseminated to employees, is in writing. By employees reading a Security Policy and signing an agreement of the terms is a secure way for a business to function. It is necessary to have a plan to ensure the security of information resources. This plan is called a security program by information security professionals. A security program provides the necessary structure to keep your business at the desired level of security by assessing the risks you face, deciding how to mitigate them, and planning how to keep the program updated and your security practices. Having a security program means that you have taken steps to reduce the risk of data loss in a variety of ways and have defined a lifecycle to manage the security of information and technology in your business.
3C. Being that I love to shop, and online shopping is way more convenient then going to crowded stores, I had to find a safe way to be protected as I shop. I take these three actions to secure my online shopping. I always use my personal devices I never use public, unsecured networks. Because, on my personal computer my browser and operating system is always updated, and I have a antivirus with security features. Secondly, when it’s time to checkout I use a third-party payment processor such as PayPal instead of giving your payment information directly to the online store. This limits the risk of your payment details getting into the wrong hands. Thirdly if I feel I can trust the website and there is no option for 3rd party transaction, I use my credit card instead of my debit card. Credit cards is the safest option for online shopping, if someone manages to intercept financial information online, it can do less damage and have more resources than if I had used a debit card. Credit cards have spending limits, while debit cards, which are directly linked to your bank account, does not. And if something happens, I can always challenge the transactions, by disputing it.
5g. At Wal-Mart we are allows looking for ways to keep our customers satisfied and by doing so we have 5 e-commerce processes that are most important to our Wal-Mart online customers: number one is Access Control and Security; this process enforces security features which gives secure access to the shoppers and allow the customers to be protected from identify theft. Second is, Profiling and personalization, this allows customers to be more personal with the website, they can register and have membership log-in access. Third is, search management, this process makes shopping quicker and easier by helping the customers find what they are shopping for. Forth is, Content Management, this process helps develop and update information and archive data to better assist customers as they navigate through the site. Fifth, Event Notifications, this process alerts the customer of all events that might affect their transaction.
5h. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the active rationalization of the supply-side activities of a business to maximize value for the customer and gain a competitive edge in the marketplace. SCM represents an effort on the part of suppliers to develop and implement supply chains that are as efficient and economical as possible. Supply chains cover everything from production to product development and information systems. A supply chain is the connected network of people, organizations, resources, activities and technologies involved in the manufacture and sale of a product or service. A supply chain begins with the delivery of the raw material from a supplier to a manufacturer and ends with the delivery of the finished product or service to the final consumer. SCM oversees each point of contact of a company’s product or service, from the initial creation to the final sale. With so many places along the supply chain that can add value through efficiency or lose value through higher expenses, an appropriate SCM can increase revenue, reduce costs and impact results in a company.
5i. (CRM) Customer relationship management is an approach to manage a company’s interaction with current and potential customers. CRM uses historical customer data analysis with a company to improve business relationships with customers, focusing on customer loyalty and, ultimately, sales growth. An important aspect of the CRM approach is the CRM systems that collect data from different communication channels, including a company’s website, phone, e-mail, live chat, hardware. Marketing and, more recently, social networks. Through the CRM approach and the systems used to facilitate it, companies learn more about their target audience and how best to meet their needs. To have a great overall job in managing customer relationships, Customer satisfaction has important implications for business performance as it can increase customer loyalty and customer behavior and reduce customer complaints and customer desertion. Implementing a CRM approach can influence customer satisfaction and customer knowledge for a variety of different reasons.