However, there is a Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by members of the genus Brucella which is an important zoonosis that affect both humans and animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, and swine and is of economic significance in many developing countries (Al Dahouk et al .,2009)
lack of good data on the occurrence and impact of zoonotic infections, including brucellosis in many developing countries
( Mc DERMOTT and ARIMI, 2002).
Brucella species are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, which is characterized by abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever, arthritis, endocarditis, and meningitis in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines against brucellosis for human use (Wang and Wu, 2014).
The disease is also called contagious abortion, infectious abortion, and epizootic abortion. In cattle, this disease is called Bang’s disease. This illness in humans is called Malta fever, Mediterranean fever and Gibraltar fever according to the region in which the illness was first described. It is also known as undulating fever due to its recurrent temperature presented by infected person (Megid et al., 2010)
Brucella species affect particularly individuals consuming unpasteurized dairy products, abattoir workers, veterinarians, farmers and the disease is easily acquired by people involved mainly in laboratory works. The organism may be recovered from a variety of materials, the placenta being the most infective and with the greatest concentration of the bacteria, followed by lymph nodes and milk in animals and from blood in humans. Most brucella strains are slow growing organisms on primary isolations, some of them requiring serum enriched culture media and even experienced laboratories report only isolation rates between 20-50%. (Poester et al., 2010)
Brucellosis is diagnosed in the laboratory by using various techniques like microbiological isolation and identification which are the most reliable methods. However, these procedures are cumbersome and represent a great risk of infection for laboratory personnel (George and Araj, 2010)
In Egypt, control of brucellosis depends on preventing the exposure of susceptible animals to infection through the application of hygienic measures and increasing the immunity of animal population through vaccination (Ragan et al., 2013).
Because brucellosis is breeding- related problem and milk, contaminated tissues or fluid associated with birth or abortion achieves high concentration of brucella and can be main risk factor of consistent brucellosis in animal husbandry (shareef, 2006).
Highly hygienic measure including the use of disinfectant is extremely effective measure for successful brucellosis control especially in endemic area (Al-Majali et al., 2009).
Disinfectants are used to reduce or eliminate pathogenic microbes in materials so that they are no longer a hazard.
Because Brucellosis constitutes a real menace to animal production and reproduction as well as public health, this study was planned for investigation the following items:
1. Occurrence of brucellosis among dairy farms by using different serological tests.
2. Trials for isolation, identification and typing of Brucella microorganisms.
3. Confirmation of isolated Brucella strains from seropositive animals using Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
4. Study the sensitivity of isolated Brucella strains for different types of disinfectant in-vitro.
5. Assessment of hygienic measures in dairy farms and its role in distribution of brucellosis between animals
6. Applying of good hygienic measures and education to farms work team and evaluate its result to control brucellosis
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
It is convenient to classify the available literature dealing with this investigation under the following headings:
1 – History of Brucellosis:
*-first discover of brucellosis in the world
Bruce (1887) was the first one who isolated the Brucella organism from the spleen of a dead soldier who had died from Malta fever. He described it as a very small oval non-motile aerobic Gram-negative bacterium and termed it Micrococcus melitensis
Bang (1897) isolated the causative agent of contagious abortion from Danish cattle and termed it Bacillus abortus
Zammit (1905) was the first one who recovered Micrococcus melitensis in goats.
Dubois (1910) was the first who recognized ovine brucellosis as an important cause of human brucellosis in the south of France.
Evans (1918) proposed the close resemblance between the Bang’s bacillus and the Micrococcus melitensis of Bruce.
Keefer (1924) found the first case of undulant fever caused by Br. abortus in man.
Huddleson (1929) mentioned that the genus brucella be divided into three species; Br. melitensis, Br. abortus and Br. suis.
Taylor and Hazemann (1932) revealed that, sheep Brucellosis caused by Br. melitensis.
Ahmed (1939) was the first one who investigated the problem of brucellosis among animals in Egypt.
Huddleson et al. (1943) isolated Br.melitensis from milk of infected cows and aborted foeti of sheep and goat.
*- Brucellosis in animals
El-Sawalhy (1999) revealed that most wild animals, rodents, insects and blood sucking arthropods as ticks are carriers and reservoirs for brucellosis, so they play a role in transmission of the disease.
Khoudier (2000) mention that the percentages of positive Brucella reactors in cattle were 10.21%, 12.12%, 5.26%, 25.68%, 0.0%, 13.04%, 0.0%, and 0.0% for El-Menofeia, Beni Suef, Cairo, El-Behera, Kafr El-Sheikh, El-Minia, Dammieta and Alexandria respectively
Mrunalini and Ramasastry (2000) tested a total serum samples from 14895 cattle , 11368 buffaloes, 7127 sheep, 2010 goats ,486 pigs and 32 dogs as well as 561 human, All samples were examined for brucellosis in Andhra Pradesh, Indian using plate and TAT. The highest incidence (15.86%) was in the human samples, which were mainly from veterinarians, abattoir personnel and farmers. Among the animals, most seropositive reactions were in goats (7%), buffaloes (4.14%), cattle (3.8%), sheep (3.3%) and pigs (1.2%); none of the dogs was positive. In cattle more than 50% of the seropositive reactors had high titres while over 50% of all the other samples had low titers.
Öngör et al., (2001) noticed that brucellosis is widespread in each part of Turkey and has been reported to be responsible for approximately 20% of abortion cases in sheep.
Torky et al., (2001) revealed that the infection was high among cattle of El-Behera followed by EL-Minia, Beni Suef, EL-Menofeia and Cairo governorates ,In contrast Kafr El-Shiekh, Dammieta and Alexandria governorates gave negative results.
Fayed et al., (2002) stated that the rate of brucella infection among 540 cattle using RBPT, TAT and Riv. T. The results showed that 22.03%, 21.48% and 21.29% were reactors respectively.
Taleski et al., (2002) mentioned that brucellosis in the countries of central and south-eastern Europe, namely Greece, Macedonia, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. Sheep and goats remain a major reservoir of the disease, while cows were less important hosts.
Baek et al., (2003) stated that the aborted material and infected vaginal discharges of cattle were believed to spread brucella from cattle to dogs and vice versa.
Shalaby et al., (2003) examined 3024 blood serum samples from 1516 cattle, 517 buffaloes, 509 sheep and 482 goats in farms belonged to 6 governorates in Egypt, revealed presence of 8.84%, 5.82%, 9.82% and 5.6% of positive brucella reactors among cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats, respectively by using RBPT.